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>i. 


THE  LOEB  CLASSICAL  LIBRARY 


(S) 


FOUNDED    BY   JAMES    LOEB,   LL.D. 

EDITED   BY  ,  t^ 

E.  H.  WARMINGTON,  m.a.,  f.e.hist.soo. 

PREVIOUS    EDITORS 

tT.  E.  PAGE,  C.H.,  LiTT.D.  tE.  CAPPS,  ph.d.,  ll.d. 

tW.  H.  D.  ROUSE,  litt.d.  L.  A.  POST,  l.h.d. 


CICERO 

III 

DE  ORATORE  I,  II 


348 


CICERO 

IN  TWENTY-EIGHT  VOLUMES 
III 

DE   ORATORE 

IN  TWO  VOLUMES 

I 

BOOKS  I,  II 

WITH  AN  ENGLISH  TRANSLATION  BY 

E.  W.  SUTTON,  B.C.L.,  M.A. 

FORMBKLY  EXHIBITIONKR  OF  TRINITY  COLLEaE,  OXFORD 

COMPLETED,  WITH  AN  INTRODUCTION,  BY 

H.  RACKHAM,  M.A. 

FBLLOW  OF  OHRIST'S  OOLLBQE,  OAMBRIDaE 


LONDON 

WILLIAM  HEINEMANN  LTD 

CAMBRIDGE,     MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD    UNIVERSITY    PRESS 

MCMLXVII 


pfi 


PritUed  in  Oreat  Brilain 


(3^ 


CONTENTS 

PAGl 

Preface vii 

Introduction ix 

LlST   OF    ClCER0's    WORKS XXV 

Text  and  Translation — 

Book  I 2 

—   Book  II 196 

Appendix 480 


PREFACE 

Thougb  his  name  does  not  appear  on  the  title-page, 
any  merit  discoverable  in  the  translation  of  De 
Oratore,  Book  I  is  largely  due  to  my  friend  Mr. 
Charles  Stuttaford,  sometime  of  Amersham  Hall 
School.  Originally  entrusted  with  the  execution  of 
both  these  volumes,  he  had  done  much  preliminary 
work  on  the  text  and  translation  of  Book  I,  when 
reasons  of  health  compelled  him  to  rehnquish  his 
task.  I  most  gratefully  acknowledge  my  heavy 
indebtedness  to  his  labours. 

E.  W.  S. 

25th  February  1939 


The  late  Mr.  E.  W.  Sutton  left  at  his  death  only 
the  MS.  and  proof  of  his  translation  of  De  Oratore, 
Book  I,  and  three-quarters  of  Book  II,  at  various 
stages  of  correction.  I  have  completed  the  volume. 
An  index  will  be  found  in  Volume  Two,  which 
contains  De  Oratore,  Book  III,  De  Fato,  Paradoxa 
Stoicorum,  and  De  Partitione  Oraioria. 

H.  R. 

January  1949 

vii 


INTRODUCTION 

Date  and  Purpose  of  the  Work 

The  circumstances  in  which  Cicero  wrote  his  essay 
On  the  Orator  and  the  object  that  he  had  in  view  can 
be  inferred  from  the  following  three  passages  in  his 
letters  : 

Ad  Atticum  iv.  13.  2  (November  55  b.c).  De  Jibris 
oratoriis  factum  est  a  me  diligenter  :  diu  multumque  in 
manibus  fuerunt. 

Ad  Fam.  i.  9.  23  (September  54  b.c).  Scripsi  etiam — 
nam  ab  orationibus  diiungo  me  referoque  ad  mansuetiores 
Musas,  quae  me  nunc  maxime  sicut  iam  a  prima  adu- 
lescentia  delectarunt — scripsi  igitur  Aristotelio  more, 
quemadmodum  quidem  volui,  tres  libros  in  disputatione 
ac  dialogo  de  oratore,  quos  arbitror  Lentulo  tuo  non  fore 
inutiles  ;  abhorrent  enim  a  communibus  praeceptis  atque 
omnium  antiquorum,  et  Aristoteliam  et  Isocratiam, 
rationem  oratoriam  complectuntur. 

Ad  Atticum  xiii.  19.  4  (45  b.c).  Sunt  etiam  de  oratore 
nostri  tres  (libri),  mihi  vehementer  probati.  In  eis  quoque 
eae  personae  sunt  ut  mihi  tacendum  fuerit,  Crassus  enim 
loquitur,  Antonius,  Catulus  senex,  C.  lulius  frater  Catuli, 
Cotta,  Sulpicius.  Puero  me  hic  sermo  inducitur,  ut  nullae 
esse  possent  partes  meae.  Quae  autem  his  temporibus 
[i.e.  45  B.c]  scripsi  Aristotelium  morem  habent,  in  quo 
sermo  ita  inducitur  ceterorum  ut  penes  ipsum  sit  princi- 
patus. 

We  thus  lean>4h|it  Cicero  finished  the  book  in  the 
early  winter  oi  55  B.c.,.when  he  had  been  working  on  <^ 


rv 


INTRODUCTION 

it  for  some  time  ;  and  we  infer  that  he  published  it 
soon  afterwards,  since  in  the  following  September 
he  promises  to  send  a  copy  to  his  friend  Lentulus  for 
the  use  of  his  son.  He  remarks  to  Lentulus  that  he 
has  now  almost  entirely  given  up  composing  speeches, 
and  has  returned  to  his  youthful  love,  the  humane 
letters. 

He  had  indeed  for  some  time  lived  entirely  with- 
drawn  from  public  life,  where  even  previously  he  had 
lost  all  power  of  influencing  the  course  of  afFairs.  In 
63  B.c.  the  oligarchical  party  had  been  glad  to  make 
use  of  his  legal  and  oratorical  talents  in  the  suppres- 
sion  of  the  conspiracy  of  Catiline  ;  but  they  were  not 
willing  to  make  any  sacrifices  in  order  to  repay  him 
for  his  services,  and  in  58  b.c.  they  allowed  Clodius 
to  procure  his  banishment  in  punishment  for  the 
alleged  illegality  of  his  procedure  in  the  Catilinarian 
affair.  A  year  later  Pompeius,  finding  Clodius  more 
dangerous,  again  required  Cicero's  assistance,  and 
procured  his  recall  from  exile.  He  was  warmly  wel- 
comed  back  by  the  pubHc,  but  he  was  no  longer  of 
any  political  importance,  although  he  still  appeared 
in  the  law-courts,  where  he  delivered  some  consider- 
able  speeches.  In  55  b.c.  however,  when  the  im- 
perium  of  the  triumvirs  was  prolonged  for  five 
years,  he  withdrew  from  the  courts  as  well  as  from 
the  senate,  and  devoted  his  leisure  to  study,  the  first 
fruits  being  the  present  treatise. 

Of  its  merits  he  himself  took  a  high  view ;  the 
tone  in  which  he  wites  of  it  to  Atticus  (in  the  third 
extract  above)  is  very  different  from  the  apologetic 
way  in  which  ten  years  later  he  spoke  about  his  philo- 
sophical  works  :  these  he  referred  to  as  d7r6ypa(}>a, 
mere  transcripts  from  Greek  originals,  that  cost  him 


INTRODUCTION 

little  labour.  The  present  work  is  indeed  worthy 
of  the  greatest  of  Roman  orators,  who  regards  ora- 
tory  as  of  supreme  practical  importance  in  the  guid- 
ance  of  affairs,  and  who  resolves,  while  his  mindis  still 
vigorous  and  powerful,  to  devote  his  enforced  leisure 
to  placing  on  record  the  fruits  of  his  experience,  for 
the  instruction  of  future  statesmen. 
-  The  treatise  is  composed  in  the  form  of  a  conversa- 
tion,  though  its  method  is  very  different  from  that 
of  the  dialogues  of  Plato.  In  those  the  conversational 
form  is  employed  to  convey  the  feeling  of  corporate 
research  into  complicated  abstract  questions,  pro- 
gressing  towards  the  truth  but  not  attaining  it  with 
sufficient  certainty  and  completeness  to  justify  its 
being  expounded  dogmatically  ;  the  positive  results, 
so  far  as  any  can  be  ehcited,  are  merely  tentative. 
In  Cicero's  dialogues  on  the  contrary  the  facts  in 
respect  to  the  matter  under  consideration  are  re- 
garded  as  already  ascertained  ;  doctrines  are  ex- 
pounded  as  dogmatic  truths,  the  dialogue  form  being 
adopted  as  a  vivid  method  of  exhibiting  the  many- 
sided  nature  of  the  subject  and  the  departments  into 
which  a  systematic  treatment  of  it  falls.  If  differing 
opinions  about  it  are  introduced,  the  parts  of  them 
that  are  valid  are  accepted  and  put  together  in  a 
single  system. 

>  In  the  second  of  the  passages  quoted  above  Cicero 
^escribes  the  work  as  written  *  in  the  Aristotehan 
\manner.'  Its  manner  is  extremely  unhke  jthat  of 
the  works  oF  Arfstotle  that  have  cottie  3own  to  us, 
which  are  rigidly  scientific  expositions,  in  jjlaces 
hardly  more  than  outlines  and  enumerations  of 
arguments,  and  which  have  been  conjectured  to  be 
the  Master's  actual  notes  for  his  lectures.    We^now 

xi 


INTRODUCTION 

however  that  Aristotle  also  wrote  dialogues,  in  which 
he  published  his  doctrines  in  a  more  popular  form, 
but  all  of  them  have  now  been  lost."  It  is  this  group 
of  Aristotle's  works  the  method  of  which,  disputatio  et 
dialogus,  Cicero  claims  to  have  adopted  in  the  present 
treatise,  as  a  vehicle  by  which  to  convey  the  oratorical 

\system  of  Aristotle  himself  and  that  of  IsOcrates. 

1  Some  difficulty  has  been  felt  to  be  raised  by  the  third 
passage  quoted,  which  is  ten  years  later  in  date  ;  in 
it  Cicero  contrasts  De  Oratore  with  his  later  philo- 
sophical  dialogues,  on  the  ground  that  in  the  former 
he  is  not  himself  one  of  the  party,  the  scene  being 
laid  in  the  time  of  his  boyhood,  whereas  in  the  latter 
he  follows  the  Aristotehan  plan  of  assigning  the 
principal  part  in  the  discussion  to  himself  (a  feature 
in  Aristotle's  dialogues  of  which  we  have  no  other 
evidence,  but  which  we  must  accept  on  Cicero's 
authority).  But  in  point  of  fact  there  is  no  dis- 
crepancy.  The  comparison  with  Aristotle  in  the 
latter  passage  relates  to  the  assignment  of  the  parts  : 
that  in  the  former  refers  to  the  dialogue  form.  Also 
it  must  be  noticed  that  in  the  former  passage  Cicero 
claims  to  have  adopted  the  Aristotehan  method  '  at 
all  events  as  far  as  I  thought  fit '  :  this  qualification 
may  well  hint  at  the  difFerence  from  Aristotle  con- 
sisting  in  the  author's  taking  no  part  in  the  dialogue 
himself. 

SCENE   AND    DaTE   OF   THE    DiALOQUE 

Details  are  given  by  the  author  in  the  intro- 
ductory  passages  at  the  beginning  of  each  of  the 

"  The  recently  recovered  Athenian  Constitution  does  not 
fall  exactly  into  either  class  ;  it  is  not  a  dialogue,  but  a 
straightforward  exposition  in  a  fully  finished  form. 


v^ 


INTRODUCTION 

three  Books ;    they  will  be  found  in   the   outline 
below,  pp.  XV,  xix,  xxi. 

Persons  of  the  Dialooue 

LJ^icinius  Crassus  was  born  in  140  b.c,  and  was 
therefofefor^y^inFyears  old  at  the  date  when  the 
discussion  is  supposed  to  take  place,  September  91  b.c. 
He  died  only  a  few  days  after  that  date.  He  was 
a  leading  figure  among  the  moderate  and  judicious 
optimates,  though  it  is  true  that  he  gave  his  name  to 
an  unwise  law  checking  the  movement  to  strengthen 
Rome  by  extending  the  citizenship  to  the  Latins. 
He  passed  through  the  cursus  honorum,  becoming 
consul  in  95  b.c.  He  was  the  mostiUiistrisius^Roman 
orator  before  Cicerorandj^HerrXicerowas  a  boy  he 
act^T^^Tus^Tutof  in  rhetoric.  Ih"  the^^present  dia- 
logue  he  is  the  moiitHpiece  of  Cicero's  own  opinions. 

M.  Antonius,  the  grandfather  of  the  triumvir,  was 
Crassus's  senior  by  three  years.**  As  praetor  103  b.c. 
he  put  down  piracy  in  Cilicia  and  was  awarded  a 
triumph.  Six  years  later  he  was  a  vigorous  censor. 
Four  years  after  the  supposed  date  of  the  dialogue 
he  fell  a  victim  to  Marius,  whose  minions  murdered 
him  when  at  supper  at  a  friend's  house. 

In  coUoquy  with  these  two  great  orators  Cicero 
introduces  two  of  the  most  distinguished  of  their 
younger  foUowers. 

P.  Sulpicius  Rufus  was  now  thirty-three  years  old. 
He  was  one^FtHe^chief  hopes  of  the  optimate  party, 
being  a  moderate  conservative  and  foUowing  Drusus 
in  his  movement  for  limited  reform.  Later  however 
he  swung  over  to  Marius  and  the  extremists,  and 
when  (ten  years  after  the  date  of  the  dialogue)  SuUa 
'  Cic.  Brutua  161  triennio. 


■^" 


INTRODUCTION 

made  himself  master  of  Rome,  he  with  Marius  was 
proscribed,  and  soon  after  murdered. 

C.  Aurelius  Cotta,  a  young  man  of  less  vigorous 
character,  of  the  "sarile  age  as  Sulpicius,  attached 
himself  in  a  similar  manner  to  Antonius.  He  also 
belonged  to  the  party  of  conservative  reform,  but 
unhke  Sulpicius  he  remained  a  moderate  and  never 
joined  the  extreme  reformers.  Sulla  therefore 
allowed  him  to  return  from  exile  in  82  b.c.  and  resume 
his  career.  He  rose  to  be  consul  in  75  b.c,  and  died 
the  next  year,  after  achieving  some  minor  miUtary 
successes  as  proconsul  in  Gaul. 
^  /  5"  These  four  characters  take  part  in  the  whole  of 
^Cj.  <T;he  dialogue.  Q.  Mucius  Q.  F.  Scaevola  the  Augur 
figures  in  Book  I  only.  He  was  nearly  or  quite 
seventy  years  old  at  the  time,  having  been  consul 
117  B.c.  He  was  a  learned  lawyer,  and  an  adherent 
of  the  Stoic  philosophy,  being  a  member  of  the 
Hellenizing  '  Scipionic  circle.'  In  extreme  old  age 
he  refused  to  figure  as  an  adherent  of  SuUa.  Cicero 
tells  Atticus  {ad  Att.  iv.  16.  3)  that  he  thought  it  suit- 
able  to  his  character  and  interests  to  introduce  him 
at  the  beginning  of  the  discussion,  but  due  to  his 
years  to  spare  him  the  rcxi^oAoyia  of  the  later  part. 
He  is  represented  as  displaying  great  legal  know- 
ledge  and  experience  of  the  world ;  he  somewhat 
disparages  the  value  of  rhetoric,  and  questions  the 
need  of  a  wide  Uterary  and  philosophic  education 
for  an  orator. 
■ —  Books  II  and  III  introduce  two  others,  Q^^Lutatius 
Catulus  and  his  half-brother  C.  Juhus  Caes^^^trabo 
Vopiscus.  Catulus  first  appears  in  history  as  col- 
leagiie  of  Marius  in  the  consulship,  102  b.c.  In  the 
next  year  as  proconsul  he  failed  to  check  the  Cim- 
xiv 


INTRODUCTION 

brians  from  invading  Gallia  Transpadana,  but  with 
Marius  defeated  them  at  Vercellae  :  according  to 
Plutarch  the  greater  part  of  the  credit  was  due 
to  Catulus.  They  celebrated  a  triumph  together. 
Fourteen  years  later  on  Marius's  return  to  Rome  he 
made  Catulus  one  of  his  victims  :  *  moriatur  '  was 
his  instruction.  Catulus  was  an  officer  and  gentle- 
man  of  spotless  integrity ;  he  also  had  considerable 
Uterary  gifts. 

Vopiscus  early  won  a  position  at  the  bar,  and  was 
aedile  in  the  year  after  the  date  of  the  dialogue. 
He  too  fell  a  victim  to  Marius. 

OUTLINE   OF    CONTENTS 

Book  I  (§§  1-23)  Introduction :  (§§  1-5)  Cicero  sub- 
stitutes  this  essay  for  his  earUer  writings  on  rhetoric, 
in  order  to  satisfy  his  brother  Quintus's  desire  for 
a  discussion  of  the  functions  of  the  orator,  and  to 
justify  his  own  view  that  the  orator  requires  a  vdde 
liberal  education.  (§§  6-15)  Great  orators  are  rare, 
not  owing  to  dearth  of  abiUty,  but  because  of  the 
difficulty  of  the  art,  and  in  spite  of  its  attractions. 
(§§  16-23)  It  calls  for  wide  knowledge,  command  of 
language,  psychological  insight,  wit  and  humour,  a 
good  deUvery  and  a  good  memory — even  if  we  only 
aim  at  the  eloquence  requisite  for  pubUc  Ufe,  and 
consider  it  not  theoreticaUy  but  in  the  Ught  of 
practical  experience. 

(§§  24-29)  Scene  of  the  dialogue.  The  treatise  gives 
an  account  of  a  discussion  held.  in  September  91  b.c. 
at  the  Tusculan  viUa  of  Anjf6niufe,  t)etween  him  and 
Cra«sus"^"*a  minor  share  being  taken  by  Scaevola, 
Sulpicius  and  Cotta.     The  discussion  was  as  foUows  : 

XV 


INTRODUCTION 

(§§  30-95)  Oratory,  its  nature  and  range. 

(§§  30-34)  Crassus  praises  oratory  as  of  primary 
importance  to  society  and  the  state  :  the  orator's 
position  is  eminent,  gratifying  and  powerful  for 
good ;  he  excels  in  the  very  gift  wherein  man  is 
superior  to  animals,  *  discourse  of  reason.' 

(§§  35-44)  Scaevola  objects  that  Crassus  Overrates 
the  political  influence  of  orators  and  exaggerates  the 
range  of  their  powers  :  they  are  often  incapable  of 
dealing  with  questions  of  law,  philosophy  and  science. 
Their  proper  sphere  is  the  law-courts  and  political 
debates. 

(§§  45-57)  Crassus  replies  that  this  is  indeed  the 
Greek  view,  but  it  puts  the  function  of  oratory  too 
low.  Yet  even  if  thus  limited  to  politics  it  calls  for 
wide  knowledge,  and  on  the  other  hand  men  of 
science  and  philosophers  borrow  style  from  oratory, 
although  style  is  not  as  essential  for  them  as  a  com- 
mand  of  matter  is  essential  for  the  orator,  especially 
in  order  to  control  the  emotions  of  the  audience. 
(§§  58-68)  Eloquence  does  not  itself  bestow  political 
knowledge,  but  the  orator  must  be  well  versed  in 
pohtical  and  also  moral  science.  (§§  69-73)  In  power 
of  expression  and  range  of  subject  he  compares  with 
the  poet;  and  his  style  will  reveal  whether  he  has 
had  a  wide  education. 

(§§  74-79)  Scaevola  repeats  that  such  a  range  of 
knowledge  is  beyond  the  reach  of  most  orators. 
Crassus  disclaims  it  himself,  but  maintains  it  as  the 
ideal. 

(§§  80-95)  Antonius  thinks  that  so  much  knowledge 
is  unattainable  in  a  practical  career,  and  also  likely 
to  form  a  style  too  abstract  to  be  useful.  He  reports 
a  debate  at  Athens  between  a  Stoic,  Menedemus, 
xvi 


INTRODUCTION 

who  disparaged  rhetoric  altogether,  and  an  Academic, 
Charmadas,  who  held  that  it  should  be  based  on 
philosophy,  giving  examples ;  Charmadas  denied 
any  science  of  rhetoric,  saying  that  oratory  depends 
merely  on  natural  aptitude  and  practice,  and  has 
to  go  to  philosophy  for  matter.  Antonius  says  that 
he  has  never  heard  real  eloquence,  though  it  may 
be  a  possibihty. 

(§§  96-112)  Crassus  is  urged  to  expound  his  views 
more  fully,  and  with  reluctance  consents  to  do  so. 
(§§  102-109)  He  asks,  is  there  an  art "  of  rhetoric  ? 
This  is  a  question  rather  for  a  Greek.  But  when 
pressed  he  says  that  there  is  none,  in  the  strict  sense, 
although  if  one  reduces  the  results  of  observation  and 
experience  to  a  system  one  may  produce  a  sort  of 
art.  He  is  urged  to  give  the  results  of  his  own 
experience. 

(§§  113-262)  The  requirements  of  the  orator. 

(§§  113-128)  Natural  gifts  are  essential  for  high 
success,  although  the  ideal  is  hard  to  attain.  Antonius 
agrees  :  orators  are  more  exposed  to  criticism  than 
even  actors.  (§§  129-136)  Crassus  concurs,  as  every 
defect  is  noticed  at  once.  He  praises  the  natural 
gifts  of  Sulpicius  and  the  zeal  of  Cotta  ;  they  only 
need  training,  so  he  will  describe  his  own  method. 

(§§  137-147)  He  began  by  taking  the  school  course 
in  rhetoric,  treating  (1)  the  purpose  of  oratory,  (2) 
the  classification  of  subjects,  (3)  the  determination 
of  the  point  at  issue,  (4)  the  three  kinds  of  oratory, 
forensic,  dehberative  and  panegyric  ;  (5)  its  five 
divisions,    invention,    arrangement,    style,    memory 

"  It  must  be  remembered  that  ars  means  a  systematio 
treatment  of  a  subject  and  conveys  the  sense  that  we  attach 
rather  to  the  word  '  science.'     Cf.  Book  II,  §  30. 

xvii 


INTRODUCTION 

and  delivery  ;  (6)  the  division  of  a  speech  into  the 
proper  parts  ;  (7)  rules  of  diction.  Such  a  system 
though  useful  has  not  in  fact  been  the  guide  of  the 
ablest  orators.  Practice  is  all-important ;  it  includes 
(§§  148-159)  speaking  on  cases  taken  from  real 
iLfe,  occasionally  impromptu  ;  writing  compositions, 
for  training  both  in  style  and  in  matter ;  making 
paraphrases  of  poetry,  especially  Greek  poetry,  and 
prose,  from  memory  ;  training  voice  and  gesture  ; 
memoria  technica  ;  speaking  in  pubhc  ;  critical  reading 
of  literature  ;  debating  pro  and  contra  ;  study  of 
history,  law  and  politics  ;  coUecting  notes.  Wide 
knowledge  is  essential.  The  true  orator  possesses 
dignity  and  force  (160-204). 

(§§  205-209)  Sulpicius  asks  for  further  detail,  and 
Antonius  consents  to  give  his  own  views.  (§§  209-218) 
He  challenges  Crassus's  definition  :  an  orator  must 
be  able  to  speak  agreeably  and  convincingly  on  public 
questions,  but  does  not  require  wide  general  culture  : 
that  is  a  matter  belonging  to  some  other  art.  (§§  219- 
233)  In  order  to  work  on  the  emotions  he  needs 
shrewdness,  experience  and  knowledge  of  the  world, 
but  not  philosophy — some  effective  hnes  of  pleading 
might  be  disapproved  of  by  philosophers.  (§§  234- 
239)  Wide  knowledge  of  law  is  also  unnecessary  :  it 
is  eloquence  that  wins  cases,  and  on  hard  points  of 
law  even  the  experts  disagree.  (§§  240-250)  Nor  is 
law  an  easy  or  attractive  study.  A  general  acquaint- 
ance  with  its  principles  is  all  that  a  busy  man  can  or 
need  attain ;  details  should  be  got  up  for  the  occasion. 
(§§  251-262)  Similarly  voice-control,  history,  antiquities 
must  be  studied  to  some  extent,  but  not  so  far  as  to 
encroach  on  the  time  needed  for  practice  in  speaking 
— practice  is  the  important  tliing. 
xviii 


INTRODUCTION 

(§§  263-265)  Crassus  hints  that  Antonius  has  only 
been  displaying  his  skill  in  refutation,  and  requests 
him  to  set  out  his  own  view  of  the  matter  in  the  next 
day's  debate. 
— '  Book  II  (§§1-11)  Introduction :  Crassus  and 
Antonius  were  not  unlearned,  as  is  usually  supposed  ; 
such  eloquence  as  theirs  must  have  been  based  on 
wide  study.  The  dialogue  following  will  constitute 
a  treatise  on  rhetoric  based  on  more  practical  experi- 
ence  than  that  possessed  by  previous  authors. 

(§§  12-27)  The  second  day's  debate.     Catulus  and 

Caesar  arrive,  and  after  some  conversation  about  the 

employment  of  leisure,  Antonius  begins  to  state  his 

own  case.     (§§  28-38)  He  says  that  oratory  cannot  be 

^made  into  a  science,  but  some  rules  for  speakers  can 

)  be  derived  from  observation  and  experience  ;  oratory 

\covers  all  good  speaking  and  all  subjects.     (§§  39-73) 

He  proceeds  to  consider  the  proper  sphere  of  rhetoric. 

Demonstratipn^needs   no   special_rules  ;    nor   does 

history^he  gives  a  survey  orthe  chief  Greek  his- 

torians.     The   rhetoricians   formulate    no   rules   for 

writing  history,  nor  for  the  other  forms  of  literature 

that  require  eloquence.     The  same  is  true  of  the 

discussion  of  abstract  subjects,  for  which  no  rules  of 

style  are  needed.     Any  student  who  has  mastered 

the  more  difficult  problems  will  need  no  directions  as 

to  the  easier  ones.     Forensic  oratory  is  really  the 

most  difficult  kind  of  oratory. 

\  ))     (§§  74-89)    Catulus   tells   a  story   illustrating  the 

^  Muselessness  of  theory  without  practical  experience. 

Antonius  criticizes  some  superfluous  or  misleading 

rules  of  rhetoric.     The  first  requisite  is  natural  endow- 

ment,  as  the  instance  of  Sulpicius  shows.     (§§  90-98) 

There  must  be  constant  practice,  largely  in  writing, 

xix 


INTRODUCTION 

a  good  model  being  chosen  to  copy — the  Greek  schools 
of  oratory  are  enumerated.  But  men  of  originality 
can  dispense  with  a  model.  (§§  99-113)  To  master 
first  of  all  the  facts  of  the  case  will  at  once  make  clear 
the  point  at  issue,  which  will  be  either  one  of  fact  or 
of  nature  or  of  definition.  (§§  114-151)  The  facts  are 
estabhshed  by  evidence  or  by  argument.  The  hand- 
ling  of  these  methods  needs  practice.  Antonius 
ofFers  to  treat  of  the  invention  of  arguments,  but  on 
request  consents  to  deal  with  the  method  of  stating 
them.  The  case  should  be  considered  under  some 
general  proposition  (locus)  ;  it  is  a  mistake  to  labour 
the  distinction  between  general  propositions  and 
particular  instances,  since  the  vast  majority  of 
cases  can  all  be  brought  under  a  few  general  heads. 
The  sources  of  arguments  for  deahng  with  these 
should  be  famiUar  by  nature,  theory  and  particularly 
study. 

(§§  152-161)  Catulus  says  that  this  agrees  largely 
with  Aristotle.  He  develops  the  Roman  attitude 
to  philosophy.  Antonius  holds  that  the  Stoic  system 
is  of  no  use  to  the  orator,  but  he  praises  the  acuteness 
of  Aristotle  and  the  dialectic  of  Carneades. 

(§§  162-177)  The  doctrine  of  '  topics  '— but  for 
this  purpose  attention  and  natural  acumen,  together 
with  care  for  variety,  will  nearly  suffice.  (§§  178-184) 
It  is  important  to  win  the  favour  of  the  audience  ; 
modes  of  doing  this.  (§§  185-216)  It  is  also  important 
to  inspire  them  with  suitable  emotions  ;  these  the 
speaker  must  himself  feel — instances  from  Antonius's 
own  career.  But  in  some  cases  to  excite  emotion 
is  a  mistake  ;  and  when  done  it  must  be  done  in  the 
proper  manner,  and  without  exaggeration  or  hurry, 
and  interspersed  with  conciliatory  passages.     Argu- 


INTRODUCTION 

ments  must  be  met  by  argument,  and  appeals  to 
emotion  by  exciting  the  opposite  emotion. 

(§§  217-234)  Caesar  discusses  wit.  It  is  of  two 
kinds  ;  it  cannot  be  taught ;  its  efFectiveness  illus- 
trated  from  speeches  of  Crassus ;  rules  for  its 
criticism.  (§§  235-247)  The  laughable — its  nature  ; 
its  origin  the  unseemly,  treated  in  a  neat  style  ; 
where  apphcable  and  where  not ;  (a)  wit  of  form  and 
(6)  wit  of  matter — illustrations  of  the  latter.  (§§  248- 
263)  (a)  Seven  kinds  of  verbal  wit,  defined  and  illus- 
trated.  (§§  264-290)  (6)  Nine  kinds  of  wit  of  thought, 
subdivided  and  illustrated.  (§§  291-332)  Antonius 
resumes  from  §  216,  and  discusses  his  own  and  his 
//opponent's  case.  Arrangement :  put  your  strongest 
s^argument  at  the  beginning  or  at  the  end.  Rules  for 
the  various  parts  of  a  speech.  (§§  333-340)  Speeches 
of  advice  derive  effect  from  the  character  of  the 
speaker  and  his  political  experience  ;  errors  to  avoid. 
(§§  341-349)  Panegyric,  Greek  masters  of ;  praise 
should  be  given  to  the  subject's  character  as  displayed 
in  his  attitude  towards  circumstances  ;  compare  him 
with  illustrious  examples. 

(§§  350-367)  Antonius  sketches  a  memoria  iechnicaf 
originating  from  observations  made  by  Simonides. 

■The  debate  is  adjourned  to  the  afternoon. 

Book  III  (§§  1-10)  Death  of  Crassus  soon  after 
he  had  deUvered  an  important  speech.  Fate  of  the 
other  characters  in  this  dialogue. 

(§§  17-24)  The  discussion  resumed  :  Crassus  begins 
his  exposition  of  style.  Style  is  not  really  separable 
from  matter.  (§§  25-37)  Our  senses  differ,  but  each 
gives  pleasure  ;  and  the  same  is  the  case  with  works 
of  art.  Similarly  various  styles  of  oratory  are  all 
admirable. 

xxi 


INTRODUCTION 

(§§  38-52)  The  first  requisite  is  pure  and  clear 
diction.  (§§  53-96)  Ornate  style,  its  true  conception 
and  proper  compass.  (§§  56-73)  The  relation  of 
eloquence  to  philosophy,  especially  in  the  post- 
Socratic  schools.  (§§  97-148)  Embellishment  should 
be  produced  by  continuous  grace,  avoiding  extra- 
vagance,  studying  light  and  shade,  and  based  on 
general  culture.  (§§  149-208)  Detailed  theory  of  the 
omate  style  :  choice  of  words  ;  their  combination, 
in  point  of  order  and  rhythm  ;  figures  of  speech. 

(§§  208-227)  Oratory  must  be  adapted  to  the  occa- 
sion.     Delivery  (actio),  including  gesture  and  voice. 

Conclusion  :  Hortensius  complimented. 


Editions 

De  Oratore  was  first  printed  at  Subiaco  about  1465, 
(in  fact  it  was  the  very  first  book  printed  in  Italy)  and 
three  other  Italian  editions  followed  in  fifteen  years. 

All  subsequent  editions  have  been  supplanted  by 
that  of  A.  S.  Wilkins,  Oxford,  1892,  the  earhest  con- 
taining  a  commentary  in  Enghsh.  Its  introduction 
is  a  mine  of  information  on  the  text  and  contents  of 
the  book  and  the  earlier  history  of  rhetoric  in  Greece 
and  Rome. 

Text 

The  present  edition  has  been  printed  from  the  text 
of  V.  Betolaud,  Paris,  no  date.  A  few  corrections 
have  been  introduced  from  the  text  and  notes  of 
Wilkins,  and  a  few  variants  are  noted  at  the  foot 
of  the  page. 

For  an  exhaustive  account  of  the  mss.  the  student 
xxii 


INTRODUCTION 

can  refer  to  Wilkins.  It  may  be  noted  here  that  the 
accepted  text  is  based  on  two  primary  mss.  of  the 
ninth  century  and  one  of  the  tenth,  which  clearly 
come  from  a  single  not  very  much  older  copy.  Though 
fuU  of  obvious  errors  in  copying,  they  are  free  from 
dehberate  corrections  ;  all  three  however  are  muti- 
lated,  and  they  leave  considerable  gaps  in  the  text 
unattested.  The  same  is  the  case  with  a  more 
numerous  second  set,  of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries,  which  are  manifestly  based  on  one  or  other 
of  the  above  or  on  their  common  source,  A  third  set, 
all  of  a  later  date,  give  a  complete  text ;  but  they 
do  not  show  the  same  amount  of  agreement  as  the 
two  earlier  groups,  and  also  their  value  is  even  more 
reduced  by  the  probabihty  that  they  have  been 
largely  corrupted  by  conjectural  emendation. 


XXUI 


LIST  OF  CICEROS  WORKS 

SHOWING  THEIR  DIVISION  INTO 

VOLUMES  IN  THIS 

EDITION 

VOLUME 

A.  Rhetorical  Treatises.     5  Volumes 
I.  [Cicero],  Rhetorica  ad  Herennimn 

II.  De  Inventione 

De  Optiino  Genere  Oratorum 
Topica 

III.  De  Oratore,  Books  I-II 

IV.  De  Oratore,  Book  III 
De  Fato 

Paradoxa  Stoicorum 
De  Partitione  Oratoria 

V.  Brutus 
Orator 

XXV 


LIST  OF  CICERCS  WORKS 

VOLUME 

B.    OrATIONS.       10    VOLUMES 

VI.  Pro  Quinctio 

Pro  Roscio  Amerino 
Pro  Roscio  Comoedo 
De  Lege  Agraria  Contra  RuUum  I-III 

VII.  The  Verrine  Orations  I  ; 
In  Q.  Caecilium 
In  C.  Verrem  Actio  I 
In  C.  Verrem  Actio  II,  Books  I-II 

VIII.  The  Verrine  Orations  II  : 

In  C.  Verrem  Actio  II,  Books  III-V 

IX.  De  Imperio  Cn.  Pompei  (Pro  Lege  Manilia) 
Pro  Caecina 
Pro  Cluentio 
Pro  Rabirio  Perduellionis  Reo 

X.  In  Catilinam  I-IV 
Pro  Murena 
Pro  SuUa 
Pro  Flacco 

XI.  Pro  Archia 

Post  Reditum  in  Senatu 
Post  Reditum  ad  Quirites 


LIST  OF  CICERCS  WORKS 

VOLOME 

De  Domo  Sua 

De  Haruspicum  Responsis 

Pro  Cn.  Plancio 

XII    ProSestio 
In  Vatinium 

XIII.  Pro  CaeUo 

De  Provinciis  Consularibus 
Pro  Balbo 

XIV.  Pro  Milone 
In  Pisonem 
Pro  Scauro 
Pro  Fonteio 

Pro  Rabirio  Postumo 

Pro  Marcello 

Pro  Ligario 

Pro  Rege  Deiotaro 

XV.  Philippics  I-XIV 

C.  Philosophical  Treatises.    6  Volumes 

XVI.  De  Re  Publica 
De  Legibus 

XVII.  De  Finibus  Bonorum  et  Malorum 

xxvii 


LIST  OF  CICERO'S  WORKS 

VOLUME 

XVIII.  Tusculan  Disputations 

XIX.  De  Natura  Deorum 
Academica  I  and  II 

XX.  Cato  Maior  de  Senectute 
Laelius  de  Amicitia 
De  Divinatione 

XXI.  De  Officiis 

D.    LeTTERS.      7    VOLUMES 

XXII.  Letters  to  Atticus,  Books  I-VI 

XXIII.  Letters  to  Atticus,  Books  VII-XI 

XXIV.  Letters  to  Atticus,  Books  XII-XVI 
XXV.  Letters  to  His  Friends,  Books  I-VI 

XXVI.  Letters  to  His  Friends,  Books  VII-XII 

XXVII.  Letters  to  His  Friends,  Books  XIII-XVI 

XXVIII.  Letters  to  His  Brother  Quintus 
Letters  to  Brutus 
Commentariolum  Petitionis 
Epistula  ad  Octavianum 

xxviii 


DE    ORATORE 

BOOKS  I,  II 


M.  TULLI  CICERONIS 

AD  QUINTUM  FRATREM 
DIALOGI  TRES 

DE  ORATORE 

DIALOGUS  SEU  LIBER  PRIMUS 

1  I.  Cogitanti  mihi  saepenumero,  et  memoria  vetera 
repetenti,  perbeati  fuisse,  Quinte  frater,  illi  videri 
solent,  qui  in  optima  republica,  cum  et  honoribus,  et 
rerum  gestarum  gloria  florerent,  eum  vitae  cursxmi 
tenere  potuerunt,  ut  vel  in  negotio  sine  periculo,  vel 
in  otio  cum  dignitate  esse  possent.  Ac  fuit  quidem, 
cum  mihi  quoque  initium  requiescendi,  atque  ani- 
mum  ad  utriusque  nostrum  praeclara  studia  re- 
ferendi,  fore  iustum  et  prope  ab  omnibus  con- 
cessum  arbitrarer,  si  infinitus  forensium  rerum 
labor,   et   ambitionis   occupatio,   decursu   honorum, 

2  etiam  aetatis  flexu,  constitisset.  Quam  spem  cogi- 
tationum  et  consiliorum  meorum,  cum  graves  com- 
munium  temporum,  tum  varii  nostri  casus  fefellerunt. 

*•  The  metaphors  are  borrowed  from  the  Circus.  Decurau 
honorum  =  decursis  honoribus :  Cicero  had  been  successively 
augur,  quaestor,  aedile,  praetor,  consul  and  proconsul. 

8 


MARCUS  TULLIUS   CICERO 

ON 

THE  MAKING  OF  AN  ORATOR 

IN  THREE  BOOKS 
ADDRESSED  TO  HIS  BROTHER  QUINTUS 

BOOK  THE  FIRST 

1  I.  When,    as    often    happens,    brother    Quintus,    I  introduo- 
think  over  and  recall  the  days  of  old,  those  men  tion.   The 
always  seem  to  me  to  have  been  singularly  happy  cumstances. 
who,  with  the  State  at  her  best,  and  while  enjoying 

high  distinctions  and  the  fame  of  their  achievements, 
were  able  to  maintain  such  a  course  of  life  that  they 
could  either  engage  in  activity  that  involved  no  risk 
or  enjoy  a  dignified  repose.  And  time  was  when  I 
used  to  imagine  that  I  too  should  become  entitled, 
with  wellnigh  universal  approval,  to  some  oppor- 
tunity  of  leisure  and  of  again  directing  my  mind  to 
the  sublime  pursuits  beloved  of  us  both,  when  once, 
the  career  of  office  complete  and  life  too  taking  the 
turn  towards  its  close,"  the  endless  toil  of  pubHc  speak- 
ing  and  the  business  of  canvassing  should  have  come 

2  to  a  standstill.  The  hopes  so  born  of  my  thoughts 
and  plans  have  been  cheated,  ahke  by  the  disastrous 
times  of  public  peril  and  by  my  manifold  personal 


CICERO 

Nam  qui  locus  quietis  et  tranquillitatis  plenis- 
simus  fore  videbatur,  in  eo  maximae  moles  molestia- 
rum,  et  turbulentissimae  tempestates  exstiterunt. 
Neque  vero  nobis  cupientibus  atque  exoptantibus 
fructus  otii  datus  est  ad  eas  artes,  quibus  a 
pueris    dediti    fuimus,    celebrandas,    inter    nosque 

3  recolendas.  Nam  prima  aetate  incidimus  in  ipsam 
perturbationem  disciplinae  veteris ;  et  consulatu 
devenimus  in  medium  rerum  omnium  certamen 
atque  discrimen ;  et  hoc  tempus  omne  post  consula- 
tum  obiecimus  eis  fluctibus,  qui,  per  nos  a  communi 
peste  depulsi,  in  nosmet  ipsos  redundarunt.  Sed 
tamen  in  his  vel  asperitatibus  rerum,  vel  angustiis 
temporis,  obsequar  studiis  nostris  ;  et,  quantum  mihi 
vel  fraus  inimicorum,  vel  causae  amicorum,  vel 
respublica  tribuet  otii,   ad  scribendum  potissimum 

4  conferam.  Tibi  vero,  frater,  neque  hortanti  deero, 
neque  roganti,  nam  neque  auctoritate  quisquam 
apud  me  plus  valere  te  potest,  neque  voluntate. 

II.  Ac  mihi  repetenda  est  veteris  cuiusdam 
memoriae  non  sane  satis  explicata  recordatio,  sed, 
ut  arbitror,  apta  ad  id,  quod  requiris,  ut  cognoscas 
quae  viri  omnium  eloquentissimi  clarissimique  sen- 
6  serint  de  omni  ratione  dicendi.  Vis  enim,  ut  mihi 
saepe  dixisti,  quoniam  quae  pueris  aut  adolescentulis 
nobis  ex  commentariolis  nostris  inchoata  ac  rudia 
exciderunt,  vix  hac  aetate  digna,  et  hoc  usu,  quem 

"  Cicero  was  about  eightecn  years  old  at  the  outbreak  of 
the  civll  strife  between  Marius  and  Sulla. 

'  The  reference  is  to  the  juvenile  De  InventioM  of  Cicero, 
in  two  books. 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  i.  2— ii.  5 

misfortunes.  For  the  time  of  life  which  promised 
to  be  fullest  of  quiet  and  peace  proved  to  be  that 
during  which  the  greatest  volume  of  vexations  and  the 
most  turbulent  tempests  arose.  And  notwithstand- 
ing  my  desire,  and  indeed  my  profound  longing,  no 
enjoyment  of  leisure  was  granted  me,  for  the  cultiva- 
tion  and  renewed  pursuit,  in  your  company,  of  those 
arts  to  which  from  boyhood  you  and  I  have  been 

3  devoted.  For  in  my  early  years"  I  came  just  upon 
the  days  when  the  old  order  was  overthrown  ;  then 
by  my  consulship  I  was  drawn  into  the  midst  of 
a  universal  struggle  and  crisis,  and  my  whole  time 
ever  since  that  consulship  I  have  spent  in  stemming 
those  billows  which,  stayed  by  my  efForts  from  ruining 
the  nation,  rolled  in  a  flood  upon  myself.  But  none 
the  less,  though  events  are  thus  harassing  and  my 
time  so  restricted,  I  will  hearken  to  the  call  of  our 
studies,  and  every  moment  of  leisure  allowed  me  by 
the  perfidy  of  my  enemies,  the  advocacy  of  my  friends 
and  my  political  duties,  I  vdll  dedicate  first  and  fore- 

4  most  to  writing.  And  when  you,  brother,  exhort 
and  request  me,  I  will  not  fail  you,  for  no  man's 
authority  or  wish  can  have  greater  weight  with  me 
than  yours. 

II.  And  now  I  must  bring  back  to  mind  the  recol-  Educationof 
lection  of  an  old  story,  not,  I  admit,  as  clear  in  detail  *^®  »»tor. 
as  it  might  be,  but,  to  my  thinking,  suited  to  what 
you  ask ;  so  that  you  may  learn  what  men  renowned 
above  all  others  for  eloquence  have  thought  about 

5  the  whole  subject  of  oratory,  For  it  is  your  wish,  as 
you  have  often  told  me,  that — since  the  unfinished 
and  crude  essays,^  which  shpped  out  of  the  notebooks 
of  my  boyhood,  or  rather  of  my  youth,  are  hardly 
worthy  of  my  present  time  of  Ufe  and  of  my  experi- 

5 


CICERO 

ex  causis,  quas  diximus,  tot  tantisque  consecuti 
sumus,  aliquid  eisdem  de  rebus  politius  a  nobis  per- 
fectiusque  proferri :  solesque  nonnunquam  hac  de  re 
a  me  in  disputationibus  nostris  dissentire,  quod  ego 
prudentissimorum  hominum  artibus  eloquentiam 
contineri  statuam ;  tu  autem  illam  ab  elegantia 
doctrinae  segregandam  putes,  et  in  quodam  ingenii 
atque  exercitationis  genere  ponendam. 

6  Ac  mihi  quidem  saepenumero  in  summos  homines, 
ac  summis  ingeniis  praeditos  intuenti,  quaerendum 
esse  visiun  est,  quid  esset,  cur  plures  in  omnibus 
artibus,  quam  in  dicendo  admirabiles  exstitissent. 
Nam,  quocumque  te  animo  et  cogitatione  converteris, 
permultos  excellentes  in  quoque  genere  videbis,  non 

7  mediocrium  artiimi,  sed  prope  maximarum.  Quis 
enim  est,  qui,  si  clarorimi  hominum  scientiam  rerum 
gestarum  vel  utilitate  vel  magnitudine  metiri  velit, 
non  anteponat  oratori  imperatorem  ?  Quis  autem 
dubitet,  quin  belli  duces  praestantissimos  ex  hac  una 
civitate  paene  innmnerabiles,  in  dicendo  autem  ex- 

8  cellentes  vix  paucos  proferre  possimus  ?  lam  vero, 
consilio  ac  sapientia  qui  regere  ac  gubernare  rem- 
publicam  possent,  multi  nostra,  plures  patrum  me- 
moria,  atque  etiam  maiorum  exstiterunt,  cum  boni 
perdiu  nulli,  vix  autem  singulis  aetatibus  singuli 
6 


orators — 
rare. 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  ii.  5-8 

ence  gained  from  the  numerous  and  grave  causes  in 
which  I  have  been  engaged — I  should  pubhsh  some- 
thing  more  polished  and  complete  on  these  same 
topics  ;  and  generally  you  disagree  with  me,  in  our 
occasional  discussions  of  this  subject,  because  I  hold 
that  eloquence  is  dependent  upon  the  trained  skill 
of  highly  educated  men,  while  you  consider  that  it 
must  be  separated  from  the  refinements  of  learning 
and  made  to  depend  on  a  sort  of  natural  talent  and 
on  practice. 

And  for  my  own  part,  when,  as  has  often  happened,  Great 
I  have  been  contemplating  men  of  the  highest  emin-  °™^ 
ence  and  endowed  with  the  highest  abilities,  it  has 
seemed  to  me  to  be  a  matter  for  inquiry,  why  it  was 
that  more  of  them  should  have  gained  outstanding 
renown  in  all  other  pursuits,  than  have  done  so  in 
oratory.  For  in  whatever  direction  you  turn  your 
mind  and  thoughts,  you  will  find  very  many  excelling 
in  every  kind,  not  merely  of  ordinary  arts,  but  of  such 

7  as  are  aknost  the  greatest.  Who,  for  instance,  in 
seeking  to  measure  the  understanding  possessed  by 
illustrious  men,  whether  by  the  usefulness  or  the 
grandeur  of  their  achievements,  would  not  place  the 
general  above  the  orator  ?  Yet  who  could  doubt 
that,  from  this  country  alone,  we  could  cite  almost 
innumerable  examples  of  leaders  in  war  of  the 
greatest  distinction,  but  of  men  excelhng  in  oratory 

8  a  mere  handful  ?  Nay  further,  among  the  men  who 
by  their  counsel  and  wisdom  could  control  and  direct 
the  hehn  of  state,  many  have  stood  out  in  our  o^vn 
day,  and  still  more  in  the  history  of  our  fathers  and 
even  of  our  remoter  ancestors,  and  yet  through 
lengthy  ages  no  good  orator  is  to  be  found,  and  in 
each  successive  generation  hardly  a  single  tolerable 

7 


CICERO 

tolerabiles  oratores  invenirentur.  Ac,  ne  quis  forte 
cum  aliis  studiis,  quae  reconditis  in  artibus,  atque  in 
quadam  varietate  litterarum  versentur,  magis  hanc 
dicendi  rationem,  quam  cum  imperatoris  laude,  aut 
cum  boni  senatoris  prudentia  comparandam  putet, 
convertat  animmn  ad  ea  ipsa  artium  genera,  circum- 
spiciatque,  qui  in  eis  floruerint,  quamque  multi :  sic 
facillime,  quanta  oratorum  sit  semperque  fuerit 
paucitas,  iudicabit. 
9  III.  Neque  enim  te  fugit,  artium  omnium  lauda- 
tarum  procreatricem  quamdam,  et  quasi  parentem 
eam,  quam  <^iXo(ro<^iav  Graeci  vocant,  ab  hominibus 
doctissimis  iudicari ;  in  qua  difficile  est  enumerare, 
quot  viri,  quanta  scientia,  quantaque  in  suis  studiis 
varietate  et  copia  fuerint,  qui  non  una  aliqua  in 
re  separatim  elaborarint,  sed  omnia,  quaecumque 
possent,  vel  scientiae  pervestigatione,  vel  disserendi 

10  ratione,  comprehenderint.  Quis  ignorat,  ei,  qui 
mathematici  vocantur,  quanta  in  obscuritate  rerum, 
et  quam  recondita  in  arte,  et  multiplici  subtihque 
versentur  ?  quo  tamen  in  genere  ita  multi  perfecti 
homines  exstiterunt,  ut  nemo  fere  studuisse  ei 
scientiae  vehementius  videatur,  quin,  quod  voluerit, 
consecutus  sit.  Quis  musicis,  quis  huic  studio  htte- 
rarum,  quod  profitentur  ei,  qui  granunatici  vocantur, 
penitus  se  dedidit,  quin  omnem  illarum  artium  paene 
infinitam  vim  et  materiam  scientiae  cogitatione 
comprehenderit  ? 

11  Vere  mihi  hoc  videor  esse  dicturus,  ex  omnibus  eis, 

8 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  ii.  8— iii.  11 

one.    And  that  no  one  may  think  that  other  pursuits, 
which  have  to  do  with  abstruse  branches  of  study, 
and  what   I   may  call  the  varied   field  of  learning, 
should  be  compared  with  this  art  of  oratory,  rather 
than  the  merits  of  a  commander  or  the  wisdom  of 
a  statesman-hke  senator,  let  him  turn  his  attention 
to  these  very  kinds  of  art,  and  look  around  to  see 
who,  and  how  many,  have  been  distinguished  therein  ; 
in  this  way  he  will  most  readily  judge  how  scarce 
orators  are  now,  and  ever  have  been. 
9      III.  For  indeed  you  cannot  fail  to  remember  that  Bminencein 
the  most  learned  men  hold  what  the  Greeks  call  rare.^'*^^ 
*  philosophy  '  to  be  the  creator  and  mother,  as  it 
were,   of  all   the   reputable  arts,  and   yet   in  this 
field  of  philosophy  it  is  difficult  to  count  how  many 
men  there  have  been,  eminent  for  their  learning  and 
for  the  variety  and  extent  of  their  studies,  men  whose 
efforts  were  devoted,  not  to  one  separate  branch  of 
study,  but  who  have  mastered  everything  they  could     • 
whether  by  scientific  investigation  or  by  the  methods 

10  of  dialectic.  Who  does  not  know,  as  regards  the 
so-called  mathematicians,  what  very  obscure  sub- 
jects,  and  how  abstruse,  manifold,  and  exact  an  art 
they  are  engaged  in  ?  Yet  in  this  pursuit  so  many 
men  have  displayed  outstanding  excellence,  that 
hardly  one  seems  to  have  worked  in  real  earnest  at 
this  branch  of  knowledge  without  attaining  the  object 
of  his  desire.  Who  has  devoted  himself  wholly  to 
the  cult  of  the  Muses,  or  to  this  study  of  literature, 
which  is  professed  by  those  who  are  known  as  men  of 
letters,  without  bringing  within  the  compass  of  his 
knowledge  and  observation  the  almost  boundless 
range  and  subject-matter  of  those  arts  ? 

11  I  think  I  shall  be  right  in  affirming  this,  that  out  of 

B  9 


CICERO 

qui  in  harum  artium  studiis  liberalissimis  sint  doctri- 
nisque  versati,minimam  copiam  poetarum  et  oratorum 
egregiorum  exstitisse,  atque  in  hoc  ipso  numero,  in 
quo  perraro  exoritur  aliquis  excellens,  si  diligenter,  et 
ex  nostrorum,  et  ex  Graecorum  copia  comparare  voles, 
multo  tamen  pauciores  oratores,  quam  poetae  boni 

12  reperientur.  Quod  hoc  etiam  mirabilius  debet  videri, 
quia  ceterarum  artium  studia  fere  reconditis  atque 
abditis  e  fontibus  hauriuntur  ;  dicendi  autem  omnis 
ratio  in  medio  posita,  conmiuni  quodam  in  usu,  atque 
in  hominum  more  et  sermone  versatur  :  ut  in  ceteris 
id  maxime  excellat,  quod  longissime  sit  ab  imperi- 
torum  intellegentia  sensuque  disiunctum,  in  dicendo 
autem  vitium  vel  maximum  sit  a  vulgari  genere 
orationis,  atque  a  consuetudine  communis  sensus 
abhorrere. 

13  IV.  Ac  ne  illud  quidem  vere  dici  potest,  aut  plures 
ceteris  artibus  inservire,  aut  maiore  delectatione, 
aut  spe  uberiore,  aut  praemiis  ad  perdiscendum 
ampUoribus  commoveri.  Atque  ut  omittam  Grae- 
ciam,  quae  semper  eloquentiae  princeps  esse  voluit, 
atque  illas  omnium  doctrinarum  inventrices  Athenas, 
in  quibus  simima  dicendi  vis  et  inventa  est  et  per- 
fecta  :  in  hac  ipsa  civitate  profecto  nulla  unquam 
vehementius,  quam  eloquentiae  studia  viguerunt. 

14  Nam  posteaquam,  imperio  omnium  gentium  con- 
stituto,  diuturnitas  pacis  otium  confirmavit,  nemo 
fere  laudis  cupidus  adolescens  non  sibi  ad  dicendum 

"  The  traditional  reading  omits  the  words  et  oratorum,  but 
their  insertion  seems  necessary  to  the  sense,  and  is  supported 
by  O.  Hense,  Hamecker,  Wilkins  and  Stangl. 

10 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  iii.  11— iv.  14 

all  those  who  have  been  engaged  in  the  infinitely 
copious  studies  and  learning  pertaining  to  these  arts, 
the  smallest  number  of  distinguished  men  is  found 
among  poets  and  orators " ;  and  even  in  this  small 
number — within  which  a  man  of  excellence  very 
rarely  emerges — if  you  will  make  a  careful  compari- 
son  of  our  own  national  supply  and  that  of  Greece, 
far  fewer  good   orators  will   be   found   even   than 

12  good  poets.  And  this  should  seem  even  more  mar- 
vellous  because  the  subjects  of  the  other  arts  are 
derived  as  a  rule  from  hidden  and  remote  sources, 
while  the  whole  art  of  oratory  hes  open  to  the 
view,  and  is  concerned  in  some  measure  with  the 
common  practice,  custom,  and  speech  of  mankind, 
so  that,  whereas  in  all  other  arts  that  is  most 
excellent  which  is  farthest  removed  from  the  under- 
standing  and  mental  capacity  of  the  untrained,  in 
oratory  the  very  cardinal  sin  is  to  depart  from  the 
language  of  everyday  hfe,  and  the  usage  approved 
by  the  sense  of  the  community. 

13  IV.  And  yet  it  cannot  truly  be  said  either  that  oratory  an 
more  men  devote  themselves  to  the  other  arts,  or  ^**™^*'^^ ,. 
that  those  who  do  so  are  stimulated  to  close  study  study. 

by  greater  pleasure,  higher  hopes,  or  more  splendid 
rewards.  In  fact,  to  say  nothing  of  Greece,  which 
has  ever  claimed  the  leading  part  in  eloquence,  and 
of  Athens,  that  discoverer  of  all  learning,  where 
the  supreme  power  of  oratory  was  both  invented 
and  perfected,  in  this  city  of  our  own  assuredly  no 
studies  have  ever  had  a  more  vigorous  hfe  than 
those  having  to  do  with  the  art  of  speaking. 

14  For  as  soon  as  our  world-empire  had  been  estab- 
hshed,  and  an  enduring  peace  had  assured  us  leisure, 
there  was  hardly  a  youth,  athirst  for  fame,  who  did 

11 


CICERO 

studio  omni  enitendum  putavit.  Ac  primo  quidem 
totius  rationis  ignari,  qui  neque  exercitationis  ullam 
viam,  neque  aliquod  praeceptum  artis  esse  arbitra- 
rentur,  tantum,  quantum  ingenio  et  cogitatione 
poterant,  consequebantur.  Post  autem,  auditis 
oratoribus  Graecis,  cognitisque  eorum  litteris,  ad- 
hibitisque    doctoribus,    incredibili    quodam    nostri 

15  homines  dicendi  studio  flagraverunt.  Excitabat  eos 
magnitudo  et  varietas,  multitudoque  in  omni  genere 
causarum,  ut  ad  eam  doctrinam,  quam  suo  quisque 
studio  assecutus  esset,  adiungeretur  usus  frequens, 
qui  omnium  magistrorum  praecepta  superaret.  Erant 
autem  huic  studio  maxima,  quae  nunc  quoque  sunt, 
exposita  praemia,  vel  ad  gratiam,  vel  ad  opes,  vel 
ad  dignitatem.  Ingenia  vero  (ut  multis  rebus  possu- 
mus  iudicare)  nostronmi  hominum  multum  ceteris 

16  hominibus  omnium  gentium  praestiterunt.  Quibus 
de  causis,  quis  non  iure  miretur,  ex  omni  memoria 
aetatum,  temporum,  civitatum,  tam  exiguum  orato- 
rum  numerum  inveniri  ? 

Sed  nimirum  maius  est  hoc  quiddam,  quam  ho- 
mines  opinantur,  et  pluribus  ex  artibus  studiisque 
collectum. 

V.  Quis  enim  aliud,  in  maxima  discentium  multi- 
tudine,  summa  magistrorum  copia,  praestantissimis 
hominum  ingeniis,  infinita  causarum  varietate,  am- 
plissimis  eloquentiae  propositis  praemiis,  esse  causae 
putet,  nisi  rei  quamdam  incredibilem  magnitudinem, 

17  ac  difficultatem  ?    Est  enim  et  scientia  comprehen- 

13 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  iv.  14— v.  17 

not  deem  it  his  duty  to  strive  with  might  and  main 
after  eloquence.  At  first  indeed,  in  their  complete 
ignorance  of  method,  since  they  thought  there  was  no 
definite  course  of  training  or  any  rules  of  art,  they 
used  to  attain  what  skill  they  could  by  means  of  their 
natural  abiUty  and  of  reflection.  But  later,  having 
heard  the  Greek  orators,  gained  acquaintance  with 
their  literature  and  called  in  Greek  teachers,  our 
people  were  fired  with  a  really  incredible  enthusi- 
1.5  asm  for  eloquence.  The  importance,  variety,  and 
frequency  of  current  suits  of  all  sorts  aroused  them 
so  effectually,  that,  to  the  learning  which  each  man 
had  acquired  by  his  own  efforts,  plenty  of  practice  was 
added,  as  being  better  than  the  maxims  of  all  the 
masters.  In  those  days  too,  as  at  present,  the  prizes 
open  to  this  study  were  supreme,  in  the  way  of 
popularity,  wealth,  and  reputation  ahke.  As  for 
ability  again — there  are  many  things  to  show  it — 
our  fellow-countrymen  have  far  excelled  the  men  of 

16  every  other  race.  And  considering  all  this,  who 
would  not  rightly  marvel  that,  in  all  the  long  record 
of  ages,  times,  and  states,  so  small  a  number  of 
orators  is  to  be  found  ? 

But  the  truth  is  that  this  oratory  is  a  greater  thing, 
and  has  its  sources  in  more  arts  and  branches  of  study, 
than  people  suppose. 

V.  For,where  the  number  of  students  is  verygreat,  its  wide 
the  supply  of  masters  of  the  very  best,  the  quahty  of  thrstudent'- 
natural  ability  outstanding,  the  variety  of  issues  un- 
hmited,  the  prizes  open  to  eloquence  exceedingly 
splendid,  what  else  could  anyone  think  to  be  the  cause, 
unless  it  be  the  really  incredible  vastness  and  diffi- 

17  culty  of  the  subject  ?  To  begin  with,  a  knowledge  of 
very  many  matters  must  be  grasped,  without  which 

13 


CICERO 

denda  rerum  plurimarum,  sine  qua  verborum  volu- 
bilitas  inanis  atque  irridenda  est ;  et  ipsa  oratio 
conformanda,  non  solum  electione,  sed  etiam  con- 
structione  verborum  ;  et  omnes  animorum  motus, 
quos  hominum  generi  rerum  natura  tribuit,  penitus 
pernoscendi  ;  quod  omnis  vis  ratioque  dicendi  in 
eorum,  qui  audiunt,  mentibus,  aut  sedandis,  aut 
excitandis  expromenda  est.  Accedat  eodem  oportet 
lepos  quidam  facetiaeque,  et  eruditio  libero  digna, 
celeritasque  et  brevitas  et  respondendi,  et  laces- 
sendi,  subtili  venustate,  atque  urbanitate  coniuncta. 

18  Tenenda  praeterea  est  omnis  antiquitas,  exemplo- 
rumque  vis ;  neque  legum,  aut  iuris  civilis  scientia 
neglegenda  est.  Nam  quid  ego  de  actione  ipsa  plura 
dicam  ?  quae  motu  corporis,  quae  gestu,  quae  vultu, 
quae  vocis  conformatione  ac  varietate  moderanda 
est ;  quae  sola  per  se  ipsa  quanta  sit,  histrionum 
levis  ars  et  scena  declarat :  in  qua  cum  omnes  in 
oris,  et  vocis,  et  motus  moderatione  elaborent,  quis 
ignorat,  quam  pauci  sint,  fuerintque,  quos  animo 
aequo  spectare  possimus  ?  Quid  dicam  de  thesauro 
rerum  omnium,  memoria  ?  quae  nisi  custos  inventis 
cogitatisque  rebus  et  verbis  adhibeatur,  intellegimus, 
omnia,  etiam  si  praeclarissima  fuerint  in  oratore, 
peritura. 

19  Quam  ob  rem  mirari  desinamus,  quae  causa  sit 
eloquentium  paucitatis,  cum  ex  eis  rebus  universis 
eloquentia  constet,  quibus  in  singulis  elaborare  per- 

14 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  v.  17-19 

oratory  is  but  an  empty  and  ridiculous  swirl  of  ver- 
biage :  and  the  distinctive  style  has  to  be  formed,  not 
only  by  the  choice  of  words,  but  also  by  the  arrange- 
ment  of  the  same  ;  and  all  the  mental  emotions,  with 
which  nature  has  endowed  the  human  race,  are  to  be 
intimately  understood,  because  it  is  in  calming  or  kin- 
dhng  the  feehngs  of  the  audience  that  the  full  power 
and  science  of  oratory  are  to  be  brought  into  play.  To 
this  there  should  be  added  a  certain  humour,  flashes 
of  wit,  the  culture  befitting  a  gentleman,  and  readi- 
ness  and  terseness  ahke  in  repelhng  and  in  deUvering 
the  attack,  the  whole  being  combined  with  a  dehcate 

18  charm  and  urbanity.  Further,  the  complete  history 
of  the  past  and  a  store  of  precedents  must  be  retained 
in  the  memory,  nor  may  a  knowledge  of  statute  law 
and  our  national  law  in  general  be  omitted.  And 
why  should  I  go  on  to  describe  the  speaker's  dehvery  ? 
That  needs  to  be  controlled  by  bodily  carriage, 
gesture,  play  of  features  and  changing  intonation  of 
voice  ;  and  how  important  that  is  wholly  by  itself, 
the  actor's  trivial  art  and  the  stage  proclaim  ;  for 
there,  although  all  are  labouring  to  regulate  the 
expression,  the  voice,  and  the  movements  of  the 
body,  everyone  knows  how  few  actors  there  are,  or 
ever  have  been,  whom  we  could  bear  to  watch  ! 
What  need  to  speak  of  that  universal  treasure-house 
the  memory  ?  Unless  this  faculty  be  placed  in  charge 
of  the  ideas  and  phrases  which  have  been  thought  out 
and  well  weighed,  even  though  as  conceived  by  the 
orator  they  were  of  the  highest  excellence,  we  know 
that  they  will  all  be  wasted. 

19  Let  us  therefore  cease  to  wonder  what  may  be  the 
cause  of  the  rarity  of  orators,  since  oratory  is  the 
result  of  a  whole  number  of  things,  in  any  one  of  which 

15 


CICERO 

magnum  est ;  hortemurque  potius  liberos  nostros, 
ceterosque,  quorum  gloria  nobis  et  dignitas  cara  est, 
ut  animo  rei  magnitudinem  complectantur,  neque  eis 
aut  praeceptis,  aut  magistris,  aut  exercitationibus, 
quibus  utuntur  omnes,  sed  aliis  quibusdam,  se  id, 
quod  expetunt,  consequi  posse  confidant. 

20  VI.  Ac,  mea  quidem  sententia,  nemo  poterit  esse 
omni  laude  cumulatus  orator,  nisi  erit  omnium  rerum 
magnarum  atque  artium  scientiam  consecutus. 
Etenim  ex  rerum  cognitione  efflorescat  et  redundet 
oportet  oratio  ;  quae,  nisi  subest  res  ab  oratore 
percepta  et  cognita,  inanem  quamdam  habet  elocu- 

21  tionem,  et  paene  puerilem.  Neque  vero  ego  hoc 
tantum  oneris  imponam  nostris  praesertim  oratoribus, 
in  hac  tanta  occupatione  urbis  ac  vitae,  nihil  ut  eis 
putem  Hcere  nescire  :  quanquam  vis  oratoris  pro- 
fessioque  ipsa  bene  dicendi,  hoc  suscipere  ac  poUiceri 
videtur,  ut  omni  de  re,  quaecumque  sit  proposita,  ab 

22  eo  ornate  copioseque  dicatur.  Sed  quia  non  dubito, 
quin  hoc  plerisque  immensum  infinitumque  videatur, 
et  quod  Graecos  homines  non  solum  ingenio  et 
doctrina,  sed  etiam  otio  studioque  abundantes, 
partitionem  quamdam  artium  fecisse  video,  neque  in 
universo  genere  singulos  elaborasse,  sed  seposuisse 
a  ceteris  dictionibus  eam  partem  dicendi,  quae  in 
forensibus  disceptationibus  iudiciorum,  aut  deUbera- 
16 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  v.  19— vi.  22 

to  succeed  is  a  great  achievement,  and  let  us  rather 
exhort  our  children,  and  the  others  whose  fame  and 
repute  are  dear  to  us,  to  form  a  true  understanding 
of  the  greatness  of  their  task,  and  not  to  beheve  that 
they  can  gain  their  coveted  object  by  rehance  on  the 
rules  or  teachers  or  methods  of  practice  employed  by 
everybody,  but  to  rest  assured  that  they  can  do  this 
by  the  help  of  certain  other  means. 

20  VI.  And  indeed  in  my  opinion,  no  man  can  be  an  even  if  oniy 
orator  complete  in  all  points  of  merit,  who  has  not  prlcti^t/"'^ 
attained  a  knowledge  of  all  important  subjects  and  ptirposes,  as 
arts.     For  it  is  from  knowledge  that  oratory  must  ^     °™  ' 
derive  its  beauty  and  fullness,  and  unless  there  is  such 
knowledge,  well-grasped  and  comprehended  by  the 
speaker,  there  must  be  something  empty  and  ahnost 

21  childish  in  the  utterance.  Not  that  I  am  going  to 
lay  so  heavy  a  burden  upon  orators — least  of  all  upon 
our  own,  amid  all  the  distractions  of  hfe  in  Rome — 
as  to  hold  that  there  is  nothing  of  which  it  is  per- 
missible  for  them  to  be  ignorant,  although  the 
significance  of  the  term  "  orator,"  and  the  mere  act 
of  professing  eloquence,  seem  to  undertake  and  to 
promise  that  every  subject  whatsoever,  proposed  to 
an  orator,  will  be  treated  by  him  with  both  distinc- 

22  tion  and  knowledge.  But  being  assured  that  to  most 
men  this  appears  a  vast  and  indeed  hmitless  enter- 
prise,  and  perceiving  that  the  Greeks,  men  not  only 
abounding  in  genius  and  learning,  but  also  amply 
endowed  with  leisure  and  the  love  of  study,  have 
aheady  made  a  sort  of  division  of  the  arts, — nor  did 
every  student  of  theirs  work  over  the  whole  field 
by  himself,  but  they  separated  from  other  uses  of 
speech  that  portion  of  oratory  which  is  concerned 
with  the  public  discussions  of  the  law-courts  and  of 

17 


CICERO 

tionum  versaretur,  et  id  unum  genus  oratorireliquisse ; 
non  complectar  in  his  libris  amplius,  quam  quod  huic 
generi,  re  quaesita  et  multum  disputata,  summorum 

23  hominum  prope  consensu  est  tributum  ;  repetamque, 
non  ab  incunabulis  nostrae  veteris  puerilisque 
doctrinae  quemdam  ordinem  praeceptorum,  sed  ea, 
quae  quondam  accepi  in  nostrorum  hominum  elo- 
quentissimorum  et  omni  dignitate  principum,  dis- 
putatione  esse  versata.  Non  quod  illa  contemnam, 
quae  Graeci,  dicendi  artifices  et  doctores,  reliquerunt; 
sed,  cum  illa  pateant  in  promptuque  sint  omnibus, 
neque  ea  interpretatione  mea  aut  ornatius  explicari, 
aut  planius  exprimi  possint,  dabis  hanc  veniam,  mi 
frater,  ut  opinor,  ut  eorum,  quibus  summa  dicendi 
laus  a  nostris  hominibus  concessa  est,  auctoritatem 
Graecis  anteponam. 

24  VII.  Cum  igitur  vehementius  inveheretur  in 
causam  principum  consul  Philippus,  Drusique  tri- 
bunatus,  pro  Senatus  auctoritate  susceptus,  infringi 
iam  debilitarique  videretur ;  dici  mihi  memini, 
ludorum  Romanorum  diebus,  L.  Crassum,  quasi 
coUigendi  sui  causa,  se  in  Tusculaniun  contulisse  ; 
venisse  eodem,  socer  eius  qui  fuerat,  Q.  Mucius 
dicebatur,  et  M.  Antonius,  homo  et  consiliorum  in 
republica  socius,  et  summa  cum  Crasso  familiaritate 

26  coniunctus.     Exierant  autem  cum  ipso  Crasso  adole- 

"  For  Philippus  and  Drusus  see  Index,  and  for  the  other 
names  referred  to  in  this  chapter  see  Introduction. 

18 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  vi.  22— vii.  25 

debate,  and  left  that  branch  only  to  the  orator — I 
shall  not  include  in  this  work  more  than  has  been 
assigned  to  this  type  of  oratory  by  the  all  but  unani- 
mous  judgement  of  the  most  eminent  men,  after 

23  investigation  and  long  argument  of  the  matter  ;  nor  Diaiogno 
shall  I  recall,  from  the  cradle  of  our  boyish  learn-  pS^fOT"^ 
ing  of  days  gone  by,   a  long   string  of  precepts,  the  present 
but  I  shall  repeat  the  things  I  heard  of  as  once  ^*^  ■'*" 
handled  in  a  discussion  between  men  who  were  the 

most  eloquent  of  our  nation,  and  of  the  highest  rank 
in  distinction  of  every  kind.  Not  that  I  despise  what 
the  Greek  craftsmen  and  teachers  of  oratory  have 
left  us  ;  but  that  is  open  to  the  view  and  ready  to  the 
hand  of  every  man,  nor  could  it  be  more  happily 
set  forth  or  more  clearly  expounded  by  any  inter- 
pretations  of  my  own,  so  that  you  will  forgive  me, 
brother  mine,  I  do  beheve,  if  I  prefer  to  Greek  in- 
struction  the  authoritative  judgement  of  those  to 
whom  the  highest  honours  in  eloquence  have  been 
awarded  by  our  own  fellow-countrymen. 

24  VII.  I  remember  then  being  told  how,  at  the  time  Date,  Bceno, 
when  Philippus,"  though  consul,  was  furiously  assail-  ^^^  persons. 
ing  the  policy  of  the  leading  men,  and  the  tribune- 

ship  of  Drusus,  undertaken  in  support  of  the 
power  of  the  Senate,  had  begun  to  show  symptoms 
of  shock  and  weakness,  Lucius  Crassus,  on  the  plea 
of  recruiting  his  energies,  betook  himself  during 
the  days  of  the  Roman  Games  to  his  seat  at 
Tusculum,  whither  (as  the  story  went)  there  came 
Quintus  Mucius,  once  his  father-in-law,  and  Marcus 
Antonius,  a  partner  in  the  poUtical  designs  of 
Crassus,  and  a  man  united  with  him  in  the  closest 

25  intimacy.     There  had  also  gone  out  of  town,  in  the 
company  of  Crassus,  two  young  men  who  were  very 

19 


CICERO 

scentes  duo,  Drusi  maxime  familiares,  et  in  quibus 
magnam  tum  spem  maiores  natu  dignitatis  suae 
collocarant,  C.  Cotta,  qui  tum  tribunatum  plebis 
petebat,  et  P.  Sulpicius,  qui  deinceps  eum  magistra- 

26  tum  petiturus  putabatur.  Hi  primo  die  de  tempori- 
bus  illis,  deque  universa  republica,  quam  ob  causam 
venerant,  multum  inter  se  usque  ad  extremum 
tempus  diei  collocuti  sunt.  Quo  quidem  in  sermone 
multa  divinitus  a  tribus  illis  consularibus  Cotta 
deplorata  et  commemorata  narrabat ;  ut  nihil  in- 
cidisset  postea  civitati  mali,  quod  non  impendere  illi 

27  tanto  ante  vidissent ;  eo  autem  omni  sermone  con- 
fecto,  tantam  in  Crasso  humanitatem  fuisse,  ut,  cum 
lauti  accubuissent,  toUeretur  omnis  illa  superioris 
tristitia  sermonis  ;  eaque  esset  in  homine  iucunditas, 
et  tantus  in  iocando  lepos,  ut  dies  inter  eos  Curiae 
fuisse  videretur,  convivium  Tusculani. 

28  Postero  autem  die,  cum  illi  maiores  natu  satis 
quiessent,  et  in  ambulationem  ventum  esset :  dicebat 
tum  Scaevolam,  duobus  spatiis  tribusve  factis,  dixisse : 
Cur  non  imitamur,  Crasse,  Socratem  lUum,  qui  est 
in  Phaedro  Platonis  ?  Nam  me  haec  tua  platanus 
admonuit,  quae  non  minus  ad  opacandum  hunc  locum 
patulis  est  difFusa  ramis,  quam  illa,  cuius  umbram 
secutus  est  Socrates,  quae   mihi   videtur   non  tam 

"  Phaedrus  229  a,  230  b. 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  vii.  25-28 

great  friends  of  Drusus,  and  in  whom  the  older 
generation  at  that  time  reposed  high  hopes  of  their 
maintaining  the  traditions  of  their  order  :  they  were 
Gaius  Cotta,  just  then  seeking  the  tribuneship  of  the 
commons,  and  PubHus  Sulpicius,  who  was  thought 
hkely  to  become  a  candidate  for  that  magistracy  in 

26  succession  to  him.  This  party,  on  the  first  day  and 
up  to  a  very  late  hour,  held  long  debate  together, 
concerning  the  crisis  and  the  state  of  pohtics  gener- 
ally,  which  in  fact  had  been  the  occasion  of  their 
meeting.  And  Cotta  recounted  many  things  which 
were  spoken  of  in  that  discussion  with  deep  regret  by 
the  three  speakers  of  consular  rank,  in  such  inspired 
fashion  that  (in  his  words)  no  evil  had  since  befallen 
the  community  which  those  men,  so  long  before,  had 

27  not  seen  to  be  hanging  over  it ;  but  (he  would  add) 
when  the  colloquy  was  completely  finished,  so  ex- 
quisite  was  the  urbanity  displayed  by  Crassus,  that, 
as  soon  as  they  had  bathed  and  settled  down  to  table, 
the  melancholy  turn  taken  by  the  earher  discussion 
was  wholly  banished,  and  such  was  the  man's  pleasant- 
ness  and  so  great  the  charm  of  his  humour  that  it 
seemed  as  though  a  day  in  the  Senate-house  was 
closing  with  supper  at  Tusculum. 

28  Then  Cotta  went  on  to  say  how  on  the  morrow,  when 
those  older  men  had  rested  sufficiently  and  everyone 
had  come  into  the  garden-walk,  Scaevola,  after  taking 
two  or  three  turns,  observed,  "  Crassus,  why  do  we 
not  imitate  Socrates  as  he  appears  in  the  Phaedrus 
of  Plato  ?  For  your  plane-tree  has  suggested  this 
comparison  to  my  mind,  casting  as  it  does,  with  its 
spreading  branches,  as  deep  a  shade  over  this  spot, 
as  that  one  cast  whose  shelter  Socrates  sought*» — 
which  to  me  seems  to  owe  its  eminence  less  to  '  the 

21 


CICERO 

*  ipsa  acula/  quae  describitur,  quam  Platonis  oratione 
crevisse  :  et,  quod  ille  durissimis  pedibus  fecit,  ut  se 
abiceret  in  herbam,  atque  ita  illa,  quae  philosophi 
divinitus  ferunt  esse  dicta,  loqueretur,  id  meis  pedibus 

29  certe  concedi  est  aequius.  Tum  Crassum :  Immo 
vero  commodius  etiam ;  pulvinosque  poposcisse,  et 
omnes  in  eis  sedibus,  quae  erant  sub  platano,  con- 
sedisse  dicebat. 

VIII.  Ibi,   ut   ex   pristino   sermone   relaxarentur 
animi  omnium,  solebat  Cotta  narrare,  Crassum  ser- 

30  monem  quemdam  de  studio  dicendi  intulisse.  Qui 
cum  ita  esset  exorsus,  non  sibi  cohortandum  Sul- 
picium  et  Cottam,  sed  magis  utrumque  coUaudandum 
videri,  quod  tantam  iam  essent  facultatem  adepti, 
ut  non  aequaUbus  suis  solum  anteponerentur,  sed 
cum  maioribus  natu  compararentur.  Neque  vero 
mihi  quidquam,  inquit,  praestabiHus  videtur,  quam 
posse  dicendo  tenere  hominum  coetus,  mentes 
allicere,  voluntates  impellere  quo  velit ;  unde  autem 
velit,  deducere.  Haec  una  res  in  omni  hbero  populo, 
maximeque  in  pacatis  tranquillisque  civitatibus, 
praecipue  semper  floruit,  semperque  dominata  est. 

31  Quid  enim  est  aut  tam  admirabile,  quam  ex  infinita 
multitudine  hominum  exsistere  unum,  qui  id,  quod 
omnibus  natura  sit  datum,  vel  solus,  vel  cum  paucis 
facere  possit  ?  Aut  tam  iucundum  cognitu  atque 
auditu,  quam  sapientibus  sententiis  gravibusque 
verbis  ornata  oratio  et  poHta  ?  Aut  tam  potens, 
22 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  vii.  28— viii.  31 

little  rivulet '  described  by  Plato  than  to  the  language 
of  his  dialogue — and  what  Socrates  did,  whose  feet 
were  thoroughly  hardened,  when  he  threw  himself 
down  on  the  grass  and  so  began  the  talk  which  philo- 
sophers  say  was  divine, — such  ease  surely  may  more 

29  reasonably  be  conceded  to  my  own  feet."  "  Nay," 
answered  Crassus,  "  but  we  will  make  things  more 
comfortable  still,"  whereupon,  according  to  Cotta,  he 
called  for  cushions,  and  they  all  sat  down  together 
on  the  benches  that  were  under  the  plane-tree. 

VIII.  In  that  place,  as  Cotta  was  fond  of  relating,  xiiesfa:  the 
Crassus  introduced  a  conversation  on  the  pursuit  of  o7or°Ito^°to 
oratory,  with  a  view  to  reheving  all  minds  from  the  society  and 

30  discourse  of  the  day  before.     He  began  by  saying  *''^  ^***®* 
that  Sulpicius  and  Cotta  seemed  not  to  need  exhorta- 

tion  from  him  but  rather  commendation,  seeing  that 
thus  early  they  had  acquired  such  skill  as  not  merely 
to  be  ranked  above  their  equals  in  age,  but  to  be  com- 
parable  with  their  elders.  "  Moreover,"  he  con- 
tinued,  "  there  is  to  my  mind  no  more  excellent  thing 
than  the  power,  by  means  of  oratory,  to  get  a  hold 
on  assemblies  of  men,  win  their  good  will,  direct  their 
inclinations  wherever  the  speaker  wishes,  or  divert 
them  from  whatever  he  wishes.  In  every  free  nation, 
and  most  of  all  in  communities  which  have  attained 
the  enjoyment  of  peace  and  tranquiUity,  this  one  art 
has  always  flourished  above  the  rest  and  ever  reigned 

31  supreme.  For  what  is  so  marvellous  as  that,  out  of 
the  innumerable  company  of  mankind,  a  single  being 
should  arise,  who  either  alone  or  with  a  few  others 
can  make  effective  a  faculty  bestowed  by  nature 
upon  every  man  ?  Or  what  so  pleasing  to  the  under- 
standing  and  the  ear  as  a  speech  adorned  and  polished 
with  wise  reflections  and  dignified  language  ?     Or 

23 


CICERO 

tamque  magnificum,  quam  populi   motus,  iudicum 
religiones,  Senatus  gravitatem,  unius  oratione  con- 

32  verti  ?  Quid  tam  porro  regium,  tam  liberale,  tam 
munificum,  quam  opem  ferre  supplicibus,  excitare 
afilictos,  dare  salutem,  liberare  periculis,  retinere 
homines  in  civitate  ?  Quid  autem  tam  necessarium, 
quam  tenere  semper  arma,  quibus  vel  tectus  ipse 
esse  possis,  vel  provocare  improbos,^  vel  te  ulcisci 
lacessitus  ? 

Age  vero,  ne  semper  forum,  subsellia,  rostra, 
Curiamque  meditere,  quid  esse  potest  in  otio  aut 
iucundius,  aut  magis  proprium  humanitatis,  quam 
sermo  facetus  ac  nuUa  in  re  rudis  ?  Hoc  enim  uno 
praestamus  vel  maxime  feris,  quod  coUoquimur  inter 
nos,   et  quod   exprimere   dicendo   sensa  possumus. 

33  Quam  ob  rem  quis  hoc  non  iure  miretur,  summeque 
in  eo  elaborandum  esse  arbitretur,  ut,  quo  uno 
homines  maxime  bestiis  praestent,  in  hoc  hominibus 
ipsis  antecellat  ?  Ut  vero  iam  ad  illa  summa  venia- 
mus  ;  quae  vis  aHa  potuit  aut  dispersos  homines  unum 
in  locum  congregare,  aut  a  fera  agrestique  vita  ad 
hunc  humanum  cultum  civilemque  deducere,  aut, 
iam  constitutis  civitatibus,  leges,  iudicia,  iura  de- 

34  scribere  ?     Ac,  ne  plura,  quae  sunt  paene  innumera- 

*  improbos  is  the  reading  of  Friedrich /or  the  unintelligibU 
integros  o/  the  better  usa, 

24 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  viii.  31-34 

what  achievement  so  mighty  and  glorious  as  that  the 
impulses  of  the  crowd,  the  consciences  of  the  judges, 
the  austerity  of  the  Senate,  should  sufFer  transforma- 

32  tion  through  the  eloquence  of  one  man  ?  What 
function  again  is  so  kingly,  so  worthy  of  the  free,  so 
generous,  as  to  bring  help  to  the  supphant,  to  raise 
up  those  that  are  cast  down,  to  bestow  security,  to 
set  free  from  peril,  to  maintain  men  in  their  civil 
rights  ?  What  too  is  so  indispensable  as  to  have 
always  in  your  grasp  weapons  wherewith  you  can 
defend  yourself,  or  challenge  the  wicked  man,  or 
when  provoked  take  your  revenge  ? 

"  Nay  more  (not  to  have  you  for  ever  contemplating 
public  afFairs,  the  bench,  the  platform,  and  the  Senate- 
house),  what  in  hours  of  ease  can  be  a  pleasanter  thing 
or  one  more  characteristic  of  culture,  than  discourse 
that  is  graceful  and  nowhere  uninstructed  ?  For  the 
one  point  in  which  we  have  our  very  greatest  advan- 
tage  over  the  brute  creation  is  that  we  hold  converse 
one  with  another,  and  can  reproduce  our  thought  in 

33  word.  Who  therefore  would  not  rightly  admire  this 
faculty,  and  deem  it  his  duty  to  exert  himself  to  the 
utmost  in  this  field,  that  by  so  doing  he  may  surpass 
men  themselves  in  that  particular  respect  wherein 
chiefly  men  are  superior  to  animals  ?  To  come,  how- 
ever,  at  length  to  the  highest  achievements  of  elo- 
quence,  what  other  power  could  have  been  strong 
enough  either  to  gather  scattered  humanity  into  one 
place,  or  to  lead  it  out  of  its  brutish  existence  in  the 
wilderness  up  to  our  present  condition  of  civilization 
as  men  and  as  citizens,  or,  after  the  establishment  of 
social  coramunities,  to  give  shape  to  laws,  tribunals, 

34  and  civic  rights  ?  And  not  to  pursue  any  further 
instances — wellnigh   countless   as   they  are — I  will 

25 


CICERO 

bilia,  consecter,  comprehendam  brevi ;  sic  enim 
statuo,  perfecti  oratoris  moderatione  et  sapientia  non 
solimi  ipsius  dignitatem,  sed  et  privatorum  pluri- 
morum,  et  universae  reipublicae  salutem  maxime 
contineri.  Quam  ob  rem  pergite,  ut  facitis,  adole- 
scentes,  atque  in  id  studium,  in  quo  estis,  in- 
cumbite,  ut  et  vobis  honori,  et  amicis  utilitati,  et 
reipublicae  emolumento  esse  possitis. 

35  IX.  Tum  Scaevola  comiter,  ut  solebat  :  Cetera, 
inquit,  assentior  Crasso,  ne  aut  de  C.  Laelii,  soceri 
mei,  aut  de  huius,  generi,  aut  arte,  aut  gloria  de- 
traham  ;  sed  illa  duo,  Crasse,  vereor,  ut  tibi  possim 
concedere  :  unum,  quod  ab  oratoribus  civitates  et 
ab  initio  constitutas  et  saepe  conservatas  esse  dixisti ; 
alterum,  quod,  remoto  foro,  concione,  iudiciis,  Senatu, 
statuisti,  oratorem  in  omni  genere  sermonis  et  hu- 

36  manitatis  esse  perfectum.  Quis  enim  tibi  hoc  con- 
cesserit,  aut  initio  genus  hominum  in  montibus  ac 
silvis  dissipatum,  non  prudentium  consiliis  com- 
pulsum  potius,  quam  disertorum  oratione  delinitum, 
se  oppidis  moenibusque  sepsisse,  aut  vero  rehquas 
utilitates,  aut  in  constituendis,  aut  in  conservandis 
civitatibus,  non  a  sapientibus  et  fortibus  viris,  sed 

37  a  disertis,  et  ornate  dicentibus  esse  constitutas  ?  An 
vero  tibi  Romulus  ille  aut  pastores  et  convenas  con- 
26 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  viii.  34— ix.  37 

conclude  the  whole  matter  in  a  few  words,  for  my 
assertion  is  this  :  that  the  wise  control  of  the  com- 
plete  orator  is  that  which  chiefly  upholds  not  only 
his  own  dignity,  but  the  safety  of  countless  in- 
dividuals  and  of  the  entire  State.  Go  forward 
therefore,  my  young  friends,  in  your  present  course, 
and  bend  your  energies  to  that  study  which  engages 
you,  that  so  it  may  be  in  your  power  to  become  a 
glory  to  yourselves,  a  source  of  service  to  your 
friends,  and  profitable  members  of  the  Republic." 

35  IX.  Thereupon  Scaevola  observed,  in  his  courteous  Thesis  chai- 
way,  "  On  his  other  points  I  am  in  agreement  with  th°e^achiivl. 
Crassus  (that  I  may  not  disparage  the  art  or  the  ment  of 
renown  of  my  father-in-law  Gaius  Laehus,  or  of  my  q^estioned  ^ 
son-in-law  here),  but  the  two  following,  Crassus,  I  am 

afraid  I  cannot  grant  you  :  first  your  statement  that 
the  oratorswere  they  who  in  the  beginning  established 
social  communities,  and  who  not  seldom  have  pre- 
served  the  same  intact,  secondly  your  pronouncement 
that,  even  if  we  take  no  account  of  the  forum,  of 
popular  assembhes,  of  the  courts  of  justice,  or  of  the 
Senate-house,  the  orator  is  still  complete  over  the 

36  whole  range  of  speech  and  culture.  For  who  is  going 
to  grant  you,  that  in  shutting  themselves  up  in  walled 
cities,  human  beings,  who  had  been  scattered  origin- 
ally  over  mountain  and  forest,  were  not  so  much  con- 
vinced  by  the  reasoning  of  the  wise  as  snared  by  the 
speeches  of  the  eloquent,  or  again  that  the  other 
beneficial  arrangements  involved  in  the  establishment 
or  the  preservation  of  States  were  not  shaped  by  the 
wise  and  valiant  but  by  men  of  eloquence  and  fine 

37  diction  ?  Or  do  you  perhaps  think  that  it  was  by 
eloquence,  and  not  rather  by  good  counsel  and 
singular  wisdom,  that  the  great  Romulus  gathered 

27 


CICERO 

gregasse,  aut  Sabinorum  connubia  coniunxisse,  aut 
finitimorum  vim  repressisse  eloquentia  videtur,  non 
consilio  et  sapientia  singulari  ?  Quid  enim  ?  in  Numa 
Pompilio,  quid  ?  in  Ser.  Tullio, quid  ?  in  ceteris  regibus, 
quorum  multa  sunt  eximia  ad  constituendam  rem- 
publicam,  rium  quod  eloquentiae  vestigium  apparet  ? 
Quid  ?  exactis  regibus  (tametsi  ipsam  exactionem 
mente,  non  lingua,  perfectam  L.  Bruti  esse  cernimus), 
sed  deinceps  omnia,  nonne  plena  consiliorum,  inania 
38  verborum  videmus  ?  Ego  vero  si  velim  et  nostrae 
civitatis  exemplis  uti,  et  aliarum,  plura  proferre 
possim  detrimenta  publicis  rebus,  quam  adiumenta, 
per  homines  eloquentissimos  importata :  sed,  ut 
reliqua  praetermittam,  omnium  mihi  videor,  exceptis, 
Crasse,  vobis  duobus,  eloquentissimos  audisse  Tib. 
et  C.  Sempronios,  quorum  pater,  homo  prudens  et 
gravis,  haudquaquam  eloquens,  et  saepe  aUas,  et 
maxime  censor,  saluti  reipublicae  fuit.  Atque  is  non 
accurata  quadam  orationis  copia,  sed  nutu  atque  verbo 
libertinos  in  urbanas  tribus  transtulit ;  quod  nisi 
fecisset,  rempubHcam,  quam  nunc  vix  tenemus, 
iamdiu  nullam  haberemus.  At  vero  eius  fiUi  diserti, 
et  omnibus  vel  naturae,  vel  doctrinae  praesidiis 
ad  dicendum  parati,  cum  civitatem  vel  paterno 
consilio,  vel  avitis  armis  florentissimam  accepissent, 

"  Ti.  Sempronius  Gracchus,  censor  169  b.c,  enforced  an 
existing  rule.  Freedmen  not  owning  land  worth  at  least 
30,000  HS.  were  limited  to  the  four  city  tribes.  The  restric- 
tion  was  removed,  probably  in  304,  but  was  restored  in  220. 
28 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  ix.  37-38 

together  his  shepherds  and  refugees,  or  brought 
about  marriages  with  the  Sabines,  or  curbed  the 
might  of  the  neighbouring  tribes  ?  Is  there  a  trace 
of  eloquence  to  be  discerned  in  Numa  PompiUus  ? 
Is  there  a  trace  in  Servius  Tulhus  ?  Or  in  the  other 
kings  who  have  contributed  so  much  that  is  excellent 
to  the  building-up  of  the  State  ?  Then  even  after 
the  kings  had  been  driven  forth  (and  we  note  that 
such  expulsion  had  itself  been  accomphshed  by  the 
mind  of  Lucius  Brutus  and  not  by  his  tongue),  do  we 
not  see  how  all  that  foUowed  was  full  of  planning 
38  and  empty  of  talking  ?  For  my  part,  indeed,  should 
I  care  to  use  examples  from  our  own  and  other 
communities,  I  could  cite  more  instances  of  damage 
done,  than  of  aid  given  to  the  cause  of  the  State 
by  men  of  first-rate  eloquence,  but  putting  all  else 
aside,  of  all  men  to  whom  I  have  hstened  except 
you  two,  Crassus,  it  seems  to  me  that  the  most 
eloquent  were  Tiberius  and  Gaius  Sempronius,  whose 
father,  a  man  of  discretion  and  character,  but  no 
speaker  whatever,  was  many  a  time  and  most  particu- 
larly  when  Censor  the  salvation  of  the  common- 
wealth.  Yet  it  was  not  any  studied  flow  of  speech, 
but  a  nod  and  a  word  of  his  that  transferred  the 
freedmen  into  the  city  tribes  *  ;  and  had  he  not  done 
so,  we  should  long  ago  have  lost  the  constitution 
which,  as  it  is,  we  preserve  only  with  difficulty.  His 
sons,  on  the  other  hand,  who  were  accompHshed 
speakers  and  equipped  for  oratory  with  every  ad- 
vantage  of  nature  or  training,  after  they  had  taken 
over  a  State  that  was  flourishing  exceedingly  be- 
cause  of  their  father's  counsels  and  their  ancestors' 
miUtary  achievements,  wrecked  the  commonwealth 
by   the   use  of  this  eloquence  to  which,  according 

29 


CICERO 

ista  praeclara  gubernatrice,  ut  ais,  civitatum,  elo- 
quentia,  rempublicam  dissipaverunt. 

39  X,  Quid  ?  leges  veteres,  moresque  maiorum ; 
quid  ?  auspicia,  quibus  et  ego,  et  tu,  Crasse,  cum 
magna  reipublicae  salute  praesumus  ;  quid  ?  re- 
ligiones  et  caerimoniae  ;  quid  ?  haec  iura  civilia, 
quae  iampridem  in  nostra  familia  sine  uUa  eloquentiae 
laude  versantur  ;  num  aut  inventa  sunt,  aut  cognita, 

40  aut  omnino  ab  oratorum  genere  tractata  ?  Equidem 
et  Ser.  Galbam,  memoria  teneo,  divinum  hominem 
in  dicendo,  et  M.  Aemilium  Porcinam,  et  C.  ipsmn 
Carbonem,  quem  tu  adolescentulus  perculisti,  ig- 
narum  legum,  haesitantem  in  maiorum  institutis, 
rudem  in  iure  civili ;  et  haec  aetas  nostra,  praeter  te, 
Crasse,  qui  tuo  magis  studio,  quam  proprio  munere 
aliquo  disertorum,  ius  a  nobis  civile  didicisti,  quod 
interdum  pudeat,  iuris  ignara  est. 

41  Quod  vero  in  extrema  oratione,  quasi  tuo  iure 
sumpsisti,  oratorem  in  omnis  sermonis  disputatione 
copiosissime  posse  versari,  id,  nisi  hic  in  tuo  regno 
essemus,  non  tulissem,  multisque  praeessem,  qui  aut 
interdicto  tecum  contenderent,  aut  te  ex  iure  manu 
consertum  vocarent,  quod  in  alienas  possessiones  tam 
temere  irruisses. 

42  Agerent  enim  tecum  lege  primum  Pythagorei 
omnes,  atque  Democritici,  ceterique  in  iure  physici 

"  See  Appendix  p.  480.  *  See  Appendix  p.  480» 

*  See  Appendix  p.  480. 

so 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  ix.  38— x.  42 

to  you,  civil  communities  still  look  for  their  chief 
guidance. 

39  X.  "  What  of  our  ancient  ordinances  and  the  cus-  (2)otiier 
toms  of  our  forefathers  ?    What  of  augury,  over  which  cl^izltlon 
you  and  I,  Crassus,  preside,  greatly  to  the  welfare  ™°5?i™; 
of  the  RepubUc  ?     What  of  our  religious  rites  and  ^° 
ceremonies  ?     What  of  those  rules  of  private  law, 

which  have  long  made  their  home  in  our  family, 
though  we  have  no  reputation  for  eloquence  ?  Were 
these  things  contrived  or  investigated  or  in  any  way 

40  taken  in  hand  by  the  tribe  of  orators  ?  Indeed  I 
remember  that  Servius  Galba,  a  man  who  spoke  as  a 
god,  and  Marcus  AemiUus  Porcina  and  Gaius  Carbo 
himself,  whom  you  crushed  in  your  early  manhood, 
were  all  of  them  ignorant  of  the  statutes,  all  at  a 
complete  loss  among  the  institutions  of  our  ancestors, 
all  uninstructed  in  the  law  of  the  Romans ;  and 
except  yourself,  Crassus,  who  rather  from  your  own 
love  of  study,  than  because  to  do  so  was  any  pecuhar 
duty  of  the  eloquent,  have  learned  the  Roman  system 
from  our  family,  this  generation  of  ours  is  unversed 
in  law  to  a  degree  that  sometimes  makes  one  blush. 

41  "  But  as  for  the  claim  you  made  at  the  close  of  your  (3)  the  oniy 
speech,  and  made  as  though  in  your  own  right — that  oratory 
whatever  the  topic  under  discussion,  the  orator  could  the  law 
deal  with  it  in  complete  fuUness — this,  had  we  not  pariiament. 
been  here  in  your  own  domain,  I  would  not  have  borne 

with,  and  I  should  be  at  the  head  of  a  multitude  who 
would  either  fight  you  by  injunction,"  or  summon  you 
to  make  joint  seizure  by  rule  of  court,''  for  so  wantonly 
making  forcible  entry  upon  other  people's  possessions. 

42  "  For,  to  begin  with,  all  the  disciples  of  Pythagoras 
and  Democritus  would  bring  statutory  process " 
against  you,  and  the  rest  of  the  phvsicists  would  assert 

31 


CICERO 

vindicarent,  omati  homines  in  dicendo  et  graves, 
quibuscum  tibi  iusto  sacramento  contendere  non 
liceret.  Urgerent  praeterea  philosophorum  greges, 
iam  ab  illo  fonte  et  capite  Socrate  ;  nihil  te  de  bonis 
rebus  in  vita,  nihil  de  malis,  nihil  de  animi  per- 
motionibus,  nihil  de  hominum  moribus,  nihil  de 
ratione  vitae  didicisse,  nihil  omnino  quaesisse,  nihil 
scire  convincerent ;  et,  cum  universi  in  te  impetum 
fecissent,  tum  singulae  familiae  Utem  tibi  intenderent. 

43  Instaret  Academia,  quae,  quidquid  dixisses,  id  te 
ipsum  negare  cogeret.  Stoici  vero  nostri  disputa- 
tionum  suarum  atque  interrogationum  laqueis  te 
irretitum  tenerent.  Peripatetici  autem  etiam  haec 
ipsa,  quae  propria  oratorum  putas  esse  adiumenta, 
atque  ornamenta  dicendi,  ab  se  peti  vincerent 
oportere  ;  ac  non  solum  mehora,  sed  etiam  multo 
plura  Aristotelem  Theophrastumque  de  his  rebus, 
quam  omnes  dicendi  magistros,  scripsisse  ostenderent. 

44  Missos  facio  mathematicos,  grammaticos,  musicos, 
quorum  artibus  vestra  ista  dicendi  vis  ne  minima 
quidem  societate  contingitur.  Quam  ob  rem  ista 
tanta,  tamque  multa  profitenda,  Crasse,  non  censeo. 
Satis  id  est  magnum,  quod  potes  praestare,  ut  in 
iudiciis  ea  causa,  quamcumque  tu  dicis,  melior  et 
probabilior  esse  videatur ;  ut  in  concionibus  et 
sententiis  dicendis  ad  persuadendum  tua  plurimum 
valeat  oratio  ;  denique  ut  prudentibus  diserte  stultis 


"  See  Appendix  p.  480. 
8« 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  x.  42-44 

their  claims  in  court,  elegant  and  impressive  speakers 
with  whom  you  could  not  strive  and  save  your  stake.'* 
Besides  this,  schools  of  philosophers,  back  to  great 
Socrates  their  fountain-head,  would  beset  you  :  they 
would  demonstrate  that  you  have  learned  nothing 
concerning  the  good  in  Hfe,  or  of  the  evil,  nothing  as 
to  the  emotions  of  the  mind  or  of  human  conduct, 
nothing  of  the  true  theory  of  hving,  that  you  have 
made  no  research  at  all  and  are  wholly  without  under- 
standing  respecting  these  things  ;  and  after  this 
general  assault  upon  you  each  sect  would  launch  its 

43  particular  action  against  you  in  detail.  The  Academy 
would  be  at  your  heels,  compelHng  you  to  deny  in 
terms  your  own  allegation,  whatever  it  might  have 
been.  Then  our  own  friends  the  Stoics  would  hold 
you  entangled  in  the  toils  of  their  wranghngs  and 
questionings.  The  Peripatetics  again  would  prove 
that  it  is  to  them  that  men  should  resort  for  even 
those  very  aids  and  trappings  of  eloquence  which  you 
deem  to  be  the  special  aids  of  orators,  and  would  show 
you  that  on  these  subjects  of  yours  Aristotle  and 
Theophrastus  wrote  not  only  better  but  also  much 
more  than  all  the  teachers  of  rhetoric  put  together. 

44  I  say  nothing  of  the  mathematicians,  men  of  letters 
or  devotees  of  the  Muses,  with  whose  arts  this 
rhetorical  faculty  of  yours  is  not  in  the  remotest 
degree  alhed.  And  so,  Crassus,  I  do  not  think  you 
shouldmake  professions  so  extensiveand  so  numerous. 
What  you  are  able  to  guarantee  is  a  thing  great 
enough,  namely,  that  in  the  courts  whatever  case  you 
present  should  appear  to  be  the  better  and  more 
plausible,  that  in  assemblies  and  in  the  Senate  your 
oratory  should  have  most  weight  in  carrying  the  vote, 
and  lastly,  that  to  the  intelhgent  you  should  seem  to 

33 


CICERO 

etiam  vere  dicere  videaris.  Hoc  amplius  si  quid 
poteris,  non  id  mihi  videbitur  orator,  sed  Crassus  sua 
quadam  propria,  non  communi  oratorum  facultate, 
posse. 

45  XI.  Tum  ille  :  Non  sum,  inquit,  nescius,  Scaevola, 
ista  inter  Graecos  dici  et  disceptari  solere.  Audivi 
enim  summos  homines,  cum  quaestor  ex  Macedonia 
venissem  Athenas,  florente  Academia,  ut  temporibus 
illis  ferebatur,  quod  eam  Charmadas,  et  Chtomachus, 
et  Aeschines  obtinebant.  Erat  etiam  Metrodorus, 
qui  cum  illis  una  ipsum  illum  Carneadem  diligentius 
audierat,  hominem  omnium  in  dicendo,  ut  ferebant, 
acerrimum  et  copiosissimum.  Vigebat  auditor  Pan- 
aetii  illius  tui  Mnesarchus  ;  et  Peripatetici  Critolai 

46  Diodorus.  Multi  erant  praeterea  clari  in  philosophia 
et  nobiles,  a  quibus  omnibus  una  paene  voce  repelli 
oratorem  a  gubernaculis  civitatum,  excludi  ab  omni 
doctrina  rerumque  maiorum  scientia,  ac  tantum  in 
iudicia  et  conciunculas,  tanquam  in  aliquod  pistri- 

47  num,  detrudi  et  compingi  videbam.  Sed  ego  neque 
illis  assentiebar,  neque  harum  disputationum  in- 
ventori  et  principi  longe  omnium  in  dicendo  gravis- 
simo  et  eloquentissimo,  Platoni,  cuius  tum  Athenis 
cum  Charmada  diligentius  legi  Gorgiam  :  quo  in 
libro  in  hoc  maxime  admirabar  Platonem,  quod  mihi 
84, 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  x.  44— xi.  47 

speak  eloquently  and  to  the  ignorant  truthfuUy  as 
well.  If  you  can  achieve  anything  more  than  this, 
therein  you  will  seem  to  me  not  an  orator  but  a 
Crassus,  who  is  making  use  of  some  talent  that  is 
pecuharly  his  own  and  not  common  to  orators  in 
general." 

45  XI.  Then  Crassus  rephed,  "  I  know  very  well,  Scae-  Repiy  to 
vola,  that  these  views  of  yours  are  often  put  forward  funct^i"^*j, 
and  discussed  among  the  Greeks.     For  I  hstened  to  oratoiy 
their  most  eminent  men,  on  my  arrival  in  Athens  ^quf^s*^ 
as  a   quaestor   from    Macedonia,   at   a   time  when  science, 
the  Academy  was  at  its  best,  as  was  then  asserted,  requires 
with  Charmadas,  Chtomachus  and  Aeschines  to  up-  «'yie. 
hold  it.     There  was  also  Metrodorus,  who,  together 

with  the  others,  had  been  a  really  dihgent  disciple 
of  the  illustrious  Carneades  himself,  a  speaker  who, 
for  spirited  and  copious  oratory,  surpassed,  it  was 
said,  all  other  men.  Mnesarchus  too  was  in  his 
prime,  a  pupil  of  your  great  Panaetius,  and  Diodorus, 

46  who  studied  under  Critolaus  the  Peripatetic.  There 
were  many  others  besides,  of  distinguished  fame  as 
philosophers,  by  all  of  whom,  with  one  voice  as  it 
were,  I  perceived  that  the  orator  was  driven  from 
the  helm  of  State,  shut  out  from  all  learning  and 
knowledge  of  more  important  things,  and  thrust 
down  and  locked  up  exclusively  in  law-courts  and 
petty  httle   assembhes,   as  if   in  a   pounding-mill. 

47  But  I  was  neither  in  agreement  with  these  men,  nor 
with  the  author  and  originator  of  such  discussions, 
who  spoke  with  far  more  weight  and  eloquence  than 
all  of  them — I  mean  Plato — whose  Gorgias  I  read 
with  close  attention  under  Charmadas  during  those 
days  at  Athens,  and  what  impressed  me  most  deeply 
about  Plato  in  that  book  was,  that  it  was  when  making 

35 


CICERO 

in  oratoribus  irridendis  ipse  esse  orator  summus  vide- 
batur.  Verbi  enim  controversia  iamdiu  torquet 
Graeculos    homines,    contentionis    cupidiores    quam 

48  veritatis.  Nam  si  quis  hunc  statuit  esse  oratorem, 
qui  tantummodo  in  iure,  aut  in  iudiciis  possit,  aut 
apud  populum,  aut  in  senatu  copiose  loqui,  tamen 
huic  ipsi  multa  tribuat  et  concedat  necesse  est,  neque 
enim  sine  multa  pertractatione  omnium  rerum 
publicarum,  neque  sine  legum,  morum,  iuris  scientia, 
neque  natura  hominum  incognita,  ac  moribus,  in  his 
ipsis  rebus  satis  callide  versari  et  perite  potest.  Qui 
autem  haec  cognoverit,  sine  quibus  ne  illa  quidem 
minima  in  causis  quisquam  recte  tueri  potest,  quid 
huic  abesse  poterit  de  maximarum  rerum  scientia  ? 
Sin  oratoris  nihil  vis  esse,  nisi  composite,  ornate, 
copiose  eloqui  :  quaero,  id  ipsum  qui  possit  assequi 
sine  ea  scientia,  quam  ei  non  conceditis  ?  Dicendi 
enim  virtus,  nisi  ei,  qui  dicit,  ea,  de  quibus  dicit, 

49  percepta  sint,  exstare  non  potest.  Quam  ob  rem,  si 
ornate  locutus  est,  sicut  fertur,  et  mihi  videtur, 
physicus  ille  Democritus  :  materies  illa  fuit  physici, 
de  qua  dixit ;  ornatus  vero  ipse  verborum,  oratoris 
putandus  est.  Et,  si  Plato  de  rebus  a  civiUbus  con- 
troversiis  remotissimis  divinitus  est  locutus,  quod  ego 
concedo  ;  si  item  Aristoteles,  si  Theophrastus,  si 
36 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xi.  47-49 

fun  of  orators  that  he  himself  seemed  to  me  to  be 
the  consummate  orator.  In  fact  controversy  about  a 
word  has  long  tormented  those  Greeklings,  fonder  as 

48  they  are  of  argument  than  of  truth,  For,  if  anyone 
lays  it  down  that  an  orator  is  a  man  whose  sole  power 
is  that  of  speaking  copiously  before  the  Praetor  or 
at  a  trial,  or  in  the  pubhc  assembly  or  the  Senate- 
house,  none  the  less  even  to  an  orator  thus  Umited 
such  critic  must  grant  and  allow  a  number  of  attri- 
butes,  inasmuch  as  without  extensive  handUng  of  all 
pubhc  business,  without  a  mastery  of  ordinances, 
customs  and  general  law,  without  a  knowledge  of 
human  nature  and  character,  he  cannot  engage,  with 
the  requisite  cleverness  and  skill,  even  in  these  re- 
stricted  activities.  But  to  a  man  who  has  learned 
these  things,  without  which  no  one  can  properly 
ensure  even  those  primary  essentials  of  advocacy, 
can  there  be  anything  lacking  that  belongs  to  the 
knowledge  of  the  highest  matters  ?  If,  on  the  other 
hand,  you  would  narrow  the  idea  of  oratory  to  nothing 
but  the  speaking  in  ordered  fashion,  gracefuUy  and 
copiously,  how,  I  ask,  could  your  orator  attain  even 
so  much,  if  he  were  to  lack  that  knowledge  whereof 
you  people  deny  him  the  possession  ?  For  excellence  in 
speaking  cannot  be  made  manifest  unless  the  speaker 
fuUy   comprehends    the   matter   he    speaks    about. 

49  It  foUows  that,  if  the  famous  natural  philosopher 
Democritus  spoke  with  elegance,  as  he  is  reported 
and  appears  to  me  to  have  spoken,  those  notable 
subjects  of  his  discourse  belonged  to  the  natural 
philosopher,  but  his  actual  elegance  of  diction  must  be 
put  down  to  the  orator.  And  if  Plato  spoke  with  the 
voice  of  a  god  of  things  very  far  away  from  pohtical 
debate,  as  I  allow  that  he  did,  if  again  Aristotle  and 

87 


CICERO 

Carneades  in  rebus  eis,  de  quibus  disputaverunt, 
eloquentes,  et  in  dicendo  suaves,  atque  ornati 
fuerunt :  sint  hae  res,  de  quibus  disputant,  in  aliis 
quibusdam  studiis  ;  oratio  quidem  ipsa  propria  est 
huius  unius  rationis,  de  qua  loquimur  et  quaerimus. 
50  Etenim  videmus,  eisdem  de  rebus  ieiune  quosdam  et 
exiliter,  ut  eum,  quem  acutissimum  ferunt,  Chrys- 
ippum,  disputavisse,  neque  ob  eam  rem  philosophiae 
non  satisfecisse,  quod  non  habuerit  hanc  dicendi  ex 
arte  ahena  facultatem. 

XII.  Quid  ergo  interest  ?  aut  qui  discernes  eorum, 
quos  nominavi,  ubertatem  in  dicendo  et  copiam  ab 
eorum  exihtate,  qui  hac  dicendi  varietate  et  elegantia 
non  utuntur  ?  Unum  erit  profecto,  quod  ei,  qui  bene 
dicunt,  afferant  proprium  :  compositam  orationem, 
et  ornatam,  et  artificio  quodam  et  expohtione  dis- 
tinctam.  Haec  autem  oratio,  si  res  non  subest  ab 
oratore  percepta  et  cognita,  aut  nulla  sit  necesse  est, 

61  aut  omnium  irrisione  ludatur.  Quid  est  enim  tam 
furiosum,  quam  verborimi,  vel  optimorum  atque 
ornatissimorum,  sonitus  inanis,  nulla  subiecta  sen- 
tentia,  nec  scientia  ?  Quidquid  erit  igitur  qua- 
cumque  ex  arte,  quocumque  de  genere,  id  orator,  si, 
tanquam  cHentis  causam,  didicerit,  dicet  melius  et 
ornatius,  quam  ille  ipse  eius  rei  inventor  atque  artifex. 

62  Nam  si  quis  erit,  qui  hoc  dicat,  esse  quasdam  ora- 
88 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xi.  49— xii.  52 

Theophrastus  and  Carneades,  on  the  themes  which 
they  treated,  were  eloquent  and  displayed  charm  of 
style  and  Uterary  form,  then,  granting  that  the  topics 
of  their  discourse  may  be  found  in  certain  other  fields 
of  research,  yet  their  actual  style  is  the  pecuhar  pro- 
duct  of  this  pursuit  which  we  are  now  discussing  and 
50  investigating,  and  of  no  other,  For  we  see  that 
sundry  authorities  dealt  with  these  same  subjects 
in  spiritless  and  feeble  fashion,  Chrysippus  for  in- 
stance,  reputed  as  he  is  to  have  been  the  most  acute 
of  disputants,  and  not  to  have  failed  to  meet  the 
requirements  of  philosophy  just  because  he  had  not 
acquired  this  gift  of  eloquence  from  an  aUen  art. 

XII.  "  What  then  is  the  difference,  or  by  what 
means  will  youdiscriminate  between  the  rich  and  copi- 
ous  diction  of  those  speakers  whom  I  have  mentioned, 
and  the  feebleness  of  such  as  do  not  adopt  this  variety 
and  elegance  of  language  ?  The  sole  distinction  will 
surely  be  that  the  good  speakers  bring,  as  their 
peculiar  possession,  a  style  that  is  harmonious,  grace- 
ful,  and  marked  by  a  certain  artistry  and  pohsh.  Yet 
this  style,  if  the  underlying  subject-matter  be  not 
comprehended  and  mastered  by  the  speaker,  must 
inevitably  be  of  no  account  or  even  become  the  sport 

61  of  universal  derision.  For  what  so  efFectually  pro- 
claims  the  madman  as  the  hollow  thundering  of  words 
— be  they  never  so  choice  and  resplendent — which 
have  no  thought  or  knowledge  behind  them  ?  There- 
fore  whatever  the  theme,  from  whatever  art  or  what- 
ever  branch  of  knowledge  it  be  taken,  the  orator,  just 
as  if  he  had  got  up  the  case  for  a  client,  will  state  it 
better  and  more  gracefully  than  the  actual  discoverer 

62  and  the  speciahst.  For  if  anyone  is  going  to  affirm 
that  there  are  certain  ideas  and  subjects  which  speci- 

S9 


CICERO 

torum  proprias  sententias  atque  causas,  et  certarum 
rerum  forensibus  cancellis  circumscriptam  scientiam : 
fatebor  equidem  in  his  magis  assidue  versari  hanc 
nostram  dictionem  ;  sed  tamen  in  his  ipsis  rebus 
permulta  sunt,  quae  isti  magistri,  qui  rhetorici  vocan- 

63  tur,  nec  tradunt,  nec  tenent.  Quis  enim  nescit, 
maximam  vim  exsistere  oratoris  in  hominum  men- 
tibus  vel  ad  iram,  aut  ad  odium,  aut  ad  dolorem 
incitandis,  vel  ab  hisce  eisdem  permotionibus  ad 
lenitatem  misericordiamque  revocandis  ?  Quare,  nisi 
qui  naturas  hominum,  vimque  omnem  humanitatis, 
causasque  eas,  quibus  mentes  aut  incitantur,  aut 
reflectuntur,    penitus    perspexerit,    dicendo,    quod 

54  volet,  perficere  non  poterit.  Atqui  totus  hic  locus 
philosophorum  proprius  videtur  ;  neque  orator,  me 
auctore,  unquam  repugnabit :  sed,  cimi  illis  cogni- 
tionem  rerum  concesserit,  quod  in  ea  solum  ilH 
voluerint  elaborare  ;  tractationem  orationis,  quae 
sine  illa  scientia  nulla  est,  sibi  assumet.  Hoc  enim 
est  proprium  oratoris,  quod  saepe  iam  dixi,  oratio 
gravis,  et  ornata,  et  hominum  sensibus  ac  mentibus 
accommodata. 

65  XIII.  Quibus  de  rebus  Aristotelem  et  Theo- 
phrastum  scripsisse  fateor :  sed  vide,  ne  hoc,  Scae- 
vola,  totum  sit  a  me  ;  nam  ego,  quae  sunt  oratori  cum 
ilUs  communia,  non  mutuor  ab  ilUs  ;  isti,  quae  de  his 
rebus   disputant,  oratorum   esse  concedunt,  itaque 

40 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xii.  52— xiii.  55 

ally  belong  to  orators,  and  certain  matters  whereof 
the  knowledge  is  railed-off  behind  the  barriers  of 
the  Courts,  while  I  will  admit  that  these  oratorical 
activities  of  ours  are  exercised  within  this  area  with 
less  intermission  than  elsewhere,  nevertheless  among 
these  very  topics  there  are  points  in  abundance  which 
even  the  so-called  professors  of  rhetoric  neither  teach 
63  nor  understand.  Who  indeed  does  not  know  that  the 
orator's  virtue  is  pre-eminently  manifested  either  in 
rousing  men's  hearts  to  anger,  hatred,  or  indignation, 
or  in  recaUing  them  from  these  same  passions  to  mild- 
ness  and  mercy  ?  Wherefore  the  speaker  will  not  be 
able  to  achieve  what  he  wants  by  his  words,  unless 
he  has  gained  profound  insight  into  the  characters  of 
men,  and  the  whole  range  of  human  nature,  and 
those  motives  whereby  our  souls  are  spurred  on  or 

54  turned  back.  And  all  this  is  considered  to  be  the 
special  province  of  philosophers,  nor  will  the  orator,  if 
he  take  my  advice,  resist  their  claim  ;  but  when  he 
has  granted  their  knowledge  of  these  things,  since 
they  have  devoted  all  their  labour  to  that  alone,  still 
he  will  assert  his  own  claim  to  the  oratorical  treat- 
ment  of  them,  which  without  that  knowledge  of  theirs 
is  nothing  at  all.  For  this  is  the  essential  concern  of 
the  orator,  as  I  have  often  said  before, — a  style  that 
is  dignified  and  graceful  and  in  conformity  with  the 
general  modes  of  thought  and  judgement. 

55  XIII.  "  And  while  I  acknowledge  that  Aristotle  and  Rtefcoric  la 
Theophrastus  have  written  about  all  these  things,  ^  ^*''®"'*®' 
yet  consider,  Scaevola,  whether  it  is  not  wholly  in 

my  favour,  that,  whereas  I  do  not  borrow  from  them 
the  things  that  they  share  with  the  orator,  they  on 
their  part  grant  that  their  discussions  on  these  sub- 
jects  are  the  orator's  own,  and  accordingly  they 
r  41 


CICERO 

ceteros  libros  artis  isti  suae  nomine,  hos  Rhetoricos 
C6  et  inscribunt,  et  appellant.  Etenim  cum  illi  in 
dicendo  inciderint  loci  (quod  persaepe  evenit),  ut 
de  diis  immortalibus,  de  pietate,  de  concordia,  de 
amicitia,  de  communi  civium,  de  hominum,  de  gen- 
tium  iure,  de  aequitate,  de  temperantia,  de  magni- 
tudine  animi,  de  omni  virtutis  genere  sit  dicendum, 
clamabunt,  credo,  omnia  gymnasia,  atque  omnes 
philosophorum  scholae,  sua  haec  esse  omnia  propria  ; 
nihil  omnino  ad  oratorem  pertinere.  Quibus  ego, 
ut  de  his  rebus  omnibus  in  angulis,  consumendi 
otii  causa,  disserant,  cum  concessero,  illud  tamen 
oratori  tribuam  et  dabo,  ut  eadem,  de  quibus  illi 
tenui  quodam  exsanguique  sermone  disputant,  hic 
57  cum  omni  gravitate  et  iucunditate  explicet.  Haec 
ego  cum  ipsis  philosophis  tum  Athenis  disserebam, 
cogebat  enim  me  M.  Marcellus  hic  noster,  qui  nunc 
aedilis  curulis  est ;  et  profecto,  nisi  ludos  nunc 
faceret,  huic  nostro  sermoni  interesset ;  ac  iam  tvun 
erat  adolescentulus  his  studiis  mirifice  deditus. 
68  lam  vero  de  legibus  instituendis,  de  bello,  de  pace, 
de  sociis,  de  vectigahbus,  de  iure  civiU  generatim 
in  ordines  aetatesque  descripto,  dicant  vel  Graeci, 
si  volunt,  Lycurgum,  aut  Solonem  (quanquam  illos 
quidem  censemus  in  numero  eloquentium  reponendos) 
scisse  melius,  quam  Hyperidem,  aut  Demosthenem, 
perfectos  iam   homines  in  dicendo,   et  perpolitos  ; 

"  The  '  curule '  aediles  were  distinguished  from  the  aediles 
plebis  by  their  right  to  use  the  aella  curulis  and  the  toga 
praetexta. 

42 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xiii.  55-58 

entitle  and  designate  all  their  other  treatises  by 
some  name  taken  from  their  distinctive  art,  but  these 

66  particular  books  as  dealing  with  Rhetoric.  And  in- 
deed  when,  while  a  man  is  speaking — as  often  happens 
— such  commonplaces  have  cropped  up  as  demand 
some  mention  of  the  immortal  gods,  of  dutifulness, 
harmony,  or  friendship,  of  the  rights  shared  by  citi- 
zens,  by  men  in  general,  and  by  nations,  of  fair-deal- 
ing,  moderation  or  greatness  of  soul,  or  virtue  of  any 
and  every  kind,  all  the  academies  and  schools  of 
philosophy  will,  I  do  beheve,  raise  the  cry  that  all 
these  matters  are  their  exclusive  province,  and  in  no 
way  whatever  the  concem  of  the  orator.  But  when 
I  have  allowed  that  they  may  debate  these  subjects 
in  their  holes  and  corners,  to  pass  an  idle  hour,  it  is 
to  the  orator  none  the  less  that  I  shall  entrust  and 
assign  the  task  of  developing  with  complete  charm 
and  cogency  the  same  themes  which  they  discuss  in  a 

67  sort  of  thin  and  bloodless  style.  These  points  I  used 
to  argue  at  Athens  ynth.  the  philosophers  in  person, 
under  pressure  from  our  friend  Marcus  Marcellus, 
who  is  now  Aedile  of  the  Chair,"  and  assuredly,  if  he 
were  not  at  this  moment  producing  the  Games,  would 
be  taking  part  in  our  present  colloquy  ;  indeed  even 
in  those  days  of  his  early  youth  his  devotion  to  these 
studies  was  marvellous. 

68  "  But  now  as  regards  the  institution  of  laws,  as  Exposition 
regards  war  and  peace,  allies  and  public  dues,  and  ^^**^*^^ 
the  legal  rights  assigned  to  classes  of  citizens  accord-  knowiedge 
ing  to  variations  of  rank  and  age,  let  the  Greeks  say,  ^^^  ^*^^®* 
if  they  please,  that  Lycurgus  and  Solon  (although  I 

hold  that  they  should  be  rated  as  eloquent)  were 
better  informed  than  Hyperides  or  Demosthenes, 
who  were  really  accomplished  and  highly  pohshed 

4S 


CICERO 

vel  nostri  decemviros,  qui  Duodecim  Tabulas  per- 
scripserunt,  quos  necesse  est  fuisse  prudentes,  ante- 
ponant  in  hoc  genere  et  Ser.  Galbae,  et  socero  tuo 
C.  Laelio,  quos  constat  dicendi  gloria  praestitisse. 

59  Nunquam  enim  negabo,  esse  quasdam  artes  proprias 
eorum,  qui  in  his  cognoscendis  atque  tractandis 
studium  suum  omne  posuerunt ;  sed  oratorem 
plenum  atque  perfectum  esse  eum  dicam,  qui  de 
omnibus  rebus  possit  varie  copioseque  dicere. 

XIV.  Etenim  saepe  in  eis  causis,  quas  omnes  pro- 
prias  esse  oratorum  confitentur,  est  aliquid,  quod  non 
ex  usu  forensi,  quem  solum  oratoribus  conceditis,  sed 
ex  obscuriore  aliqua  scientia  sit  promendum  atque 

60  sumendum.  Quaero  enim,  num  possit  aut  contra 
irnperatorem,  aut  pro  imperatore  dici  sine  rei  mili- 
taris  usu,  aut  saepe  etiam  sine  regionum  terrestrium 
aut  maritimarum  scientia  ;  num  apud  populum  de 
legibus  iubendis,  aut  vetandis  ;  num  in  Senatu  de 
omni  reipubhcae  genere  dici  sine  summa  rerum 
civilium  cognitione,  et  prudentia ;  num  admoveri 
possit  oratio  ad  sensus  animorum  atque  motus  vel 
inflammandos,  vel  etiam  exstinguendos  (quod  unum 
in  oratore  dominatur),  sine  diligentissima  pervestiga- 
tione  earum  omnium  rationum,  quae  de  naturis  hu- 
mani  generis  ac  moribus  a  philosophis  explicantur. 

61  Atque  haud  scio,  an  minus  hoc  vobis  sim  proba- 
44 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xiii.  58— xiv.  61 

orators  ;  or  let  our  own  folk  prefer  in  this  regard 
the  Ten  Commissioners — who  wrote  out  the  Twelve 
Tables  and  were  necessarily  men  of  practical  wisdom 
— to  Servius  Galba  and  your  father-in-law  Gaius 
LaeHus,  whose  outstanding  renown  for  eloquence  is 
69  estabhshed.  For  never  will  I  say  that  there  are  not 
certain  arts  belonging  exclusively  to  those  who  have 
employed  all  their  energies  in  the  mastery  and  exer- 
cise  thereof,  but  my  assertion  will  be  that  the  com- 
plete  and  finished  orator  is  he  who  on  any  matter 
whatever  can  speak  with  fullness  and  variety. 

XIV.  "  Indeed  in  handUng   those   causes    which  xhe  orator 
everybody  acknowledges  to  be  within  the  exclusive  ^^^  ^^^"^ 
sphere  of  oratory,  there  is  not  seldom  something  to 
be  brought  forth  and  employed,  not  from  practice  in 
public  speaking — the  only  thing  you  allow  the  orator 
— but  from  some  more  abstruse  branch  of  knowledge. 

60  I  ask,  for  instance,  whether  an  advocate  can  either 
assail  or  defend  a  commander-in-chief  without  ex- 
perience  of  the  art  of  war,  or  sometimes  too  without 
knowledge  of  the  various  regions  of  land  or  sea  ? 
Whether  he  can  address  the  popular  assembly  in 
favour  of  the  passing  or  rejection  of  legislative  pro- 
posals,  or  the  Senate  concerning  any  of  the  depart- 
ments  of  State  administration,  if  he  lack  consummate 
knowledge  —  practical  as  well  as  theoretical  —  of 
political  science  ?  Whether  a  speech  can  be  directed 
to  inflaming  or  even  repressing  feeUng  and  passion 
— a  faculty  of  the  first  importance  to  the  orator — 
unless  the  speaker  has  made  a  most  careful  search 
into  all  those  theories  respecting  the  natural  char- 
acters  and  the  habits  of  conduct  of  mankind,  which 
are  unfolded  by  the  philosophers  ? 

61  "  And  I  rather  think  I  shaU  come  short  of  convincing 

45 


CICERO 

turus  ;  equidem  non  dubitabo,  quod  sentio,  dicere  : 
physica  ista  ipsa,  et  mathematica,  et  quae  paulo  ante 
ceterarum  artium  propria  posuisti,  scientiae  sunt 
eorum,  qui  illa  profitentur,  illustrare  autem  ora- 
tione  si  quis  istas  ipsas  artes  velit,  ad  oratoris  ei 

62  confugiendum  est  facultatem.  Neque  enim,  si  Phi- 
lonem  illimi  architectum,  qui  Atheniensibus  arma- 
mentarium  fecit,  constat,  perdiserte  populo  rationem 
operis  sui  reddidisse,  existimandum  est,  architecti 
potius  artificio  disertum,  quam  oratoris,  fuisse.  Nec, 
si  huic  M.  Antonio  pro  Hermodoro  fuisset  de  navalium 
opere  dicendum,  non,  cum  ab  illo  causam  didicisset, 
ipse  ornate  de  alieno  artificio  copioseque  dixisset. 
Neque  vero  Asclepiades  is,  quo  nos  medico  amicoque 
usi  sumus,  tum,  cum  eloquentia  vincebat  ceteros 
medicos,  in  eo  ipso,  quod  ornate  dicebat,  medicinae 

63  facultate  utebatur,  non  eloquentiae.  Atque  illud 
est  probabilius,  neque  tamen  verum,  quod  Socrates 
dicere  solebat,  omnes  in  eo,  quod  scirent,  satis  esse 
eloquentes  ;  illud  verius,  neque  quemquam  in  eo 
disertiun  esse  posse,  quod  nesciat ;  neque,  si  id 
optime  sciat,  ignarusque  sit  faciundae  ac  pohendae 
orationis,  diserte  id  ipsum  posse,  de  quo  sciat,  dicere. 

64  XV.  Quam  ob  rem,  si  quis  universam  et  propriam 
oratoris  vim  definire  complectique  vult,  is  orator  erit, 
mea  sententia,  hoc  tam  gravi  dignus  nomine,  qui, 
46 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xiv.  61— xv.  64 

you  on  my  next  point — at  all  events  I  will  not  hesitate  science  and 
to  speak  my  mind  :  your  natural  science  itself,  your  phWosophy 
mathematics,  and  other  studies  which  just  now  you  to  oratory 
reckoned  as  belonging  peculiarly  to  the  rest  of  the  ^°^  ^^^'^*  • 
arts,  do  indeed  pertain  to  the  knowledge  of  their 
professors,  yet  if  anyone  should  wish  by  speaking  to 
put  these  same  arts  in  their  fuU  Hght,  it  is  to  oratorical 

62  skill  that  he  must  run  for  help.  If,  again,  it  is  estab- 
lished  that  Philo,  that  master-builder  who  constructed 
an  arsenal  for  the  Athenians,  described  the  plan  of 
his  work  very  eloquently  to  the  people,  his  eloquence 
must  be  ascribed  not  to  his  architectural,  but  rather 
to  his  oratorical  ability.  So  too,  if  Marcus  Antonius 
here  had  had  to  speak  on  behalf  of  Hermodorus  upon 
the  construction  of  dockyards,  having  got  up  his  case 
from  his  client,  he  would  then  have  discoursed  grace- 
fully  and  copiously  of  an  art  to  which  he  was  not  a 
stranger.  Asclepiades  also,  he  with  whom  we  have 
been  famiUar  both  as  physician  and  as  friend,  at  the 
time  when  he  was  surpassing  the  rest  of  his  profession 
in  eloquence,  was  exhibiting,  in  such  graceful  speak- 

63  ing,  the  skill  of  an  orator,  not  that  of  a  physician.  In 
fact  that  favourite  assertion  of  Socrates — that  every 
man  was  eloquent  enough  upon  a  subject  that  he 
knew — has  in  it  some  plausibiHty  but  no  truth  :  it 
is  nearer  the  truth  to  say  that  neither  can  anyone  be 
eloquent  upon  a  subject  that  is  unknown  to  him,  nor, 
if  he  knows  it  perfectly  and  yet  does  not  know  how 
to  shape  and  pohsh  his  style,  can  he  speak  fluently 
even  upon  that  which  he  does  know. 

64  XV.  "  Accordingly,  should  anyone  wish  to  define  in  xhe  orator 
a  comprehensive  manner  the  complete  and  special  ?*°  ^et  up 
meaning  of  the  word,  he  will  be  an  orator,  in  my  caiities,  but 
opinion  worthy  of  so  dignified  a  title,  who,  whatever  ^®  ™*"*  ^ 

47 


CICERO 

quaecumque  res  inciderit,  quae  sit  dictione  expli- 
canda,  prudenter,  et  composite,  et  ornate,  et  me- 
moriter  dicat,  cum  quadam  etiam  actionis  dignitate. 

65  Sin  cuipiam  nimis  infinitum  videtur  quod  ita  posui, 
'  quacumque  de  re,'  licet  hinc,  quantum  cuique  vi- 
debitur,  circumcidat  atque  amputet :  tamen  illud  te- 
nebo,  si,  quae  ceteris  in  artibus  aut  studiis  sita  sunt, 
orator  ignoret,  tantumque  ea  teneat,  quae  sint  in 
disceptationibus,  atque  in  usu  forensi ;  tamen  his  de 
rebus  ipsis  si  sit  ei  dicendum,  cum  cognoverit  ab  eis, 
qui  tenent,  quae  sint  in  quaque  re,  multo  oratorem 
melius,  quam  ipsos  illos,  quorum  eae  sunt  artes,  esse 

gg  dicturum.  Ita  si  de  re  militari  dicendum  huic  erit 
Sulpicio,  quaeret  a  C.  Mario  affini  nostro,  et,  cum 
acceperit,  ita  pronuntiabit,  ut  ipsi  C.  Mario  paene 
hic  melius,  quam  ipse,  illa  scire  videatur  ;  sin  de  iure 
civili,  tecum  communicabit,  teque  hominem  pru- 
dentissimum  et  peritissimum  in  eis  ipsis  rebus,  quas 

g7  abs  te  didicerit,  dicendi  arte  superabit.  Sin  quae 
res  inciderit,  in  qua  de  natura,  de  vitiis  hominum, 
de  cupiditatibus,  de  modo,  de  continentia,  de  dolore, 
de  morte  dicendum  sit  ;  forsitan,  si  ei  sit  visum  (etsi 
haec  quidem  nosse  debet  orator),  cum  Sex.  Pompeio, 
erudito  homine  in  philosophia,  communicarit ;  hoc 
profecto   efficiet,  ut,   quamcumque   rem   a   quoque 

48 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xv.  64-67 

the  topic  that  crops  up  to  be  unfolded  in  discourse,  vorsed  in 
will  speak  thereon  with  knowledge,  method,  charm  ^nd  morai 
and  retentive  memory,combiningwith  these  qualifica-  science. 

65  tions  a  certain  distinction  of  bearing.  If  however 
someone  considers  my  expression  '  whatever  the 
topic  '  to  be  altogether  too  extensive,  he  may  clip 
and  prune  it  to  his  individual  taste,  but  to  this  much 
I  shall  hold  fast — though  the  orator  be  ignorant  of 
what  is  to  be  found  in  all  the  other  arts  and  branches 
of  study,  and  know  only  what  is  dealt  with  in  debate 
and  the  practice  of  pubhc-speaking  ;  none  the  less, 
if  he  should  have  to  discourse  even  on  these  other 
subjects,  then  after  learning  the  technicalities  of  each 
from  those  who  know  the  same,  the  orator  will  speak 
about  them  far  better  than  even  the  men  who  are 

66  masters  of  these  arts.  For  example,  should  our 
friend  Sulpicius  here  have  to  speak  upon  the  art  of 
war,  he  will  inquire  of  our  relative  Gaius  Marius,  and 
when  he  has  received  his  teachings,  will  dehver  him- 
self  in  such  fashion  as  to  seem  even  to  Gaius  Marius 
to  be  almost  better  informed  on  the  subject  than 
Gaius  Marius  himself ;  while  if  his  topic  is  to  be  the 
law  of  private  rights,  he  will  consult  yourself  and, 
notwithstanding  your  consummate  learning  and 
skill  in  these  very  things  which  you  have  taught  him, 

67  he  will  surpass  you  in  the  art  of  exposition.  If  again 
some  matter  should  confront  him  wherein  he  must 
speak  of  human  nature,  human  vices  or  the  passions, 
of  moderation  or  self-control,  of  sorrow  or  death,  then 
perhaps  if  he  thinks  fit — although  an  orator  must  have 
knowledge  of  such  things — he  will  have  taken  counsel 
with  Sextus  Pompeius,  a  man  accomphshed  in  moral 
science  ;  so  much  he  will  assuredly  achieve,  that 
whatever  his  subject  and  whoever  his  instructor,  on 

49 


CICERO 

cognorit,  de  ea  multo  dicat  ornatius,  quam  ille  ipse, 
"^  unde  cognorit.  Sed  si  me  audierit,  quoniam  philo- 
sophia  in  tres  partes  est  tributa,  in  naturae  obscuri- 
tatem,  in  disserendi  subtilitatem,  in  vitam  atque 
mores  ;  duo  illa  relinquamus,  idque  largiamur  in- 
ertiae  nostrae  :  tertium  vero,  quod  semper  oratoris 
fuit,  nisi  tenebimus,  nihil  oratori,  in  quo  magnus  esse 

69  possit,  rehnquemus.  Quare  hic  locus  de  vita  et 
moribus  totus  est  oratori  perdiscendus  :  cetera  si  non 
didicerit,  tamen  poterit,  si  quando  opus  erit,  ornare 
dicendo,  si  modo  erunt  ad  eum  delata,  et  tradita. 

XVI.  Etenim  si  constat  inter  doctos,  hominem 
ignarum  astrologiae,  Aratum  omatissimis  atque  op- 
timis  versibus,  de  coelo  stellisque  dixisse  ;  si  de  rebus 
rusticis  hominem  ab  agro  remotissimum,  Nicandrum 
Colophonium,  poetica  quadam  facultate,  non  rustica, 
scripsisse  praeclare  :  quid  est,  cur  non  orator  de 
rebus    eis    eloquentissime    dicat,   quas    ad    certam 

70  causam  tempusque  cognorit  ?  Est  enim  finitimus 
oratori  poeta,  numeris  astrictior  paulo,  verborum 
autem  Hcentia  Uberior,  multis  vero  ornandi  generibus 
socius,  ac  paene  par  ;  in  hoc  quidem  certe  prope 
idem,  nuUis  ut  terminis  circumscribat  aut  definiat 


50 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xv.  67— xvi.  70 

that  subject  he  will  express  himself  far  more  graee- 

68  fully  than  his  master  himself.  Nevertheless,  if  he 
will  listen  to  me,  since  philosophy  is  divided  into 
three  branches,  which  respectively  deal  with  the 
mysteries  of  nature,  with  the  subtleties  of  dialectic, 
and  with  human  hfe  and  conduct,  let  us  quit  claim 
to  the  first  two,  by  way  of  concession  to  our  indolence, 
but  unless  we  keep  our  hold  on  the  third,  which  has 
ever  been  the  orator's  province,  we  shall  leave  the 

69  orator  no  sphere  wherein  to  attain  greatness.  For 
which  reason  this  division  of  philosophy,  concerned 
with  human  Ufe  and  manners,  must  all  of  it  be 
mastered  by  the  orator  ;  as  for  the  other  matters, 
even  though  he  has  not  studied  them,  he  will  still  be 
able,  whenever  the  necessity  arises,  to  beautify  them 
by  his  eloquence,  if  only  they  are  brought  to  his 
notice  and  described  to  him. 

XVI.  "  Indeed  if  it  is  agreed  in  learned  circles  that  The  orator, 
a  man  who  knew  no  astronomy — Aratus  to  wit — has  pggt  ^gg^g 
sung  of  the  heavenly  spaces  and  the  stars  in  verse  of  ^T'^^^.. 
consummate  finish  and  excellence,  and  that  another 
who  was  a  complete  stranger  to  country  Hfe,  Nicander 
of  Colophon,  has  written  with  distinction  on  rural 
affairs,  using  something  of  a  poet's  skill  and  not  that 
of  a  farmer,  what  reason  is  there   why  an  orator 
should   not   discourse   most   eloquently   conceming 
those  subjects  which  he  has  conned  for  a  specific 

70  argument  and  occasion  ?  The  truth  is  that  the  poet 
is  a  very  near  kinsman  of  the  orator,  rather  more 
heavily  fettered  as  regards  rh^rthm,  but  with  ampler 
freedom  in  his  choice  of  words,  while  in  the  use  of 
many  sorts  of  ornament  he  is  his  ally  and  ahnost  his 
counterpart ;  in  one  respect  at  all  events  something 
like  identity  exists,  since  he  sets  no  boundaries  or 

51 


CICERO 

ius  suum,  quo  minus  ei  liceat  eadem  illa  facultate  et 
71  copia  vagari,  qiia  velit.  Namque  quod  illud,  Scae- 
vola,  negasti  te  fuisse  laturum,  nisi  in  meo  regno 
esses,  quod  in  omni  genere  sermonis,  in  omni  parte 
humanitatis  dixerim  oratorem  perfectum  esse  debere, 
nunquam  mehercule  hoc  dicerem,  si  eum,  quem  fin- 
.72  go,  me  ipsum  esse  arbitrarer.  Sed,  ut  solebat  C.  Lu- 
cilius  saepe  dicere,  homo  tibi  subiratus,  mihi  propter 
eam  ipsam  causam  minus,  quam  volebat,  familiaris, 
sed  tamen  et  doctus,  et  perurbanus,  sic  sentio,  nemi- 
nem  esse  in  oratorum  numero  habendum,  qui  non 
sit  omnibus  eis  artibus,  quae  sunt  Ubero  dignae,  per- 
politus  ;  quibus  ipsis,  si  in  dicendo  non  utimur, 
tamen  apparet  atque  exstat,  utrum  simus  earum 
73  rudes,  an  didicerimus.  Ut,  qui  pila  ludunt,  non 
utuntur  in  ipsa  lusione  artificio  proprio  palaestrae, 
sed  indicat  ipse  motus,  didicerintne  palaestram,  an 
nesciant ;  et  qui  aliquid  fingunt,  et  si  tum  pictura 
nihil  utuntur,  tamen,  utrum  sciant  pingere,  an 
nesciant,  non  obscurum  est :  sic  in  orationibus  hisce 
ipsis  iudiciorum,  concionum,  Senatus,  etiamsi  proprie 
ceterae  non  adhibentur  artes,  tamen  facile  declaratur, 
utrvun  is,  qui  dicat,  tantummodo  in  hoc  declamatorio 

52 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xvi.  70-73 

limits  to   his  claims,  such    as  would   prevent   him 
from  ranging  whither   he  will  with  the  same  free- 

71  dom  and  hcence  as  the  other.  For  with  regard 
to  your  remark,  Scaevola,  that,  had  you  not  been 
in  my  domain,  you  would  not  have  endured  my 
assertion  that  the  orator  must  be  accompHshed 
in  every  kind  of  discourse  and  in  every  depart- 
ment  of  culture,  I  should  certainly  never  have 
made  that  assertion,  did  I  consider  myself  to    be 

72  the  man  I  am  endeavouring  to  portray.  But,  as 
was  often  said  by  Gaius  Lucihus — who  was  not 
altogether  pleased  with  you,  and  for  that  very  reason 
less  intimate  with  myself  than  he  wished,  but  for  ali 
that  an  instructed  critic  and  thorough  gentleman  of 
the  city — my  opinion  is  this,  that  no  one  should  be 
numbered  with  the  orators  who  is  not  accompHshed 
in  all  those  arts  that  befit  the  well-bred  ;  for  though 
we  do  not  actually  parade  these  in  our  discourse,  it 
is  none  the  less  made  clear  to  demonstration  whether 
we  are  strangers  to  them  or  have  learned  to  know 

73  them.  Just  as  ball-players  do  not  in  their  game 
itself  employ  the  characteristic  dexterity  of  the 
gymnasium,  and  yet  their  very  movements  show 
whether  they  have  had  such  training  or  know  nothing 
of  that  art ;  and,  just  as,  in  the  case  of  those  who  are 
portraying  anything,  even  though  at  the  moment 
they  are  making  no  use  of  the  painter's  art,  there  is 
none  the  less  no  difficulty  in  seeing  whether  or  not 
they  know  how  to  paint ;  even  so  is  it  with  these 
same  speeches  in  the  Courts,  the  popular  assembly 
and  the  Senate-house — granting  that  the  other  arts 
may  not  be  specially  brought  into  play,  still  it  is  made 
easily  discernible  whether  the  speaker  has  merely 
floundered  about  in  this  declamatory  business   or 

53 


CICERO 

sit  opere  iactatus,  an  ad  dicendum  omnibus  ingenuis 
artibus  instructus  accesserit. 

74  XVII.  Tum  ridens  Scaevola  :  Non  luctabor,  inquit, 
tecum,  Crasse,  amplius.  Id  enim  ipsum,  quod  contra 
me  locutus  es,  artificio  quodam  es  consecutus,  ut  et 
mihi,  quae  ego  vellem  non  esse  oratoris,  concederes  ; 
et  ea  ipsa,  nescio  quomodo,  rursus  detorqueres,  atque 

75  oratori  propria  traderes.  Haec,  cum  ego  praetor 
Rhodum  venissem,  et  cum  summo  illo  doctore  istius 
disciplinae  Apollonio,  ea,  quae  a  Panaetio  acceperam, 
contulissem  :  irrisit  ille  quidem,  ut  solebat,  philoso- 
phiam,  atque  contempsit,  multaque  non  tam  graviter 
dixit,  quam  facete,  tua  autem  fuit  oratio  eiusmodi, 
non  ut  uUam  artem  doctrinamve  contemneres,  sed 
ut  omnes  comites  ac  ministras  oratoris  esse  diceres. 

76  Quas  ego,  si  quis  sit  unus  complexus  omnes,  idemque 
si  ad  eas  facultatem  istam  ornatissimae  orationis 
adiunxerit ;  non  possum  dicere,  eum  non  egregium 
quemdam  hominem  atque  admirandum  fore,  sed  is, 
si  quis  esset,  aut  si  etiam  unquam  fuisset,  aut  vero 
si  esse  posset,  tu  esses  unus  profecto  ;  qui  et  meo 
iudicio,   et    omnium,   vix    ullam    ceteris   oratoribus 

77  (pace  horum  dixerim)  laudem  reliquisti.  Verum  si 
tibi  ipsi  nihil  deest,  quod  in  forensibus  rebus,  civi- 
libusque  versetur,  quin  scias,  neque  eam  tamen 
scientiam,  quam  adiungis  oratori,  complexus  es ; 
54 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xvi.  73— xvii.  77 

whether,  before   approaching   his   task    of  oratory, 
he  has  been  trained  in  all  the  hberal  arts." 

74  XVII.  At  this  point  Scaevola  smiUngly  declared  :  The 

"  Crassus,  I  will  strive  with  you  no  longer.  For,  in  chalienged* 
this  very  speech  you  have  made  against  me,  you  have 
by  some  trick  so  managed  matters  as  both  to  grant 
me  what  I  said  did  not  belong  to  the  orator,  and  then 
somehow  or  another  to  wrest  away  these  things  again 
and  hand  them  over  to  the  orator  as  his  absolute 

75  property.  And  as  regards  these  subjects,  when  on 
my  arrival  in  Rhodes  as  praetor  I  discussed  with 
Apollonius,  that  supreme  master  of  this  science  of 
rhetoric,  the  things  that  I  had  learned  from  Panaetius, 
he  as  usual  jeered  at  philosophy  and  expressed  con- 
tempt  for  it  and  talked  at  large  in  a  vein  more  grace- 
ful  than  serious  ;  whereas  your  argument  has  been 
of  such  a  kind  that  you  not  only  refrained  from 
despising  any  of  the  arts  or  sciences,  but  described 
them  all  as  the  attendants  and  handmaids  of  oratory. 

76  And  for  my  own  part,  if  ever  any  one  man  should  have 
mastered  all  of  them,  and  that  same  man  should  have 
united  with  them  this  added  power  of  perfectly  grace- 
ful  expression,  I  cannot  deny  that  he  would  be  a 
remarkable  kind  of  man  and  worthy  of  admiration ; 
but  if  such  a  one  there  should  be,  or  indeed  ever 
has  been,  or  really  ever  could  be,  assuredly  you 
would  be  that  one  man,  who  both  in  my  opinion  and 
in  that  of  everyone  else,  have  left  all  other  orators — 
if  they  will  pardon  my  saying  so — almost  without 

77  glory.  But  if  you  yourself,  while  lacking  nothing  of 
the  knowledge  that  has  to  do  with  law-court  speak- 
ing  and  pohtics,  have  nevertheless  not  mastered 
the  further  learning  which  you  associate  with 
the   orator,   let   us   see  whether   you  may  not   be 

55 


CICERO 

videamus,  ne  plus  ei  tribuas,  quam  res  et  veritas  ipsa 
concedat. 

78  Hic  Crassus :  Memento,  inquit,  me  non  de  mea, 
sed  de  oratoris  facultate  dixisse.  Quid  enim  nos  aut 
didicimus,  aut  scire  potuimus,  qui  ante  ad  agendum, 
quam  ad  cognoscendum  venimus  ;  quos  in  foro,  quos 
in  ambitione,  quos  in  republica,  quos  in  amicorum 
negotiis,  res  ipsa  ante  confecit,  quam  possemus  aliquid 

79  de  rebus  tantis  suspicari  ?  Quod  si  tibi  tantum  in 
nobis  videtur  esse,  quibus  etiamsi  ingenium,  ut  tu 
putas,  non  maxime  defuit,  doctrina  certe,  et  otium, 
et  hercule  etiam  studium  illud  discendi  acerrimum 
defuit :  quid  censes,  si  ad  alicuius  ingenium  vel 
maius  illa,  quae  ego  non  attigi,  accesserint .''  qualem 
illum,  et  quantum  oratorem  futurum  ? 

80  XVIII.  Tum  Antonius  :  Probas  mihi,  inquit,  ista, 
Crasse,  quae  dicis  ;  nec  dubito,  quin  multo  locupletior 
in  dicendo  futurus  sit,  si  quis  omnium  rerum  atque 

81  artium  rationem  naturamque  comprehenderit.  Sed 
primum  id  difficile  est  factu,  praesertim  in  hac  nostra 
vita,  nostrisque  occupationibus  ;  deinde  illud  etiam 
verendum  est,  ne  abstrahamur  ab  hac  exercitatione, 
et  consuetudine  dicendi  populari,  et  forensi.  Aliud 
enim  mihi  quoddam  genus  orationis  esse  videtur 
eorum  hominum,  de  quibus  paulo  ante  dixisti,  quamvis 
illi  ornate  et  graviter,  aut  de  natura  rerum,  aut  de 
humanis  rebus  loquantur  :    nitidum  quoddam  genus 

56 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xvii.  77— xviii.  81 

attributing  to  him  more  than  the  real  facts  of  the 
case  allow." 

78  Here  Crassus  interposed  :  "  Remember  that  I  have  but 

not  been  speaking  of  my  own  skill,  but  of  that  of  fg  ^ ""l^gai, 
an  orator.  For  what  have  men  Uke  myself  either 
learned  or  had  any  chance  of  knowing,  who  entered 
upon  practice  before  ever  we  reached  the  study  of 
theory,  whom  our  professional  activities  in  pubhc 
speaking,  in  the  pursuit  of  ofRce,  in  pohtics,  and 
about  the  afFairs  of  our  friends,  wore  out  ere  we 
could  form  any  conception  of  the  importance  of  these 

79  other  matters  ?  But  if  you  find  such  excellence  in 
me  who,  if  perhaps — as  you  hold — I  have  not  been 
completely  wanting  in  abihty,  have  assuredly  been 
wanting  in  learning  and  leisure  and  (to  tell  the  truth) 
in  the  requisite  enthusiasm  for  instruction  as  well, 
what  think  you  would  be  the  quaUty  and  stature  of 
an  orator  in  whom  all  that  I  have  not  attained  should 
be  combined  with  abihty  such  asmy  own  or  greater  ?  " 

80  XVIII.  Thereupon  Antonius  observed  :  "  Crassus,  This  ideai 
to  my  mind  you  establish  your  case,  and  I  do  not  chaUenged 
doubt  that,  if  a  man  has  grasped  the  principles  and  as  un- 
nature  of  every  subject  and  of  every  art,  he  will  in  and^un^^ 
consequence  be  far  better  equipped  as  a  speaker.  attainabie. 

81  But  in  the  first  place  such  knowledge  is  hard  to  win, 
especially  in  the  life  we  lead,  and  amid  the  engage- 
ments  that  are  ours,  and  then  again  there  is  the 
danger  of  our  being  led  away  from  our  traditional 
practice  of  speaking  in  a  style  acceptable  to  the 
commonalty  and  suited  to  advocacy.  For  it  seems 
to  me  that  the  eloquence  of  these  men,  to  whom  you 
referred  just  now,  is  of  an  entirely  difFerent  kind, 
albeit  they  speak  gracefully  and  cogently,  either  upon 
natural  philosophy  or  upon  the  affairs  of  mankind  : 

57 


CICERO 

est  verborum  et  laetum,  sed  palaestrae  magis  et  olei, 

82  quam  huius  civilis  turbae  ac  fori,  Namque  egomet, 
qui  sero,  ac  leviter  Graecas  litteras  attigissem,  tamen 
cum  pro  consule  in  Ciliciam  proficiscens  Athenas 
venissem,  complures  tum  ibi  dies  sum  propter  navi- 
gandi  difficultatem  commoratus  :  sed,  cum  quotidie 
mecum  haberem  homines  doctissimos,  eos  fere  ipsos, 
qui  abs  te  modo  sunt  nominati,  cumque  hoc,  nescio 
quomodo,  apud  eos  increbruisset,  me  in  causis  ma- 
ioribus,  sicuti  te,  solere  versari,  pro  se  quisque  ut 
poterat,  de  officio  et  ratione  oratoris  disputabat. 

83  Horum  alii,  sicut  iste  ipse  Mnesarchus,  hos,  quos 
nos  oratores  vocaremus,  nihil  esse  dicebat,  nisi 
quosdam  operarios,  lingua  celeri  et  exercitata ; 
oratorem  autem,  nisi  qui  sapiens  esset,  esse  neminem  ; 
atque  ipsam  eloquentiam,  quod  ex  bene  dicendi 
scientia  constaret,  unam  quamdam  esse  virtutem,  et 
qui  unam  virtutem  haberet,  omnes  habere,  easque 
esse  inter  se  aequales  et  pares  :  ita,  qui  esset 
eloquens,  eum  virtutes  omnes  habere,  atque  esse 
sapientem.  Sed  haec  erat  spinosa  quaedam  et  exilis 
oratio,    longeque    a    nostris     sensibus    abhorrebat. 

84  Charmadas  vero  multo  uberius  eisdem  de  rebus 
loquebatur  :  non  quo  aperiret  sententiam  suam  ;  hic 
enim  mos  erat  patrius  Academiae,  adversari  semper 
omnibus  in  disputando ;  sed  cum  maxime  tamen 
hoc  significabat,  eos,  qui  rhetores  nominarentur,  et 

"  Mnesarchus  represents  the  Stoics,  whose  fundamental 
doctrine  of  the  unity  and  coequality  of  all  virtues  implies 
that  the  philosopher  alone  can  be  an  orator. 

58 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xviii.  81-84 

theirs  is  a  polishedand  flowery  sort  of  diction,redolent 
rather  of  the  training-school  and  its  suppHng-oil 

82  than  of  our  poHtical  hurly-burly  and  of  the  Bar.  For 
— when  I  think  of  it — although  it  was  late  in  hfe  and 
only  hghtly  that  I  came  into  touch  with  Greek  htera- 
ture,  still,  when  on  my  journey  to  Cihcia  as  proconsul 
I  reached  Athens,  I  tarried  there  for  several  days  by 
reason  of  the  difficulty  in  putting  to  sea  :  at  any  rate, 
as  I  had  about  me  daily  the  most  learned  men,  pretty 
nearly  the  same  as  those  whom  you  have  lately  men- 
tioned,  a  rumour  having  somehow  spread  among 
them  that  I,  just  hke  yourself,  was  usually  engaged 
in  the  more  important  causes,  every  one  of  them  in 
his  turn  contributed  what  he  could  to  a  discussion 
on  the  function  and  method  of  an  orator. 

83  "  Some  of  them  were  for  maintaining,  as  did  your 
authority  Mnesarchus"  himself,  that  those  whom  we 
called  orators  were  nothing  but  a  sort  of  artisans  with 
ready  and  practised  tongues,  whereas  no  one  was  an 
orator  save  the  wise  man  only,  and  that  eloquence 
itself,  being,  as  it  was,  the  science  of  speaking  well, 
was  one  type  of  virtue,  and  he  who  possessed  a  single 
virtue  possessed  all  of  them,  and  the  virtues  were  of 
the  same  rank  and  equal  one  with  another,  from  which 
it  followed  that  the  man  of  eloquence  had  every 
virtue  and  was  a  wise  man.  But  this  was  a  thorny 
and  dry  sort  of  language,  and  entirely  out  of  harmony 

84  with  anything  we  thought.  Charmadas,  however, 
would  speak  far  more  copiously  upon  the  same  topics, 
not  that  heintended  thereby  to  reveal  his  ownopinion, 
— it  being  an  accepted  tradition  of  the  Academy 
always  and  against  all  comers  to  be  of  the  opposition 
in  debate — just  then,  however,  he  was  pointing  out 
that  those  who  were  styled  rhetoricians  and  pro- 

59 


CICERO 

qui  dicendi  praecepta  traderent,  nihil  plane  tenere, 
neque  posse  quemquam  facultatem  assequi  dicendi, 
nisi  qui  philosophorum  inventa  didicisset. 

85  XIX.  Disputabant  contra  diserti  homines,  Atheni- 
enses,  et  in  repubhca  causisque  versati,  in  quis  erat 
etiam  is,  qui  nuper  Romae  fuit,  Menedemus,  hospes 
meus ;  qui  cum  diceret  esse  quamdam  prudentiam, 
quae  versaretur  in  perspiciendis  rationibus  constituen- 
darum  et  regendarum  rerum  pubhcarum,  excitabatur 
homo  promptus  atque  omni  abundans  doctrina,  et 
quadam  incredibili  varietate  rerum  et  copia.  Omnes 
enim  partes  ilUus  ipsius  prudentiae  petendas  esse  a 
philosophia  dicebat,  neque  ea,  quae  statuerentur  in 
repubhca  de  diis  immortaUbus,  de  disciplina  iuven- 
tutis,  de  iustitia,  de  patientia,  de  temperantia,  de 
modo  rerum  omnium,  ceteraque,  sine  quibus  civitates 
aut  esse,  aut  bene  moratae  esse  non  possent,  usquam 

86  in  eorum  inveniri  UbelUs.  Quod  si  tantam  vim  rerum 
maximarum  arte  sua  rhetorici  iUi  doctores  complecte- 
rentur,  quaerebat,  cur  de  prooemiis,  et  de  epilogis,  et 
de  huiusmodi  nugis  (sic  enim  appellabat)  referti 
essent  eorum  Ubri ;  de  civitatibus  instituendis,  de 
scribendis  legibus,  de  aequitate,  de  iustitia,  de  fide, 
de  frangendis  cupiditatibus,  de  conformandis  ho- 
minum  moribus,  Uttera  in  eorum  Ubris  nuUa  inveni- 

87  retur .''  Ipsa  vero  praecepta  sic  iUudere  solebat,  ut 
ostenderet,  non  modo  eos  ilUus  expertes  esse  pru- 


■  Charmadas  of  the  Academy, 
60 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xviii.  84— xix.  87 

pounded  rules  of  eloquence,  had  no  clear  compre- 
hension  of  anything,  and  that  no  man  could  attain 
skill  in  speaking  unless  he  had  studied  the  discoveries 
of  the  philosophers. 

85  XIX.  "  Certain  Athenians,  accomplished  speakers  Reportof 
and  experienced  in  politics  and  at  the  Bar,  argued  on  ^^^^^^} 
the  other  side,  among  them  too  being  that  Mene- is  therea 
demus,  who  was  lately  in  Rome  as  my  guest  ;    and  thetodc"^ 
when  he  asserted  that  there  was  a  special  sort  of  or  does 
wisdom,  which  had  to  do  with  investigating  the  prin-  depe^nd  on 
ciples  of  founding  and  governing  pohtical  communities,  aptitude 
this  roused  up  a  man  of  quick  temper  "  and  full  to  over-  practicet 
flowing  of  learning  of  every  kind  and  a  really  in- 
credible  diversity  and  multiplicity  of  facts.       For  he 
proceeded  to  inform  us  that  every  part  of  this  same 
wisdom  had  to  be  sought  from  philosophy,  nor  were 

those  institutions  in  a  State  which  dealt  with  the  im- 
mortal  gods,  the  training  of  youth,  justice,  endurance, 
self-control,  or  moderation  in  all  things,  or  the  other 
principles  without  which  States  could  not  exist  or  at 
any  rate  be  well-conditioned,  to  be  met  with  any- 

86  where  in  the  paltry  treatises  of  rhetoricians,  Where- 
as,  if  those  teachers  of  rhetoric  embraced  within  their 
art  so  vast  a  multitude  of  the  noblest  themes,  how 
was  it,  he  inquired,  that  their  books  were  stuffed  full 
of  maxims  relating  to  prefaces,  perorations  and  similar 
trumpery — for  so  did  he  describe  them — while  con- 
cerning  the  organization  of  States,  or  the  drafting  of 
laws,  or  on  the  topics  of  fair-deahng,  justice,  loyalty, 
or  the  subduing  of  the  passions  or  the  building  of 
human  character,  not  a  syllable  was  to  be  found  in 

87  their  pages  ?  But  as  for  their  actual  rules  he  would 
scofF  at  them  by  showing  that  not  only  were  their 
authors  devoid  of  that  wisdom  which  they  arrogated 

61 


CICERO 

dentiae,  quam  sibi  adsciscerent,  sed  ne  hanc  quidem 
ipsam  dicendi  rationem  ac  viam  nosse.  Caput  enim 
esse  arbitrabatur  oratoris,  ut  et  ipsis,  apud  quos 
ageret,  talis,  qualem  se  ipse  optaret,  videretur  ;  id 
fieri  vitae  dignitate,  de  qua  nihil  rhetorici  isti  doctores 
in  praeceptis  suis  reliquissent :  et  uti  eorum,  qui 
audirent,  sic  afficerentur  animi,  ut  eos  affici  vellet 
orator ;  quod  item  fieri  nullo  modo  posse,  nisi 
cognosceret  is,  qui  diceret,  quot  modis  hominum 
mentes,  et  quibus  rebus,  et  quo  genere  orationis  in 
quamque  partem  moverentur ;  haec  autem  esse 
penitus  in  media  philosophia  retrusa  atque  abdita  ; 
quae  isti  rhetores  ne  primoribus  quidem  labris  at- 

88  tigissent.  Ea  Menedemus  exemplis  magis,  quam 
argvunentis,  conabatur  refellere  :  memoriter  enim 
multa  ex  orationibus  Demosthenis  praeclare  scripta 
pronuntians,  docebat,  illum  in  animis  vel  iudicum, 
vel  popuh,  in  omnem  partem  dicendo  permovendis, 
non  fuisse  ignarum,  quibus  ea  rebus  consequeretur, 
quae  negaret  ille  sine  philosophia  quemquam  scire 
posse. 

89  XX.  Huic  ille  respondebat,  non  se  negare,  Demo- 
sthenem  summam  prudentiam  summamque  vim 
habuisse  dicendi ;  sed  sive  ille  hoc  ingenio  potuisset, 
sive,  id  quod  constaret,  Platonis  studiosus  audiendi 
fuisset ;  non,  quid  ille  potuisset,  sed  quid  isti 
62 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xix.  87— xx.  89 

to  themselves,  but  they  were  ignorant  even  of  the 
true  principles  and  methods  of  eloquence.  For  he 
was  of  opinion  that  the  main  object  of  the  orator  was 
that  he  should  both  appear  himself,  to  those  before 
whom  he  was  pleading,  to  be  such  a  man  as  he  would 
desire  to  seem  (an  end  to  be  attained  by  a  reputable 
mode  of  Ufe,  as  to  which  those  teachers  of  rhetoric 
had  left  no  hint  among  their  instructions),  and  that 
the  hearts  of  his  hearers  should  be  touched  in  such 
fashion  as  the  orator  would  have  them  touched  (an- 
other  purpose  only  to  be  achieved  by  a  speaker  who 
had  investigated  all  the  ways  wherein,  and  all  the 
allurements  and  kind  of  diction  whereby,  the  judge- 
ment  of  men  might  be  inclined  to  this  side  or  to  that)  ; 
but  according  to  him  such  knowledge  lay  thrust  away 
and  buried  deep  in  the  very  heart  of  philosophy,  and 
those  rhetoricians  had  not  so  much  as  tasted  it  with  the 

88  tip  of  the  tongue.  These  assertions  Menedemus  would 
strive  to  disprove  by  quoting  instances  rather  than  by 
arguments,  for,  while  reciting  from  his  ready  recoUec- 
tion  many  magnificent  passages  from  the  speeches  of 
Demosthenes,  he  would  demonstrate  how  that  orator, 
when  by  his  eloquence  he  was  compelling  the  passions 
of  the  judges  or  of  the  people  to  take  any  direction 
he  chose,  knew  well  enough  by  what  means  to  attain 
results  which  Charmadas  would  say  that  no  one  could 
compass  without  the  aid  of  philosophy. 

89  XX.  "  To  this  Charmadas  replied  that  he  did  not 
deny  to  Demosthenes  the  possession  of  consummate 
wisdom  and  the  highest  power  of  eloquence,  but 
whether  Demosthenes  owed  this  ability  to  natural 
talent  or,  as  was  generally  agreed,  had  been  a 
devoted  disciple  of  Plato,  the  present  question  was 
not  what  Demosthenes  could  do,  but  what  those 

63 


CICERO 

90  docerent,  esse  quaerendum.  Saepe  etiam  in  eam 
partem  ferebatur  oratione,  ut  omnino  disputaret, 
nullam  artem  esse  dicendi  :  idque  cum  argumentis 
docuerat,  quod  ita  nati  essemus,  ut  et  blandiri,  et 
suppliciter  insinuare  eis,  a  quibus  esset  petendum, 
et  adversarios  minaciter  terrere  possemus,  et  rem 
gestam  exponere,  et  id,  quod  intenderemus,  con- 
firmare,  et  id,  quod  contra  diceretur,  refellere,  et  ad 
extremum  deprecari  aliquid,  et  conqueri  ;  quibus  in 
rebus  omnis  oratorum  versaretur  facultas  ;  et  quod 
consuetudo  exercitatioque  et  intellegendi  prudentiam 
acueret,   et   eloquendi   celeritatem   incitaret  :    tum 

91  etiam  exemplorum  copia  nitebatur.  Nam  primum, 
quasi  dedita  opera,  neminem  scriptorem  artis  ne 
mediocriter  quidem  disertum  fuisse  dicebat,  cum 
repeteret  usque  a  Corace  nescio  quo,  et  Tisia,  quos 
artis  illius  inventores  et  principes  fuisse  constaret ; 
eloquentissimos  autem  homines,  qui  ista  nec  didi- 
cissent,  nec  omnino  scire  curassent,  innumerabiles 
quosdam  nominabat ;  in  quibus  etiam  (sive  ille 
irridens,  sive  quod  ita  putaret,  atque  ita  audisset), 
me  in  illo  numero,  qui  illa  non  didicissem,  et  tamen 
(ut  ipse  dicebat)  possem  aliquid  in  dicendo,  profere- 
bat.  Quorum  illi  alterum  facile  assentiebar,  nihil 
me  didicisse  ;  in  altero  autem  me  illudi  ab  eo,  aut 

'  For  Corax  and  Tisias  see  Index.     By  using  the  words 
nescio  quo  Antonius  affects  ignorance  of  literary  hibtory. 

64 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xx.  90-91 

90  rhetoricians  were  teaching.  More  than  once  too  he 
was  carried  so  far  away  by  his  discourse  as  to  argue 
that  there  was  no  such  thing  as  an  art  of  eloquence  ; 
and  after  showing  this  by  arguments — because,  as 
he  said,  we  were  born  with  an  aptitude  ahke  for 
coaxing  and  unctuously  steahng  into  favour  with 
those  from  whom  a  boon  had  to  be  sought,  and  for 
daunting  our  antagonists  by  threats,  for  setting  forth 
how  a  deed  was  done,  and  estabHshing  our  own 
charges  and  disproving  the  allegations  of  the  other 
side,  and  for  making,  in  the  closing  words  of  a 
speech,  some  use  of  protest  and  lamentation  (in 
which  operations  he  declared  that  every  resource  of 
the  orator  was  brought  into  play),  and  because  habit 
and  practice  sharpened  the  edge  of  discernment  and 
quickened  the  fluency  of  dehvery,  then  he  would  also 

91  support  his  case  by  an  abundance  of  instances.  For 
in  the  first  place  (he  would  say)  not  a  single  writer  on 
rhetoric — it  looked  as  if  of  set  purpose — had  been 
even  moderately  eloquent,  and  he  searched  all  the 
way  back  to  the  days  of  one  Corax  <*  and  a  certain 
Tisias  who,  he  stated,  were  acknowledged  to  have 
been  the  founders  and  first  practitioners  of  this 
art,  while  on  the  other  hand  he  would  cite  a 
countless  host  of  very  eloquent  men  who  had  never 
learned  these  rules  or  been  at  all  anxious  to  make 
their  acquaintance  ;  and  among  these — whether  in 
jest  or  because  he  thought  so  and  had  even  so  heard 
— he  went  on  to  mention  me  in  the  hst,  as  one  who 
had  never  studied  those  matters  and  yet  (according 
to  him)  had  some  ability  in  oratory.  To  one  of  these 
points  of  his — that  I  had  never  learned  anything — I 
readily  agreed,  but  as  to  the  other  I  considered  that 
he  was  either  making  game  of  me  or  was  even  himself 

65 


CICERO 

92  etiam  ipsum  errare  arbitrabar.  Artem  vero  negabat 
esse  ullam,  nisi  quae  cognitis,  penitusque  perspectis, 
et  in  uniun  exitum  spectantibus,  et  nunquam 
fallentibus  rebus  contineretur  ;  haec  autem  omnia, 
quae  tractarentur  ab  oratoribus,  dubia  esse  et 
incerta  ;  cum  et  dicerentur  ab  eis,  qui  ea  omnia 
non  plane  tenerent,  et  audirentur  ab  eis,  quibus  non 
scientia  esset  tradenda,  sed  exigui  temporis  aut  falsa, 

93  aut  certe  obscura  opinio.  Quid  multa  ?  sic  mihi 
tum  persuadere  videbatur,  neque  artificium  ullum 
esse  dicendi,  neque  quemquam  posse,  nisi  qui  illa, 
quae  a  doctissimis  hominibus  in  philosophia  dice- 
rentur,  cognosset,  aut  caUide  aut  copiose  dicere.  In 
quibus  dicere  Charmadas  solebat,  ingenium  tuum, 
Crasse,  vehementer  admirans,  me  sibi  perfacilem  in 
audiendo,  te  perpugnacem  in  disputando  esse  visum. 

94  XXI.  Tumque  ego,  hac  eadem  opinione  adductus, 
scripsi  etiam  illud  quodam  in  hbello,  qui  me  im- 
prudente  et  invito  excidit,  et  pervenit  in  manus 
hominum,  disertos  me  cognosse  nonnuUos,  eloquen- 
tem  adhuc  neminem  :  quod  eum  statuebam  disertum, 
qui  posset  satis  acute,  atque  dilucide,  apud  mediocres 
homines  ex  communi  quadam  opinione  dicere ;  elo- 
quentem  vero,  qui  mirabiUus  et  magnificentius  augere 
posset  atque  ornare,  quae  veUet,  omnesque  omnium 
rerum,  quae  ad  dicendum  pertinerent,  fontes  animo 
ac  memoria  contineret.     Id  si  est  difficile  nobis,  qui 

66 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xx.  92— xxi.  94, 

92  mistaken.  He  said,  however,  that  there  was  no 
'  art '  which  did  not  consist  in  the  knowledge  and 
clear  perception  of  facts,  all  tending  to  a  single  con- 
clusion  and  incapable  of  misleading  ;  but  everything 
with  which  orators  dealt  was  doubtful  and  uncertain, 
since  all  the  talking  was  done  by  men  who  had  no  real 
grasp  of  their  subject,  and  all  the  hstening  by  hearers 
who  were  not  to  have  knowledge  conveyed  to  them, 
but  some  short-Uved  opinion  that  was  either  untrue 

93  or  at  least  not  clear.  In  a  word,  he  then  looked  hke 
persuading  me  that  no  craft  of  oratory  existed,  and 
that  no  one  could  speak  with  address  or  copiously 
unless  he  had  mastered  the  philosophical  teachings 
of  the  most  learned  men.  And  in  these  discussions 
Charmadas  was  wont  to  speak  with  warm  admiration 
of  your  talents,  Crassus,  explaining  that  he  found  in 
me  a  very  ready  Ustener,  in  yourself  a  most  doughty 
antagonist. 

94  XXI.  "  And  so,  won  over  by  these  same  views,  I  Reai 
actually  wrote  down  in  a  little   pamphlet — which  u^qowiT 
slipped  abroad  without  my  knowledge  or  consent  and 

got  into  the  hands  of  the  pubhc — the  statement  that 
I  had  known  sundry  accomphshed  speakers,  but  no 
one  so  far  who  was  eloquent,  inasmuch  as  I  held  any- 
one  to  be  an  accompHshed  speaker  who  could  deUver 
his  thought  with  the  necessary  point  and  clearness 
before  an  everyday  audience,  and  in  accord  with  what 
I  might  call  the  mental  outlook  of  the  average  human 
being,  whereas  I  allowed  the  possession  of  eloquence 
to  that  man  only  who  was  able,  in  a  style  more 
admirable  and  more  splendid,  to  amphfy  and  adom 
any  subject  he  chose,  and  whose  mind  and  memory 
encompassed  all  the  sources  of  everything  that  con- 
cerned  oratory.     If  this  is  a  hard  matter  for  ourselves, 

67 


CICERO 

ante  quam  ad  discendum  ingressi  sumus,  obruimur 
ambitione  et  foro  ;    sit  tamen  in  re  positum  atque 

95  natura.  Ego  enim,  quantum  auguror  coniectura, 
quantaque  ingenia  in  nostris  hominibus  esse  video, 
non  despero  fore  aliquem  aliquando,  qui  et  studio 
acriore,  quam  nos  sumus  atque  fuimus,  et  otio  ac 
facultate  discendi  maiore  ac  maturiore,  et  labore 
atque  industria  superiore,  cum  se  ad  audiendum, 
legendum,  scribendumque  dediderit,  exsistat  talis 
orator,  qualem  quaerimus ;  qui  iure  non  solum 
disertus,  sed  etiam  eloquens  dici  possit :  qui  tamen, 
mea  sententia,  aut  hic  est  iam  Crassus,  aut,  si  quis 
pari  fuerit  ingenio  pluraque  quam  hic  et  audierit 
et  lectitarit  et  scripserit,  paulum  huic  aliquid  poterit 
addere. 

96  Hoc  loco  Sulpicius  :  Insperanti  mihi,  inquit,  et 
Cottae,  sed  valde  optanti  utrique  nostrum,  cecidit, 
ut  in  istum  sermonem,  Crasse,  delaberemini.  Nobis 
enim  huc  venientibus  iucundum  satis  fore  videbatur, 
si,  cum  vos  de  rebus  aUis  loqueremini,  tamen  nos 
aliquid  ex  sermone  vestro  memoria  dignum  excipere 
possemus  :  ut  vero  penitus  in  eam  ipsam  totius  huius 
vel  studii,  vel  artificii,  vel  facultatis  disputationem 
paene    intimam  perveniretis,    vix    optandum   nobis 

97  videbatur.  Ego  enim,  qui  ab  ineunte  aetate  in- 
census  essem  studio  utriusque  vestrum,  Crassi  vero 
68 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxi.  94^97 

because,  before  we  have  entered  on  the  required  study, 
we  are  overwhelmed  by  the  hunt  for  office  and  the 
business  of  the  Bar,  none  the  less  let  it  be  accepted 

95  as  attainable  in  fact  and  in  the  nature  of  things.  For 
personally,  so  far  as  I  can  form  a  prediction,  and 
judging  from  the  vast  supply  of  talent  which  I  see 
existent  among  our  fellow-citizens,  I  do  not  despair 
of  its  coming  to  pass  that  some  day  some  one,  keener 
in  study  than  we  are  or  ever  have  been,  endowed  with 
ampler  leisure  and  earlier  opportunity  for  learning, 
and  exhibiting  closer  apphcation  and  more  intensive 
industry,  who  shall  have  given  himself  up  to  hstening, 
reading  and  writing,  will  stand  forth  as  an  orator  such 
as  we  are  seeking,  who  may  rightly  be  called  not 
merely  accomphshed  but  actually  eloquent ;  and 
after  all,  to  my  mind  either  Crassus  is  such  a  man 
ah'eady,  or,  should  some  one  of  equal  natural  abihty 
have  heard,  read  and  written  more  than  Crassus,  he 
will  only  be  able  to  improve  to  some  slight  extent 
upon  him." 

96  At  this  point,  "  We    never   looked  for  it,"   ex-  Crassus 
claimed  Sulpicius,  "  but  it  has  fallen  out,  Crassus,  coMents^to 
just  as  both  I  and  Cotta  earnestly  hoped,  I  mean  that  gi^e  his 
you  two  should  shp  into  this  particular  conversation. 

For  on  our  way  hither  we  were  thinking  that  it  would 
be  dehghtful  enough  if,  while  you  and  Antonius  were 
talking  about  anything  else,  we  might  still  manage 
to  catch  from  your  discourse  something  worth  remem- 
bering  ;  but  that  you  should  enter  at  large  upon  so 
real  and  wellnigh  exhaustive  a  discussion  of  this 
whole  matter — be  it  practice,  art  or  natural  talent — • 

97  seemed  to  us  a  thing  we  could  hardly  hope  for.  The 
fact  is  that  I,  who  from  my  earhest  manhood  was 
aglow  with  enthusiasm  for  you  both,  and  a  positive 

69 


CICERO 

etiam  amore,  cum  ab  eo  nusquam  discederem, 
verbum  ex  eo  nunquam  elicere  potui  de  vi  ac  ratione 
dicendi,  cum  et  per  memet  ipsum  egissem,  et  per 
Drusum  saepe  tentassem  :  quo  in  genere  tu,  Antoni, 
(vere  loquar)  nunquam  mihi  percunctanti,  aut  quae- 
renti  aliquid,  defuisti,  et  persaepe  me,  quae  soleres 

98  In  dicendo  observare,  docuisti.  Nunc  quoniam 
uterque  vestrum  patefecit  earum  rerum  ipsarum 
aditum,  quas  quaerimus,  et  quoniam  princeps  Crassus 
eius  sermonis  ordiendi  fuit,  date  nobis  hanc  veniam, 
ut  ea,  quae  sentitis  de  omni  genere  dicendi,  subtiliter 
persequamini.  Quod  quidem  si  erit  a  vobis  impetra- 
tum,  magnam  habebo,  Crasse,  huic  palaestrae  et 
Tusculano  tuo  gratiam,  et  longe  Academiae  illi  ac 
Lycio  tuum  hoc  suburbanum  gymnasium  ante- 
ponam. 

99  XXII.  Tum  ille  :  Immo  vero,  inquit,  Sulpici,  roge- 
mus  Antonium,  qui  et  potest  facere  id,  quod  requiris, 
et  consuevit,  ut  te  audio  dicere.  Nam  me  quidem 
fateor  semper  a  genere  hoc  toto  sermonis  refugisse, 
et  tibi  cupienti  atque  instanti  saepissime  negasse,  ut 
tute  paulo  ante  dixisti.  Quod  ego  non  superbia, 
neque  inhumanitate  faciebam,  neque  quo  tuo  studio 
rectissimo  atque  optimo  non  obsequi  vellem,  prae- 
sertim  cum  te  unum  ex  omnibus  ad  dicendum 
maxime  natum,  aptumque  cognossem,  sed  mehercule 
70 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxi.  97— xxii.  99 

devotion  to  Crassus — seeing  that  on  no  occasion  did 
I  leave  his  side — could  never  get  a  word  out  of  him 
respecting  the  nature  and  theory  of  eloquence, 
although  I  pleaded  in  person,  besides  making  fre- 
quent  trial  of  him  through  the  agency  of  Drusus, 
whereas  on  this  subject  you,  Antonius, — and  what  I 
shall  say  is  true — have  never  failed  me  at  all  in  my 
probings  or  interrogatories,  and  have  many  a  time 
explained    to    me  what    rules  you    were  wont    to 

98  observe  in  practical  oratory.  Now  then  that  each 
of  you  has  opened  up  a  way  of  reaching  these 
very  objects  of  our  quest,  and  since  it  was  Crassus 
who  led  ofF  in  this  discussion,  grant  us  the  favour 
of  recounting  with  exactness  of  detail,  your  re- 
spective  opinions  upon  every  branch  of  oratory. 
If  we  do  win  this  boon  from  you  both,  I  shall  be 
deeply  grateful,  Crassus,  to  this  school  in  your 
Tusculan  villa,  and  shall  rank  these  semi-rural 
training-quarters  of  yours  far  above  the  illustrious 
Academy  and  the  Lyceum." 

99  XXII.  Thereupon  the  other  rejoined,  "  Nay, 
Sulpicius,  but  let  us  rather  ask  Antonius,  who  both 
has  the  abihty  to  do  what  you  demand,  and,  as  I 
understand  you  to  say,  has  been  in  the  habit  of  so 
doing.  For  as  for  me,  you  yourself  have  just  told  us 
how  I  have  invariably  run  away  from  all  discussions 
of  this  sort,  and  time  and  again  have  refused  com- 
pliance  with  your  desire  and  indeed  your  importunity, 
This  I  used  to  do,  not  from  arrogance  or  churlishness, 
nor  because  I  was  unwiUing  to  gratify  your  entirely 
legitimate  and  admirable  keenness — the  more  so  as 
I  had  recognized  that  you  were  above  all  other  men 
eminently  endowed  by  nature  and  adapted  for  oratory 
— but  in  solemn  truth  it  was  from  want  of  familiarity 

71 


CICERO 

istius  disputationis  insolentia,  atque  earum  rerum, 
quae  quasi  in  arte  traduntur,  inscitia. 

100  Tum  Cotta  :  Quoniam  id,  quod  difficillimum 
nobis  videbatur,  ut  omnino  de  his  rebus,  Crasse, 
loquerere,  assecuti  sumus  ;  de  reliquo  iam  nostra 
culpa   fuerit,   si   te,   nisi   omnia,   quae   percunctati 

101  erimus,  explicaris,  dimiserimus.  De  his,  credo, 
rebus,  inquit  Crassus,  ut  in  cretionibus  scribi  solet, 
QuiBUS  sciAM,  POTEROQUE.  Tum  illc  :  Namque  quod 
tu  non  poteris,  aut  nescies,  quis  nostrum  tam  im- 
pudens  est,  qui  se  scire  aut  posse  postulet  ?  lam 
vero,  ista  conditione,  dum  mihi  liceat  negare  posse, 
quod  non  potero,  et  fateri  nescire  quod  nesciam,  licet, 
inquit     Crassus,     vestro     arbitratu     percunctemini. 

102  Atque,  inquit  Sulpicius,  hoc  primum  ex  te,  de  quo 
modo  Antonius  exposuit,  quid  sentias,  quaerimus  : 
existimesne  artem  aliquam  esse  dicendi  ?  Quid  ? 
mihi  nunc  vos,  inquit  Crassus,  tanquam  aUcui  Grae- 
culo  otioso  et  loquaci,  et  fortasse  docto  atque  erudito, 
quaestiunculam,  de  qua  meo  arbitratu  loquar, 
ponitis  ?  Quando  enim  me  ista  curasse  aut  cogitasse 
arbitramini,  et  non  semper  irrisisse  potius  eorum 
hominum  impudentiam,  qui  cum  in  schola  assedis- 
sent,  ex  magna  hominum  frequentia  dicere  iuberent, 

103  S)  quis  quid  quaereret  ?  Quod  primum  ferunt 
Leontinum  fecisse  Gorgiam  :    qui  permagnum  quid- 


"  For  the  use  of  the  diminutive  to  indicate  the  contempt 
felt  at  Rome  for  the  degenerate  Greek  of  the  day  c/.  §§  47, 
221,  and  Juvenal  iii.  78  Graeculus  esurieru. 

72 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxii.  99-103 

with  arguments  of  that  kind,  and  awkwardness  in 
handling  those  theories  set  forth  in  what  claims  to  be 
an  art." 

30  Cotta  then  observed,  "  Since  we  have  secured  what 
seemed  most  difficult — that  you,  Crassus,  should  say 
anything  at  all  about  these  matters — as  for  what 
remains,  it  will  now  be  our  own  fault  if  we  let  you  go 
without  explaining  to  us  all  that  we  have  been  in- 

31  quiring  about."  "  Limiting  the  inquiry,  I  imagine," 
answered  Crassus,  "  to  those  subjects  which,  as  the 
phrase  goes  in  accepting  an  inheritance,  are  within 
my  knowledge  and  power."  "  By  all  means,"  re- 
turned  Cotta,  "  for  what  is  beyond  your  own  power 
or  knowledge,  who  among  us  is  so  shameless  as  to 
claim  to  be  within  his  own  ?  "  "  In  that  case," 
rephed  Crassus,  "  provided  that  I  may  disclaim 
powers  which  I  do  not  possess,  and  admit  ignorance 
of  what  I  do  not  know, — put  what  questions  to  me 

32  you  please."      '  Well  then,"  said  Sulpicius,  "  what  is  there  a 
we  ask  you  to  tell  us  first  is  your  opinion  of  the  view  rhetoricf 
Antonius  advanced  just  now — whether  you  hold  that 
there  is  any  such  thing  as  an  '  art '  of  oratory  ?  " 

"  How  now  ?  "  exclaimed  Crassus,  "  Do  you  think 
I  am  some  idle  talkative  Greekhng,"  who  is  also 
perhaps  full  of  learning  and  erudition,  that  you 
propound  me  a  petty  question  on  which  to  talk  as  I 
will  ?  For  when  was  it,  think  you,  that  I  troubled 
myself  about  these  matters  or  reflected  upon  them, 
and  did  not  rather  always  laugh  to  scorn  the  effrontery 
of  those  persons  who,  from  their  chairs  in  the  schools, 
would  call  upon  any  man  in  the  crowded  assemblage 
to  propound  any  question  that  he  might  have  to  put  ? 
03  It  is  related  that  Gorgias  of  Leontini  was  the  author 
of  this  practice,  who  was  thought  to  be  undertaking 

n  73 


CICERO 

dam  suscipere  ac  profiteri  videbatur,  cum  se  ad 
omnia,  de  quibus  quisque  audire  vellet,  esse  paratum 
denuntiaret.  Postea  vero  vulgo  hoc  facere  coeperunt, 
hodieque  faciunt ;  ut  nuUa  sit  res,  neque  tanta,  neque 
tam  improvisa,  neque  tam  nova,  de  qua  se  non  omnia, 

104  quae  dici  possunt,  profiteantur  esse  dicturos.  Quod 
si  te,  Cotta,  arbitrarer,  aut  te,  Sulpici,  de  eis  rebus 
audire  velle,  adduxissem  huc  Graecum  aUquem,  qui 
vos  istiusmodi  disputationibus  delectaret :  quod  ne 
nunc  quidem  difficile  factu  est.  Est  enim  apud 
M.  Pisonem,  adolescentem  iam  huic  studio  deditum, 
summo  hominem  ingenio,  nostrique  cupidissimum, 
Peripateticus  Staseas,  homo  nobis  sane  familiaris, 
et,  ut  inter  homines  peritos  constare  video,  in  illo 
suo  genere  omnium  princeps. 

105  XXIII.  Quem  tu,  inquit,  mihi,  Mucius,  Staseam, 
quem  Peripateticum  narras  ?  Gerendus  est  tibi  mos 
adolescentibus,  Crasse  :  qui  non  Graeci  ahcuius  quoti- 
dianam  loquacitatem  sine  usu,  neque  ex  scholis 
cantilenam  requirunt,  sed  ex  homine  omnium  sapien- 
tissimo  atque  eloquentissimo,  atque  ex  eo,  qui  non  in 
Ubellis,  sed  in  maximis  causis,  et  in  hoc  domicilio 
imperii  et  gloriae,  sit  consilio  hnguaque  princeps ; 
cuius  vestigia  persequi  cupiunt,  eius  sententiam  sci- 

106  scitantur.  Equidem  te  cum  in  dicendo  semper 
putavi  deum,  tum  vero  tibi  nunquam  eloquentiae 
maiorem  tribui  laudem,  quam  humanitatis  :  qua 
nunc  te  uti  vel  maxime  decet,  neque  defugere  eam 

74 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxii.  103— xxiii.  106 

and  professing  something  very  magnificent  when  he 
advertised  himself  as  ready  for  any  topic  whatever 
on  which  anyone  might  have  a  fancy  to  hear  him. 
Later,  however,  they  began  to  do  this  everywhere, 
and  are  doing  it  to  this  day,  with  the  result  of  there 
being  no  theme  so  vast,  so  unforeseen,  or  so  novel, 
that  they  do  not  claim  to  be  prepared  to  say  about  it 

104  all  that  there  is  to  be  said.  But  had  I  supposed  that 
you,  Cotta,  or  you,  Sulpicius,  wished  to  Usten  to  any- 
thing  of  the  kind,  I  would  have  brought  some  Greek 
or  other  here  to  amuse  you  with  discussions  of  that 
sort ;  and  even  now  this  can  easily  be  managed.  For 
staying  with  Marcus  Piso  (a  young  man,  but  already 
given  up  to  this  pursuit,  possessing  talent  of  the  highest 
order  and  deeply  devoted  to  myself)  there  is  Staseas 
the  Peripatetic,  a  man  whom  I  know  well  enough,  and 
who,  as  I  understand  to  be  agreed  among  experts,  is 
quite  supreme  in  that  department  of  his." 

105  XXIII.  "  Staseas  !  what  Staseas  ?  what  Peripatetic 
are  you  talking  to  me  about  ?  "  said  Mucius.  "  It  is 
for  you,  Crassus,  to  comply  with  the  wishes  of  young 
men,  who  do  not  want  the  everyday  chatter  of  some 
unpractised  Greek,or  old  sing-songs  outof  the  schools, 
but  something  from  the  wisest  and  most  eloquent 
man  in  the  world,  and  one  who,  not  in  the  pages  of 
pamphlets,  but  in  the  most  momentous  causes,  and 
that  too  in  this  seat  of  imperial  power  and  splendour, 
holds  the  first  place  for  judgement  and  eloquence ; 
they  are  anxious  to  learn  the  opinion  of  the  man  whose 

106  footsteps  they  long  to  follow.  Moreover,  just  as  I  have 
always  accounted  you  the  ideal  orator,  even  so  I  have 
never  ascribed  to  you  higher  praise  for  eloquence 
than  for  kindUness,  which  quality  it  becomes  you  on 
the  present  occasion  to  exercise  to  the  very  utmost, 

75 


CICERO 

disputationem,  ad  quam  te  duo  excellentis  ingenii 
adolescentes  cupiunt  accedere. 

107  Ego  vero,  inquit,  istis  obsequi  studeo,  neque 
gravabor  breviter  meo  more,  quid  quaque  de  re 
sentiam,  dicere.  Ac  primum  illud — quoniam  auctori- 
tatem  tuam  neglegere,  Scaevola,  fas  mihi  esse  non 
puto — respondeo,  mihi  dicendi  aut  nullam  artem,  aut 
pertenuem  videri,  sed  omnem  esse  contentionem 
inter  homines  doctos  in  verbi  controversia  positam. 

108  Nam  si  ars  ita  definitur,  ut  paulo  ante  exposuit 
Antonius,  ex  rebus  penitus  perspectis  planeque  cog- 
nitis,  atque  ab  opinionis  arbitrio  seiunctis,  scientiaque 
comprehensis,  non  mihi  videtur  ars  oratoris  esse 
uUa.  Sunt  enim  varia,  et  ad  vulgarem  popularemque 
sensum  accommodata  omnia  genera  huius  forensis 

109  nostrae  dictionis.  Sin  autem  ea,  quae  observata  sunt 
in  usu  ac  ratione  dicendi,  haec  ab  hominibus  callidis 
ac  peritis  animadversa  ac  notata,  verbis  designata, 
generibus  illustrata,  partibus  distributa  sunt — id  quod 
fieri  potuisse  video — :  non  intellego,  quam  ob  rem 
non,  si  minus  illa  subtili  definitione,  at  hac  vulgari 
opinione,  ars  esse  videatur.  Sed  sive  est  ars,  sive 
artis  quaedam  simihtudo,  non  est  quidem  ea  negle- 
genda ;  verum  intellegendum  est,  alia  quaedam  ad 
consequendam  eloquentiam  esse  maiora. 

76 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxiii.  106-109 

and  not  to  run  away  from  the  discussion  into  which 
two  young  men  of  eminent  ability  are  desirous  of 
your  entering." 

107  "  For   my    part,"    answered    the    other,    "I    amNo,  thereis 
anxious  to  humour  your  friends,  and  I  shall  make  no  •„  thrstrict 
difficulty  about  saying,  in  my  brief  fashion,  what  I  sense,but 
think  upon  each  point.     And  to  that  first  question —  gan  tonfs^h 
since  I  do  not  think  it  dutiful,  Scaevola,  for  me  to  a  system  of 
disregard  your  claims — I  answer,  '  I  think  there  is  ™^®*' 
either   no   art   of  speaking   at   all   or  a  very  thin 

one,'   all   the   quarrelling   in    learned  circles    being 

108  really  based  upon  a  dispute  about  a  word.  For  if,  as 
Antonius  just  now  explained,  an  art  is  defined  as 
consisting  in  things  thoroughly  examined  and  clearly 
apprehended,  and  which  are  also  outside  the  control 
of  mere  opinion,  and  within  the  grasp  of  exact 
knowledge,  then  to  me  there  seems  to  be  no  such 
thing  as  an  art  of  oratory.  For  all  the  kinds  of 
language  we  ourselves  use  in  public  speaking  are 
changeable   matter,   and   adapted    to    the   general 

109  understanding  of  the  crowd.  If  however  the  actual 
things  noticed  in  the  practice  and  conduct  of  speaking 
have  been  heeded  and  recorded  by  men  of  sldll 
and  experience,  if  they  have  been  defined  in  terms, 
illuminated  by  classification,  and  distributed  under 
subdivisions — and  I  see  that  it  has  been  possible  to 
do  this — I  do  not  understand  why  this  should  not  be 
regarded  as  an  art,  perhaps  not  in  that  precise  sense 
of  the  term,  but  at  any  rate  according  to  the  other 
and  popular  estimate.  But  whether  this  be  an  art, 
or  only  something  hke  an  art,  assuredly  it  is  not  to 
be  disdained  ;  we  must  however  understand  that 
certain  other  qualifications  are  of  greater  conse- 
quence  for  the  attainment  of  eloquence." 

77 


CICERO 

110  XXIV.  Tum  Antonius  vehementer  se  assentire 
Crasso  dixit,  quod  neque  ita  amplecteretur  artem  ut 
ei  solerent  qui  omnem  vim  dicendi  in  arte  ponerent, 
neque  rursum  eam  totam,  sicut  plerique  philosophi 
facerent,  repudiaret.  Sed  existimo,  inquit,  gratum 
te  his,  Crasse,  facturum,  si  ista  exposueris,  quae  putas 
ad  dicendum  plus,  quam  ipsam  artem,  posse  prodesse. 

111  Dicam  equidem,  quoniam  institui,  petamque  a 
vobis,  inquit,  ne  has  meas  ineptias  efferatis  :  quan- 
quam  moderabor  ipse,  ne,  ut  quidam  magister  atque 
artifex,  sed  quasi  unus  e  togatorum  numero,  atque 
ex  forensi  usu  homo  mediocris,  neque  omnino  rudis, 
videar,  non  ipse  aliquid  a  me  prompsisse,  sed  fortuito 

112  in  sermonem  vestrum  incidisse.  Equidem,  cum 
peterem  magistratum,  solebam  in  prensando  dimit- 
tere  a  me  Scaevolam,  cum  ei  ita  dicerem,  me  velle 
esse  ineptum  :  id  erat  petere  blandius  ;  quod  nisi 
inepte  fieret,  bene  non  posset  fieri.  Hunc  autem  esse 
unum  hominem  ex  omnibus,  quo  praesente  ego  inep- 
tus  esse  minime  vellem  :  quem  quidem  nunc  mearum 
ineptiarum  testem  et  spectatorem  fortuna  constituit. 
Nam  quid  est  ineptius,  quam  de  dicendo  dicere,  cum 
ipsum  dicere  nunquam  sit  non  ineptum,  nisi  cum  est 
necessarium  ? 

113  Perge  vero,  Crasse,  inquit  Mucius.  Istam  enim 
culpam,  quam  vereris,  ego  praestabo. 

"  Ineptus,  generally  equivalent  to  '  unhappy '  or  '  incon- 
gruous,'  is  here  used  loosely  as  meaning  '  silly,'  Crassus  felt 
that  his  talking  about  oratory  was  as  silly  a  business  as  was 
shaking  hands  with  everybody  when  canvassing. 

78 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxiv.  110-113 

110  XXIV.  Thereupon    Antonius    observed    that    he  Ch^ssus 
heartily  agreed  with  Crassus,  in  that  he  was  neither  ff^hfs^own*^ 
wedded  to  Art  with  the  devotion  of  those  for  whom  expenence. 
the  whole  virtue  of  oratory  resided  in  an  art,  nor  on 

the  other  hand  did  he  put  her  away  altogether,  as 
didmost  of  the  philosophers.  "  But  I  think, Crassus," 
he  continued,  "  that  you  will  be  doing  these  two  a 
favour,  if  you  will  set  forth  those  things  which  in  your 
opinion  may  be  more  profitable  to  oratory  than  even 
Art  herself." 

111  "  I  will  certainly  name  them,"  replied  Crassus, 
"  as  I  have  once  begun,  beseeching  you  however 
not  to  publish  abroad  these  trifles  of  mine  ;  although 
I  too  will  restrain  myself,  so  as  not  to  seem  a  sort  of 
master  and  professional,  volunteering  some  observa- 
tions  of  my  own,  but  just  one  of  all  the  many  Roman 
citizens,  a  man  modestly  quaUfied  through  experience 
of  public  afFairs,  and  not  altogether  untrained,  who 

112  has  stumbled  by  chance  upon  your  discussion.  The 
truth  is  that,  when  in  quest  of  an  office,  I  used  in 
canvassing  to  send  Scaevola  away  from  me,  explaining 
to  him  that  I  proposed  to  be  silly,"  that  is,  to  make 
myself  winsome  in  my  wooing,  and  this  required 
some  siUiness  if  it  was  to  be  well  done,  whereas  our 
friend  here  was  of  all  men  the  one  in  whose  presence 
I  was  least  willing  to  appear  silly.  Yet  he  it  is  whom 
on  the  present  occasion  Fate  has  appointed  to  be  an 
eye-witness  and  observer  of  my  silliness.  For  what 
is  sillier  than  to  talk  about  talking,  since  talking 
in  itself  is  ever  a  silly  business,  except  when  it  is 
indispensable  ?  " 

113  "  Proceed  none  the  less,  Crassus,"  said  Mucius, 
"  for  I  will  take  upon  myself  that  reproach  you  are 
dreading." 

79 


CICERO 

XXV.  Sic  igitur,  inquit  Crassus,  sentio  naturam 
primum,  atque  ingenium  ad  dicendum  vim  afFerre 
maximam  ;  neque  vero  istis,  de  quibus  paulo  ante 
dixit  Antonius  scriptoribus  artis,  rationem  dicendi  et 
viam,  sed  naturam  defuisse.  Nam  et  animi  atque 
ingenii  celeres  quidam  motus  esse  debent,  qui  et  ad 
excogitandum  acuti,  et  ad  explicandum  ornandumque 

114  sint  uberes,  et  ad  memoriam  firmi  atque  diuturni.  Et 
si  quis  est,  qui  haec  putet  arte  accipi  posse,  quod 
falsum  est — praeclare  enim  se  res  habeat,  si  haec 
accendi,  aut  commoveri  arte  possint :  inseri  quidem, 
et  donari  ab  arte  non  possunt  omnia  ;  sunt  enim  illa 
dona  naturae — :  quid  de  illis  dicet,  quae  certe  cum 
ipso  homine  nascuntur  ?  hnguae  solutio,  vocis  sonus, 
latera,  vires,  conformatio  quaedam  et  figura  totius 

115  oris  et  corporis  ?  Neque  haec  ita  dico,  ut  ars  ahquid 
limare  non  possit — neque  enim  ignoro,  et  quae  bona 
sint,  fieri  meUora  posse  doctrina,  et  quae  non  optima, 
ahquo  modo  acui  tamen  et  corrigi  posse — sed  sunt 
quidam  aut  ita  Hngua  haesitantes,  aut  ita  voce  absoni, 
aut  ita  vultu,  motuque  corporis  vasti  atque  agrestes, 
ut,  etiamsi  ingeniis  atque  arte  valeant,  tamen  in 
oratorum  numerum  venire  non  possint.  Sunt  autem 
quidam  ita  in  eisdem  rebus  habiles,  ita  naturae 
muneribus  ornati,  ut  non  nati,  sed  ab  aliquo  deo 
ficti  esse  videantur. 

116  Magnum  quoddam  est  onus   atque  munus,  sus- 

80 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxv.  113-116 

XXV.  "  This  then  is  my  opinion,"  resumed  Crassus,  The  require- 
"that  in  the  first  place  natural  talent  is  the  chief  ^^^^^^  P"^" 
contributor  to  the  virtue  of  oratory  ;    and  indeed  in  naturai  gifts 
those  writers  on  the  art,  of  whom  Antonius  spoke  essential; 
just  now,  it  was  not  the  principles  and  method  of 
oratory    that  were    wanting,    but   inborn    capacity. 
For  certain  Hvely  activities  of  the  intelligence  and 
the  talents  ahke  should  be  present,  such  as   to  be 
at   once   swift    in  invention,   copious   in   exposition 
and  embelHshment,  and  steadfast  and  enduring  in 

114  recollection  ;  and  if  there  be  anyone  disposed  to 
think  that  these  powers  can  be  derived  from  art,  a 
false  behef — for  it  would  be  a  glorious  state  of  things 
if  art  could  even  kindle  or  waken  them  into  Hfe  ; 
engrafted  and  bestowed  by  art  of  a  certainty  they 
cannot  be,  for  they  are  all  the  gifts  of  nature, — 
what  will  he  say  of  those  other  attributes  which 
undoubtedly  are  innate  in  the  man  himself :  the 
ready  tongue,  the  ringing  tones,  strong  lungs,  vigour, 
suitable  build  and  shape  of  the  face  and  body  as 

115  a  whole  ?  And,  in  saying  this,  I  do  not  mean  that 
art  cannot  in  some  cases  give  pohsh, — for  well  I 
know  that  good  abihties  may  through  instruction 
become  better,  and  that  such  as  are  not  of  the  best 
can  nevertheless  be,  in  some  measure,  quickened  and 
amended — ,  but  there  are  some  men  either  so  tongue- 
tied,  or  so  discordant  in  tone,  or  so  wild  and  boorish 
in  feature  and  gesture,  that,  even  though  sound  in 
talent  and  in  art,  they  yet  cannot  enter  the  ranks 
of  the  orators.  While  others  there  are,  so  apt  in 
these  same  respects,  so  completely  furnished  with 
the  bounty  of  nature,  as  to  seem  of  more  than  human 
birth,  and  to  have  been  shaped  by  some  divinity. 

116  "  Great  indeed  are  the  burden  and  the  task  that 

81 


CICERO 

cipere,  atque  profiteri,  se  esse,  omnibus  silentibus, 
unum  maximis  de  rebus,  magno  in  conventu  homi- 
num,  audiendum.  Adest  enim  fere  nemo,  quin 
acutius  atque  acrius  vitia  in  dicente,  quam  recta 
videat  :  ita,  quidquid  est,  in  quo  ofFenditur,  id  etiam 

117  illa,  quae  laudanda  sunt,  obruit.  Neque  haec  in  eam 
sententiam  disputo,  ut  homines  adolescentes,  si  quid 
naturale  forte  non  habeant,  omnino  a  dicendi  studio 
deterream.  Quis  enim  non  videt,  C.  Coelio,  aequali 
meo,  magno  honori  fuisse,  homini  novo,  illam  ipsam, 
quamcumque  assequi  poterit,  in  dicendo  medio- 
critatem .''  Quis  vestrum  aequalem,  Q.  Varium, 
vastum  hominem  atque  foedum,  non  intellegit  illa 
ipsa  facultate,  quamcumque  habet,  magnam  esse  in 
civitate  gratiam  consecutum  ? 

118  XXVI.  Sed  quia  de  oratore  quaerimus,  fingendus 
est  nobis  oratione  nostra,  detractis  omnibus  vitiis, 
orator,  atque  omni  laude  cumulatus.  Neque  enim, 
si  multitudo  litium,  si  varietas  causarum,  si  haec 
turba  et  barbaria  forensis  dat  locum  vel  vitiosissimis 
oratoribus,  Idcirco  nos  hoc,  quod  quaerimus,  omit- 
temus.  Itaque  in  eis  artibus,  in  quibus  non  utiHtas 
quaeritur  necessaria,  sed  animi  libera  quaedam  ob- 
lectatio,  quam  diUgenter,  et  quam  prope  fastidiose 
iudicamus  !  NuUae  enim  lites,  neque  controversiae 
8S 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxv.  116— xxvi.  118 

he  undertakes,  who  puts  himself  forward,  when  all 
are  silent,  as  the  one  man  to  be  heard  concerning 
the  weightiest  matters,  before  a  vast  assembly  of 
his  fellows.  For  there  is  hardly  a  soul  present  but 
will  turn  a  keener  and  more  penetrating  eye  upon 
defects  in  the  speaker  than  upon  his  good  points. 
Thus  any  blunder  that  may  be  committed  ecUpses 

117  even  those  other  things  that  are  praiseworthy.  Not 
that  I  am  pressing  these  considerations  with  the  idea 
of  frightening  young  men  away  altogether  from  the 
pursuit  of  oratory,  should  they  possibly  lack  some 
natural  endowment.  For  who  does  not  observe  that 
Gaius  Coelius,  a  man  of  my  own  time  and  of  new 
family ,  reached  high  renown  as  the  result  of  that  very 
modest  degree  of  eloquence  which — such  as  it  was — 
he  had  succeeded  in  attaining  .''  Who  again  does  not 
know  that  Quintus  Varius,  your  own  contemporary, 
a  man  of  wild  and  repellent  aspect,  has  attained  great 
popularity  in  public  life,  through  whatever  practical 
ability  of  that  kind  he  has  possessed  ? 

118  XXVI.  "  But  since  it   is  '  The    Orator  '   we  are  though  the 
seeking,  we  have  to  picture  to  ourselves  in  our  dis-  {jarf  to 
course  an  orator  from  whom  every  blemish  has  been  attain. 
taken  away,  and  one  who  moreover  is  rich  in  every 
merit.     For  even  though  the  multipUcity  of  litigation, 

the  diversity  of  issues,  and  the  rabble  of  rusticity 
thronging  our  public  places,  give  opportunity  even 
to  the  most  faulty  speakers,  we  shall  not  for  that 
reason  lose  sight  of  this  our  objective.  In  those  arts 
then,  in  which  we  are  looking,  not  for  any  necessary 
utility,  but  some  method  of  freely  bringing  deUght 
to  the  intellect,  how  critical — I  had  ahnost  said  how 
disdainful — are  our  judgements  !  For  there  are  no 
lawsuits  or  contentions  to  compel  mankind  to  sit 

83 


CICERO 

sunt,  quae  cogant  homines,  sicut  in  foro  non  bonos 

119  oratores,  item  in  theatro  actores  malos  perpeti.  Est 
igitur  oratori  diligenter  providendum,  non  uti  illis 
satisfaciat,  quibus  necesse  est ;  sed  ut  eis  admirabilis 
esse  videatur,  quibus  libere  liceat  iudicare.  Ac,  si 
quaeritis,  plane,  quid  sentiam,  enuntiabo  apud  ho- 
mines  familiarissimos,  quod  adhuc  semper  tacui,  et 
tacendum  putavi,  Mihi  etiam,  quique  optime  dicunt, 
quique  id  facillime  atque  ornatissime  facere  possunt, 
tamen,  nisi  timide  ad  dicendum  accedunt,  et  in  ex- 
ordienda  oratione  perturbantur,  paene  impudentes 

120  videntur  :  tametsi  id  accidere  non  potest.  Ut  enim 
quisque  optime  dicit,  ita  maxime  dicendi  difficul- 
tatem,  variosque  eventus  orationis,  exspectationem- 
que  hominum  pertimescit.  Qui  vero  nihil  potest 
dignum  re,  dignum  nomine  oratoris,  dignum  homi- 
num  auribus  efficere  atque  edere,  is  mihi,  etiamsi 
commovetur  in  dicendo,  tamen  impudens  videtur. 
Non  enim  pudendo,  sed  non  faciendo  id  quod  non 

121  decet,  impudentiae  nomen  efFugere  debemus.  Quem 
vero  non  pudet — id  quod  in  plerisque  video — ,  hunc 
ego  non  reprehensione  solum,sed  etiam  poenadignum 
puto.  Equidem  et  in  vobis  animadvertere  soleo,  et 
in  me  ipso  saepissime  experior,  ut  exalbescam  in 
principiis  dicendi,  et  tota  mente,  atque  omnibus 
artubus  contremiscam  ;  adolescentulus  vero  sic  initio 
84 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxvi.  118-121 

through  bad  acting  on  the  stage,  as  they  would  bear 

119  with  indifFerent  oratory  in  Court.  Therefore  our 
orator  must  carefully  see  to  it,  that  he  not  only 
contents  those  whom  it  is  necessary  to  satisfy,  but 
is  wonderful  as  well  in  the  eyes  of  such  as  have  the 
right  to  judge  freely.  And  now,  if  you  would  know 
it,  among  my  most  famihar  friends  I  will  publish  in 
simple  language  what  I  think,  on  which  I  have 
hitherto  always  kept  silence  and  deemed  silence 
fitting.  In  my  view,  even  the  best  orators,  those 
who  can  speak  with  the  utmost  ease  and  elegance, 
unless  they  are  diffident  in  approaching  a  discourse 
and  diffident  in  beginning  it,  seem  to  border  on  the 
shameless,  although  that  can  never  come  to  pass. 

120  For  the  better  the  orator,  the  more  profoundly  is 
he  frightened  of  the  difficulty  of  speaking,  and  of 
the  doubtful  fate  of  a  speech,  and  of  the  anticipa- 
tions  of  an  audience.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
man  who  can  do  nothing  in  composition  and 
deUvery  that  is  worthy  of  the  occasion,  worthy 
of  the  name  of  an  orator,  or  of  the  ear  of  the 
hstener,  still  seems  to  me  to  be  without  shame, 
be  he  never  so  agitated  in  his  speaking  ;  for  it  is 
not  by  feehng  shame  at  what  is  unbecoming,  but 
in  not  doing  it,  that  we  must  escape  the  reproach 

121  of  shamelessness.  While  as  for  him  who  is  un- 
ashamed — as  I  see  is  the  case  with  most  speakers, — 
I  hold  him  deserving  not  merely  of  reprimand, 
but  of  punishment  as  well.  Assuredly,  just  as  I 
generally  perceive  it  to  happen  to  yourselves,  so 
I  very  often  prove  it  in  my  own  experience,  that  I 
turn  pale  at  the  outset  of  a  speech,  and  quake  in 
every  Umb  and  in  aU  my  soul  ;  in  fact,  as  a  very 
young  man,  I  once  so  utterly  lost  heart  in  opening 

85 


CICERO 

accusationis  exanimatus  sum,  ut  hoc  summum  bene- 
ficium  Q.  Maximo  debuerim,  quod  continuo  consilium 
dimiserit,  simul  ac  me  fractum  ac  debilitatum  metu 
viderit. 

122  Hic  omnes  assensi,  significare  inter  sese,  et  coUoqui 
coeperunt.  Fuit  enim  mirificus  quidam  in  Crasso 
pudor,  qui  tamen  non  modo  non  obesset  eius  orationi, 
sed  etiam  probitatis  commendatione  prodesset. 

XXVII.  Tum  Antonius  :  Saepe,  ut  dicis,  inquit, 
animadvertijCrasse,  et  te,et  ceteros  summos  oratores, 
quanquam  tibi  par,  mea  sententia,  nemo  unquam  fuit, 

123  in  dicendi  exordio  permoveri.  Cuius  quidem  rei 
cum  causam  quaererem,  quidnam  esset  cur,  ut  in 
quoque  oratore  plurimum  esset,  ita  maxime  is  perti- 
mesceret,  has  causas  inveniebam  duas  :  unam,  quod 
intellegerent  ei,  quos  usus  ac  natura  docuisset,  non- 
nunquam  summis  oratoribus  non  satis  ex  sententia 
eventum  dicendi  procedere  ;  ita  non  iniuria,  quoties- 
cumque  dicerent,  id,  quod  aliquando  posset  accidere, 

124  ne  tvun  accideret,  timere.  Altera  est  haec,  de  qua 
queri  saepe  soleo  :  ceterarum  homines  artium  spec- 
tati  et  probati,  si  quando  aliquid  minus  bene  fecerunt, 
quam  solent,  aut  noluisse,aut  valetudine  impediti  non 
potuisse  consequi,  id  quod  scirent,  putantur :  '  No- 
luit,'  inquiunt,  *  hodie  agere  Roscius  ' ;   aut, '  Crudior 

8a 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxvi.  121— xxvii.  124 

an  indictment,  that  I  had  to  thank  Quintus  Maximus 
for  doing  me  the  supreme  service  of  promptly 
adjourning  the  hearing,  the  moment  he  saw  that  I 
was  broken-down  and  unnerved  by  fear." 

122  At  this  point  the  whole  company  began  to  nod 
approval  one  to  another,  and  to  talk  together.  For 
there  was  a  marvellous  kind  of  modesty  about 
Crassus,  though  this  was  so  far  from  being  any 
disadvantage  to  his  oratory,  as  positively  to  help  it, 
by  bearing  witness  to  his  integrity. 

XXVII.  Presently   Antonius   observed  :  "  I  have  Orators 
often  noticed,  Crassus,  that,  as  you  say,  both  you  jgniln^^t/^^^ 
and  the  other  orators  of  the  first  rank — although  in  than  actor» 
my  opinion  no  one  has  ever  been  your  peer — are 
deeply  disturbed  when  you  are  beginning  a  speech. 

123  Now  on  investigating  the  reason  of  this — how  it 
was  that,  the  greater  an  orator's  capacity,  the 
more  profoundly  nervous  he  was — I  discovered 
this  twofold  explanation  :  first,  that  those  who  had 
learned  from  experience  and  knowledge  of  human 
nature  understood  that,  even  with  the  most  emi- 
nent  orators,  the  fate  of  a  speech  was  sometimes 
not  sufficiently  in  accordance  with  their  wish  ;  where- 
fore,  as  often  as  they  spoke,  they  were  justifiably 
fearful,  lest  what  could  possibly  happen  sometime 

124  should  actually  happen  then.  Secondly  there  is 
something  of  which  I  often  have  to  complain,  that, 
whenever  tried  and  approved  exponents  of  the 
other  arts  have  done  some  work  with  less  than  their 
wonted  success,  their  inability  to  perform  what  they 
knew  how  to  perform  is  explained  by  their  being  out 
of  the  humour  or  hindered  by  indisposition  (people 
say, '  Roscius  was  not  in  the  mood  for  acting  to-day,* 
or  '  He  was  a  Uttle  out  of  sorts ') ;  whereas,  if  it 

87 


CICERO 

fuit ' ;  oratoris  peccatum,  si  quod  est  animadversum, 

125  stultitiae  peccatum  videtur.  Stultitia  autem  excusa- 
tionem  non  habet  :  quia  nemo  videtur,  aut  quia 
crudus  fuerit,  aut  quod  ita  maluerit,  stultus  fuisse. 
Quo  etiam  gravius  iudicium  in  dicendo  subimus. 
Quoties  enim  dicimus,  toties  de  nobis  iudicatur  :  et, 
qui  semel  in  gestu  peccavit,  non  continuo  existimatur 
nescire  gestum  ;  cuius  autem  in  dicendo  aliquid 
reprehensum  est,  aut  aeterna  in  eo,  aut  certe  diuturna 
valet  opinio  tarditatis. 

126  XXVIII.  IUud  vero,  quod  a  te  dictum  est,  esse 
permulta,  quae  orator  nisi  a  natura  haberet,  non 
multum  a  magistro  adiuvaretur  :  valde  tibi  assentior, 
inque  eo  vel  maxime  probavi  summum  illum  doc- 
torem,  Alabandensem  Apollonium,  qui,  cum  mer- 
cede  doceret,  tamen  non  patiebatur,  eos,  quos 
iudicabat  non  posse  oratores  evadere,  operam  apud 
sese  perdere,  dimittebatque  ;  et  ad  quam  quemque 
artem  putabat  esse  aptum,  ad  eam  impellere  atque 

127  hortari  solebat.  Satis  est  enim  ceteris  artificiis  per- 
cipiendis,  tantummodo  similem  esse  hominis  ;  et  id, 
quod  tradatur,  vel  etiam  inculcetur,  si  quis  forte  sit 
tardior,  posse  percipere  animo,  et  memoria  custodire. 
Non  quaeritur  mobiUtas  linguae,  non  celeritas  verbo- 
rum,  non  denique  ea,  quae  nobis  non  possumus  fin- 

128  S^^^'  facies,  vultus,  sonus.  In  oratore  autem  acumen 
dialecticorum,  sententiae  philosophorum,  verba  prope 

88 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxvii.  124— xxviii.  128 

is  an  orator's  shortcoming  that  is  being  criticized 

25  the  same  is  thought  due  to  stupidity.  But  stupidity 
finds  no  apology,  since  no  man's  stupidity  is  set  down 
to  his  having  been  '  out  of  sorts  '  or  '  that  way 
incUned.'  And  so  in  oratory  we  confront  a  sterner 
judgement.  For  judgement  is  passing  upon  us  as 
often  as  we  speak  ;  moreover  one  mistake  in  act- 
ing  does  not  instantly  convict  a  player  of  ignorance 
of  acting,  but  an  orator,  censured  on  some  point 
of  speaking,  is  under  an  established  suspicion  of 
duUness  once  for  all,  or  at  any  rate  for  many  a 
day. 

26  XXVIII.  "  Now  as  for  that  remark  of  yours  that  Varietyof 
there  were  very  many  quahfications  which  an  orator  pected''^"^ 
must  derive  from  nature,  or  he  would  not  be  greatly  theorator 
aided  by  tuition,  I  thoroughly  agree  with  you  ;  and 

in  this  respect  I  most  particularly  approved  of  that 
very  eminent  instructor  Apollonius  of  Alabanda, 
who,  though  teaching  for  hire,  would  not  for  all  that 
sufFer  such  pupils  as,  in  his  judgement,  could  never 
turn  out  to  be  orators,  to  waste  their  labour  with  him, 
but  would  send  them  on  their  ways,  and  urge  and 
exhort   them    to    pursue   those    arts  for   which   he 

[27  thought  them  respectively  fitted,  It  is  enough,  in- 
deed,  for  acquiring  all  other  crafts,  just  to  be  a  man 
like  other  men,  and  able  to  apprehend  mentally  and 
to  preserve  in  the  memory  what  is  taught,  or  even 
crammed  into  the  learner,  should  he  chance  to  be 
dull  beyond  the  ordinary.  No  readiness  of  tongue 
is  needed,  no  fluency  of  language,  in  short  none 
of  those  things — natural  state  of  looks,  expression, 
and  voice — which  we  cannot  mould  for  ourselves. 

128  But  in  an  orator  we  must  demand  the  subtlety  of 
the   logician,  the   thoughts   of  the  philosopher,    a 

89 


CICERO 

poetarum,  memoria  iurisconsultorum,  vox  tragoe- 
dorum,  gestus  paene  summorum  actorum  est  re- 
quirendus.  Quam  ob  rem  nihil  in  hominum  genere 
rarius  perfecto  oratore  inveniri  potest.  Quae  enim 
singularum  rerum  artifices  singula  si  mediocriter 
adepti  sunt,  probantur,  ea,  nisi  omnia  siunma  sunt 
in  oratore,  probari  non  possunt. 

129  Tum  Crassus  :  Atqui  vide,  inquit,  in  artificio  per- 
quam  tenui  et  levi,  quanto  plus  adhibeatur  dili- 
gentiae,  quam  in  hac  re,  quam  constat  esse  maximam. 
Saepe  enim  soleo  audire  Roscium,  cum  ita  dicat,  se 
adhuc  reperire  discipulum,  quem  quidem  probaret, 
potuisse  neminem  :  non  quo  non  essent  quidam  pro- 
babiles,  sed  quia,  si  aliquid  modo  esset  vitii,  id  ferre 
ipse  non  posset.  Nihil  est  enim  tam  insigne,  nec  tam 
ad  diuturnitatem  memoriae  stabile,  quam  id,  in  quo 

130  aliquid  ofFenderis.  Itaque  ut  ad  hanc  similitudinem 
huius  histrionis  oratoriam  laudem  dirigamus,  vide- 
tisne,  quam  nihil  ab  eo,  nisi  perfecte,  nihil  nisi  cum 
summa  venustate  fiat,  nihil  nisi  ita,  ut  deceat,  et  uti 
omnes  moveat  atque  delectet  ?  Itaque  hoc  iamdiu 
est  consecutus,  ut,  in  quo  quisque  artificio  excelleret, 
is  in  suo  genere  Roscius  diceretur.  Hanc  ego  absolu- 
tionem  perfectionemque  in  oratore  desiderans,  a  qua 
ipse  longe  absum,  facio  impudenter  :  mihi  enim  volo 
ignosci,  ceteris  ipse  non  ignosco.  Nam  qui  non  potest, 
qui  vitiose  facit,  quem  denique  non  decet,  hunc — ut 

90 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxviii.  128-130 

diction  almost  poetic,  a  lawyer's  memory,  a  trage- 
dian's  voice,  and  the  bearing  almost  of  the  consum- 
mate  actor,  Accordingly  no  rarer  thing  than  a 
finished  orator  can  be  discovered  among  the  sons  of 
men.  For  attributes  which  are  commended  when 
acquired  one  apiece,  and  that  in  but  modest  degree, 
by  other  craftsmen  in  their  respective  vocations, 
cannot  win  approval  when  embodied  in  an  orator, 
unless  in  him  they  are  all  assembled  in  perfection." 

129  "  And  yet  observe,"  said  Crassus  at  this  point,  Defectsar» 
"  how  much  more  care  is  exercised  in  an  extremelv  "°*'''=®"^  ** 
mean  and  trivial  crait  than  m  this  art,  which  is 
admittedly  the  greatest.     For  again  and  again  do 

I  hear  Roscius  declaring  that  so  far  he  has  never 
succeeded  in  finding  a  single  pupil  of  whom  he  really 
approved  ;  not  that  there  were  not  some  who  were 
acceptable,  but  because,  if  there  was  any  blemish 
whatever  in  them,  he  himself  could  not  endure  it. 
For  nothing  stands  out  so  conspicuously,  or  remains 
so  firmly  fixed  in  the  memory,  as  something  in  which 

130  you  have  blundered.  And  so,  to  take  this  com- 
parison  with  this  player  as  our  standard  of  an  orator's 
merit,  do  you  not  see  how  he  does  nothing  other- 
wise  than  perfectly,  nothing  without  consummate 
charm,  nothing  save  in  the  manner  befitting  the 
occasion,  and  so  as  to  move  and  enchant  everybody  ? 
Accordingly  he  has  long  ago  brought  it  about  that, 
in  whatsoever  craft  a  man  excelled,  the  same  was 
called  a  Roscius  in  his  own  line.  For  myself,  in 
demanding  in  an  orator  this  absolute  perfection, 
from  which  I  myself  am  far  removed,  I  am  behaving 
shamelessly,  since  I  want  forgiveness  for  myself,  but 
I  do  not  forgive  the  others.  For  the  man  who  is 
without  ability,  who  makes  mistakes,  whose  claim — 

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ApoUonius  iubebat — ad  id,  quod  facere  possit,  detru- 
dendum  puto. 

131  XXIX.  Num  tu  igitur,  inquit  Sulpicius,  me,  aut 
hunc  Cottam,  ius  civile,  aut  rem  militarem  iubes 
discere  ?  Nam  quis  ad  ista  summa  atque  in  omni 
genere  perfecta,  potest  pervenire  ?  Tum  ille  :  Ego 
vero,  inquit,  quod  in  vobis  egregiam  quamdam 
ac  praeclaram  indolem  ad  dicendum  esse  cognovi, 
idcirco  haec  exposui  omnia  ;  nec  magis  ad  eos  deter- 
rendos,  qui  non  possent,  quam  ad  vos,  qui  possetis, 
exacuendos  accommodavi  orationem  meam ;  et 
quanquam  in  utroque  vestrum  summum  esse  in- 
genium  studiumque  perspexi,  tamen  haec,  quae  sunt 
in  specie  posita,  de  quibus  plura  fortasse  dixi,  quam 

132  solent  Graeci  dicere,  in  te,  Sulpici,  divina  sunt.  Ego 
enim  neminem,  nec  motu  corporis,  neque  ipso  habitu 
atque  forma  aptiorem,  nec  voce  pleniorem,  aut  sua- 
viorem  mihi  videor  audisse  ;  quae  quibus  a  natura 
minora  data  sunt,  tamen  illud  assequi  possunt,  ut  eis, 
quae  habeant,  modice  et  scienter  utantur,  et  ut  ne 
dedeceat.  Id  enim  est  maxime  vitandum,  et  de  hoc 
uno  minime  est  facile  praecipere,  non  mihi  modo,  qui 
sicut  unus  paterfamihas  his  de  rebus  loquor,  sed  etiam 
ipsi  iUi  Roscio  ;  quem  saepe  audio  dicere,  caput  esse 
artis,  decere  :   quod  tamen  unum  id  esse,  quod  tradi 

133  arte  non  possit.     Sed,  si  placet,  sermonem  alio  trans- 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxviii.  130— xxix.  133 

in  a  word — does  him  discredit,  should  in  my  judge- 
ment,  as  Apollonius  directed,  be  thrust  down  to  such 
work  as  he  can  perform." 

131      XXIX.  "  Would  you  then,"  said  Sulpicius,  "  direct  xhenaturai 
Cotta  here,  or  myself,  to  be  studying  the  common  law  sJ[*pj°fu3 
or  the  soldier's  art  ?     For  who  can  attain  to  that  and  Cotta : 
sublime  and  universal  perfection  which  you  demand  ?  " 
And    the    other    answered  :    "  For   my   part,   it    is 
precisely  because  I  recognized  in  you  two  a  really 
remarkable  and  indeed  splendid  genius  for  oratory, 
that  I  have  set  forth  all  these  considerations,  while 
to    stimulate    you    men    of    ability    no    less    than 
to   discourage   the   inefficient  is   the   object  of    my 
discourse  ;    and    although   I  have  noted  in  both  of 
you  talent  and  industry  of  the  highest  order,  still 
as  regards  these  advantages  which  depend  upon  the 
outer  man,  concerning  which   I  have  perhaps  said 
more  than  the  Greeks  are  wont  to  do,  as  manifested 

1.32  in  yourself,  Sulpicius,  they  are  divine.  For  never,  I 
think,  did  I  listen  to  a  speaker  better  qualified  in 
respect  of  gesture,  and  by  his  very  bearing  and 
presence,  or  to  one  with  a  voice  more  resonant  and 
pleasing  ;  while  those  on  whom  these  gifts  have  been 
bestowed  by  nature  in  smaller  measure,  can  none  the 
less  acquire  the  power  to  use  what  they  have  with 
propriety  and  discernment,  and  so  as  to  show  no  lack 
of  good  taste.  For  lack  of  that  is  above  all  else  to  be 
avoided,  and  as  to  this  particular  failing  it  is  especially 
difficult  to  lay  down  rules,  difficult  not  only  for  me,  who 
talk  of  these  matters  hke  papa  laying  down  the  law, 
but  even  for  the  great  Roscius  himself ;  whom  I  often 
hear  affirming  that  the  chief  thing  in  art  is  to  observe 
good  taste,  though  how  to  do  this  is  the  one  thing 

133  that  cannot  be  taught  by  art.     But,  by  your  leave, 

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feramus,  et  nostro  more  aliquando,  non  rhetorico, 
loquamur. 

Minime  vero,  inquit  Cotta  :  nunc  enim  te  iam 
exoremus  necesse  est,  quoniam  retines  nos  in  hoc 
studio,  nec  ad  aliam  dimittis  artem,  ut  nobis  explices, 
quidquid  est  istud,  quod  tu  in  dicendo  potes  ;  neque 
enim  sumus  nimis  avidi :  ista  tua  mediocri  eloquentia 
contenti  sumus,  idque  ex  te  quaerimus — ut  ne  plus 
nos  assequamur,  quam  quantulum  tu  in  dicendo  as- 
secutus  es — ,  quoniam,  quae  a  natura  expetenda  sunt, 
ea  dicis  non  nimis  deesse  nobis,  quid  praeterea  esse 
assumendum  putes. 

134  XXX.  Tum  Crassus  arridens  :  Quid  censes,  inquit, 
Cotta,  nisi  studium,  et  ardorem  quemdam  amoris .'' 
sine  quo  cum  in  vita  nihil  quidquam  egregium, 
tum  certe  hoc,  quod  tu  expetis,  nemo  unquam  as- 
sequetur.  Neque  vero  vos  ad  eam  rem  video  esse 
cohortandos  ;  quos,  cum  mihi  quoque  sitis  molesti, 

135  nimis  etiam  flagrare  intellego  cupiditate.  Sed  pro- 
fecto  studia  nihil  prosunt  perveniendi  aliquo,  nisi 
illud,  quod  eo,  quo  intendas,  ferat  deducatque, 
cognoris.  Quare,  quoniam  mihi  levius  quoddam  onus 
imponitis,  neque  ex  me  de  oratoris  arte,  sed  de  hac 
mea,  quantulacumque  est,  facultate  quaeritis,  ex- 
ponam  vobis  quamdam,  non  aut  perreconditam,  aut 
valde  difficilem,  aut  magnificam,  aut  gravem  ra- 
tionem  consuetudinis  meae,  qua  quondam  solitus  sum 

94 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxix.  133— xxx.  135 

let  us  shift  our  conversation  to  other  subjects,  and 
chat  at  last  in  our  own  fashion,  and  not  as 
rhetoricians." 

"  On  no  account  whatever,"  returned  Cotta : 
"  for  since  you  keep  us  in  this  pursuit  and  do  not 
send  us  away  to  some  other  art,  we  must  now  further 
beseech  you  to  explain  to  us  your  own  power  in 
oratory,  however  much  you  make  it  out  to  be ; — for 
we  are  not  too  greedy :  we  are  quite  content  with 
what  you  call  your  '  ordinary  eloquence  ' — and  (so 
as  not  to  outstrip  that  small  degree  of  skill  you  have 
attained  as  a  speaker),  since  you  tell  us  that  the 
qualities  to  be  sought  from  nature  are  not  excessively 
deficient  in  ourselves,  the  thing  we  ynsh  to  know  from 
you  is  what  further  requisite  you  consider  should  be 
acquired." 

134  XXX.  Crassus  smiled  at  this  and  replied  :  "  What  their  need 
else  do  you  suppose,  Cotta,  but  enthusiasm  and  some-  °^  trammg 
thing  hke  the  passion  of  love  ?  without  which  no  man 

will  ever  attain  anything  in  Ufe  that  is  out  of  the 
common,  least  of  all  this  success  which  you  covet. 
Not  that  I  look  upon  you  two  as  needing  incitement 
in  that  direction,  perceiving  as  I  do,  from  the  trouble 
you  are  giving  even  to  myself,  that  you  are  aflame 

135  with  only  too  fervent  a  desire.  Yet  assuredly 
endeavours  to  reach  any  goal  avail  nothing  unless 
you  have  learned  what  it  is  which  leads  you  to  the 
end  at  which  you  aim.  And  so,  since  the  burden  you 
lay  upon  me  is  a  Ughter  one,  and  you  are  not  examin- 
ing  me  in  the  art  of  oratory,  but  as  to  this  abiUty  of 
my  own,  however  insignificant  it  is,  I  will  explain 
to  you  my  habitual  method,  nothing  particularly 
mysterious  or  exceedingly  difficult,  nothing  grand 
or  imposing,  just  the  plan  I  used  to  follow  in  bygone 

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uti,   cum    mihi    in    isto    studio   versari    adolescenti 
licebat. 

136  Tum  Sulpicius  :  O  diem,  Cotta,  nobis,  inquit,  op- 
tatum  !  quod  enim  neque  precibus  unquam,  nec 
insidiando,  nec  speculando  assequi  potui,  ut,  quid 
Crassus  ageret,  meditandi  aut  dicendi  causa,  non 
modo  videre  mihi,  sed  ex  eius  scriptore  et  lectore 
Diphilo  suspicari  liceret ;  id  spero  nos  esse  adeptos, 
omniaque  iam  ex  ipso,  quae  diu  cupimus,  cognituros. 

137  XXXI.  Tum  Crassus  :  Atqui  arbitror,  Sulpici,  cum 
audieris,  non  tam  te  haec  admiraturum,  quae  dixero, 
quam  existimaturum,  tum,  cum  ea  audire  cupiebas, 
causam  cur  cuperes,  non  fuisse.  Nihil  enim  dicam 
reconditum,  nihil  exspectatione  vestra  dignum,  nihil 
aut  inauditum  vobis,  aut  cuiquam  novum.  Nam 
principio  illud,  quod  est  homine  ingenuo  Hberali- 
terque  educato  dignum,  non  negabo  me  ista  omnium 

138  communia  et  contrita  praecepta  didicisse  :  primum 
oratoris  officium  esse,  dicere  ad  persuadendum  ac- 
commodate  ;  deinde,  esse  omnem  orationem  aut  de 
infinitae  rei  quaestione,  sine  designatione  personarum 
et  temporum,  aut  de  re  certis  in  personis  ac  tem- 

139  poribus  locata ;  in  utraque  autem  re  quidquid  in 
controversiam  veniat,  in  eo  quaeri  solere,  aut  fac- 
tumne  sit,  aut,  si  est  factum,  quale  sit,  aut  etiam  quo 
nomine  vocetur,  aut,  quod  nonnulH  addunt,  rectene 

140  factum  esse  videatur ;  exsistere  autem  controversias 

96 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxx.  135— xxxi.  139 

times,  when  I  was  a  young  man,  with  liberty  to  busy 
myself  in  that  pursuit  of  yours." 

At  these  words  Sulpicius  exclaimed :  "  Cotta, 
behold  our  longed-for  day  !  For  the  thing  that  by 
entreaties,  or  lying  in  wait,  or  spying,  I  could  never 
secure, — I  mean  a  chance  of  observing  what  Crassus 
was  doing  for  the  purposes  of  training  or  rehearsal, 
I  do  not  say  at  first-hand,  but  at  least  by  getting 
some  hint  from  Diphilus,  his  secretary  and  reader, — 
this  I  hope  you  and  I  have  gained,  and  we  are  now 
to  learn  from  his  own  Hps  everything  that  we  have 
long  been  desiring." 

XXXI.  "  And  yet  I  think,  Sulpicius,"  continued  The  school 
Crassus,  "  that  after  hearing  them  you  will  be  less  rhetoric. 
hkely  to  wonder  at  my  observations  than  to  decide 
that,  when  you  were  longing  to  hear  them,  there 
was  no  ground  for  your  longing.  For  I  shall  tell 
no  mystery,  nothing  worthy  of  your  waiting, 
nothing  that  you  have  not  heard  already,  or  that  is 
new  to  anyone.  For  to  begin  with,  in  regard  to 
what  befits  a  free-born  man  of  hberal  education,  I 
will  not  deny  that  I  learned  those  commonplace  and 
well-worn  maxims  of  teachers  in  general  :  first,  that 
the  duty  of  an  orator  is  to  speak  in  a  style  fitted  to 
convince  ;  next,  that  every  speech  has  to  do  either 
with  the  investigation  of  a  general  question,  wherein 
no  persons  or  occasions  are  indicated,  or  with  a 
problem  that  is  concerned  with  specific  individuals 
and  times  ;  moreover  that  in  both  cases,  whatever 
the  subject  for  debate,  it  is  usual  for  inquiry  to  be 
made  in  respect  thereof,  either  whether  a  deed  was 
done  or,  if  it  was  done,  what  is  its  character,  or 
again  by  what  name  is  it  known  or,  as  some  add, 
whether  it   appears   to  have   been   done   lawfully  ; 

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CICERO 

etiam  ex  scripti  interpretatione,  in  quo  aut  ambigue 
quid  sit  scriptum,  aut  contrarie,  aut  ita,  ut  a  sententia 
scriptum    dissideat :     his    autem    omnibus   partibus 

141  subiecta  quaedam  esse  argumenta  propria.  Sed 
causarum,  quae  sint  a  communi  quaestione  seiunctae, 
partim  in  iudiciis  versari,  partim  in  deliberationibus ; 
esse  etiam  genus  tertium,  quod  in  laudandis  aut 
vituperandis  hominibus  poneretur  ;  certosque  esse 
locos,  quibus  in  iudiciis  uteremur,  in  quibus  aequitas 
quaereretur  ;  alios  in  deliberationibus,  qui  omnes  ad 
utilitatem  dirigerentur  eorum,  quibus  consilium  dare- 
mus  :    alios  item  in  laudationibus,  in  quibus  ad  per- 

142  sonarum  dignitatem  omnia  referrentur.  Cumque 
esset  omnis  oratoris  vis  ac  facultas  in  quinque  partes 
distributa ;  ut  deberet  reperire  primum,  quid  diceret; 
deinde  inventa  non  solum  ordine,  sed  etiam  momento 
quodam  atque  iudicio  dispensare  atque  componere  ; 
tum  ea  denique  vestire  atque  ornare  oratione  ;  post 
memoria  saepire  ;  ad  extremum  agere  cum  dignitate 

143  ac  venustate  :  etiam  illa  cognoram,  et  acceperam, 
antequam  de  re  diceremus,  initio  conciliandos  eorum 
esse  animos,  qui  audirent  ;  deinde  rem  demonstran- 
dam  ;  postea  controversiam  constituendam  ;  tum  id, 
quod  nos  intenderemus,  confirmandum  ;  post,  quae 
contra  dicerentur,  refellenda  ;  extrema  autem  ora- 
tione,  ea,  quae  pro  nobis  essent,  amplificanda  et 
augenda  ;  quaeque  essent  pro  adversariis,  infirmanda 
atque  frangenda. 


"  These  loci  communes  are  the  *stock'  arguments  and 
general  reflexions  referred  to  in  §  56  supra. 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxi.  140-143 

140  further  that  contentions  also  arise  out  of  the  con- 
struction  of  a  document,  wherein  there  is  some 
ambiguity  or  contradiction,  or  something  is  so 
expressed  that  the  written  word  is  at  variance  with 
the  intention  ;  and  again  that  to  all  these  kinds 
certain  modes  of  proof  are  assigned  as  appropriate. 

141  Again  I  heard  that,  of  such  questions  as  are  distinct 
from  general  issues,  some  have  their  place  in  courts 
of  justice,  others  in  deliberations  ;  while  there  was 
yet  a  third  kind,  which  had  to  do  with  the  extolUng 
or  reviling  of  particular  persons  ;  and  that  there  were 
prescribed  commonplaces  "  which  we  were  to  employ 
in  the  law-courts  where  equity  was  our  aim  ;  others 
for  use  in  dehberations,  all  of  which  were  arranged 
for  the  benefit  of  those  to  whom  we  might  be  giving 
counsel ;  and  others  again  in  panegyric,  wherein 
the   sole   consideration   was   the   greatness   of  the 

142  individuals  concerned.  And,  since  all  the  activity 
and  ability  of  an  orator  falls  into  five  divisions,  I 
learned  that  he  must  first  hit  upon  what  to  say  ; 
then  manage  and  marshal  his  discoveries,  not  merely 
in  orderly  fashion,  but  with  a  discriminating  eye  for 
the  exact  weight  as  it  were  of  each  argument ;  next 
go  on  to  array  them  in  the  adornments  of  style ;  after 
that  keep  them  guarded  in  his  memory  ;  and  in  the 

143  end  deliver  them  with  effect  and  charm :  I  had  also 
been  taught  that,  before  speaking  on  the  issue,  we 
must  first  secure  the  goodwill  of  our  audience  ;  that 
next  we  must  state  our  case  ;  afterwards  define  the 
dispute  ;  then  establish  our  own  allegations ;  sub- 
sequently  disprove  those.  of  the  other  side  ;  and  in 
our  peroration  expand  and  reinforce  all  that  was 
in  our  favour,  while  we  weakened  and  demolished 
whatever  went  to  support  our  opponents. 

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144  XXXII.  Audieram  etiam,  quae  de  orationis  ipsius 
ornamentis  traderentur  :  in  qua  praecipitur  primum, 
ut  pure  et  latine  loquamur  ;  deinde  ut  plane  et 
dilucide  ;  tum  ut  ornate  ;  post  ad  rerum  dignitatem 
apte  et  quasi  decore  :    singularumque  rerum  prae- 

145  cepta  cognoram.  Quin  etiam,  quae  maxime  propria 
essent  naturae,  tamen  his  ipsis  artem  adhiberi  vide- 
ram  :  nam  de  actione  et  de  memoria  quaedam  brevia, 
sed  magna  cum  exercitatione  praecepta  gustaram. 

In  his  enim  fere  rebus  omnis  istorum  artificum  doc- 
trina  versatur,  quam  ego  si  nihil  dicam  adiuvare, 
mentiar.  Habet  enim  quaedam  quasi  ad  commonen- 
dum  oratorem,  quo  quidque  referat,  et  quo  intuens, 
ab  eo,  quodcumque  sibi  proposuerit,  minus  aberret. 

146  Verum  ego  hanc  vim  intellego  esse  in  praeceptis 
omnibus,  non  ut  ea  secuti  oratores,  eloquentiae 
laudem  sint  adepti,  sed,  quae  sua  sponte  homines 
eloquentes  facerent,  ea  quosdam  observasse  atque 
collegisse  ;  sic  esse  non  eloquentiam  ex  artificio,  sed 
artificium  ex  eloquentia  natum  :  quod  tamen,  ut 
ante  dixi,  non  eiicio  :  est  enim,  etiamsi  minus  neces- 
sarium  ad  bene  dicendum,  tamen  ad  cognoscendum 

J47  non  ilUberale.  Et  exercitatio  quaedam  suscipienda 
vobis  est :  quanquam  vos  quidem  iampridem  estis  in 
cursu  ;  sed  eis,  qui  ingrediuntur  in  stadium,  quique 
ea,  quae  agenda  sunt  in  foro,  tanquam  in  acie,  pos- 
sunt  etiam  nunc  exercitatione  quasi  ludicra  prae- 
discere  ac  meditari. 

100 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxii.  144-147 

144  XXXII.  "I  had  listened   also  to  the  traditional  Raies  of 
precepts  tor  the  embellishment  of  discourse  itself : 

that  we  must  speak,  in  the  first  place,  pure  and 
correct  Latin,  secondly  with  simple  lucidity,  thirdly 
with  elegance,  lastly  in  a  manner  befitting  the 
dignity  of  our  topics  and  with  a  certain  grace  ;  and 
on    these    several    points    I    had    learnt    particular 

145  maxims.  Moreover  I  had  seen  art  called  in  to  aid 
even  those  qualities  which  are  peculiarly  the  endow- 
ment  of  nature :  for  example,  concerning  deUvery 
and  the  memory,  I  had  taken  a  taste  of  certain  rules 
which,  though  concise,  involved  much  practice. 

"  For  it  is  matters  like  these  that  employ  nearly  Practice 
all  the  learning  of  your  professors  ;  and  if  I  were  essentiai. 
to  call  this  learning  useless,  I  should  be  lying. 
For  in  fact  it  contains  certain  reminders,  as  it  were, 
for  the  orator,  as  to  the  standard  he  must  apply  on 
each  occasion,  and  must  keep  in  mind,  if  he  is  not 
to  wander  from  whatever  course  he  has  set  himself. 

146  But  to  my  thinking  the  virtue  in  all  the  rules  is,  not 
that  orators  by  follovidng  them  have  won  a  reputation 
for  eloquence,  but  that  certain  persons  have  noted 
and  collected  the  doings  of  men  who  were  naturally 
eloquent :  thus  eloquence  is  not  the  ofFspring  of  the 
art,  but  the  art  of  eloquence :  even  so,  as  I  said  before, 
I  do  not  reject  art,  for  though  perhaps  hardly  essential 
to  right  speaking,  still  it  is  no  ignoble  help  towards 

147  right  knowledge.  There  is  also  a  certain  practical 
training  that  you  must  undergo — though  indeed  you 
two  are  already  in  full  career, — I  mean  it  is  for  those 
who  are  at  the  start  of  their  race,  and  can  even  thus 
early  learn  beforehand  and  practise,  by  a  training 
Uke  that  for  the  games,  what  will  have  to  be  done  in 
the  fighting-line,  so  to  speak,  of  the  Courts." 

101 


CICERO 

148  Hanc  ipsam,  inquit  Sulpicius,  nosse  volumus  : 
attamen  ista,  quae  abs  te  breviter  de  arte  decursa 
sunt,  audire  cupimus,  quanquam  sunt  nobis  quoque 
non  inaudita.  Verum  illa  mox  :  nunc,  de  ipsa  exerci- 
tatione  quid  sentias,  quaerimus. 

149  XXXIII.  Equidem  probo  ista,  Crassus  inquit, 
quae  vos  facere  soletis,  ut,  causa  aliqua  posita  con- 
simili  causarum  earum,  quae  in  forum  deferuntur, 
dicatis  quam  maxime  ad  veritatem  accommodate. 
Sed  plerique  in  hoc  vocem  modo,  neque  eam  scienter, 
et  vires  exercent  suas,  et  linguae  celeritatem  incitant, 
verborumque  frequentia  delectantur.  In  quo  fallit 
eos,   quod  audierunt,   dicendo  homines,  ut  dicant, 

150  efficere  solere.  Vere  enim  etiam  illud  dicitur,  per- 
verse  dicere,  homines,  perverse  dicendo,  facillime 
consequi.  Quam  ob  rem  in  istis  ipsis  exercitationibus, 
etsi  utile  est,  etiam  subito  saepe  dicere,  tamen  illud 
utilius,  sumpto  spatio  ad  cogitandum,  paratius  atque 
accuratius  dicere.  Caput  autem  est,  quod,  ut  vere 
dicam,minime  facimus — est  enim  magni  laboris,quem 
plerique  fugimus — ,  quam  plurimum  scribere.  Stilus 
optimus  et  praestantissimus  dicendi  effector  ac  ma- 
gister  :  neque  iniuria.  Nam  si  subitam  et  fortuitam 
orationem  commentatio  et  cogitatio  facile  vincit ; 
hanc  ipsam  profecto  assidua  ac  diligens  scriptura 

151  superabit.  Omnes  enim,  sive  artis  sunt  loci,  sive 
ingenii  cuiusdam  atque  prudentiae,  qui  modo  insunt 
in   ea  re,   de   qua   scribimus,   anquirentibus   nobis, 

103 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxii.  148— xxxiii.  151 

148  "  This  training,"  said  Sulpicius,  "  is  the  very  thing 
we  wish  to  understand :  and  none  the  less  we  are 
longing  to  hear  you  on  those  precepts  of  the  art  over 
which  you  have  briefly  run,  although  those  too  are 
not  unknown  to  us.  But  of  them  presently  ;  for  the 
moment  we  want  your  opinion  on  the  training  itself." 

149  XXXIII.  "  I  certainly  approve,"  replied  Crassus,  Ruiesfor 

"  of  what  you  yourselves  are  in  the  habit  of  doing,  l^^^^^ 
when  you  propound  some  case,  closely  resembling 
such  as  are  brought  into  Court,  and  argue  it  in  a 
fashion  adapted  as  nearly  as  possible  to  real  Ufe. 
Most  students  however,  in  so  doing,  merely  exercise 
their  voices  (and  that  in  the  wrong  way),  and  their 
physical  strength,  and  whip  up  their  rate  of  utterance, 
and  revel  in  a  flood  of  verbiage.  This  mistake  is  due 
to  their  having  heard  it  said  that  it  is  by  speaking 

150  that  men  as  a  rule  become  speakers.  But  that  other 
adage  is  just  as  true, — that  by  speaking  badly  men 
very  easily  succeed  in  becoming  bad  speakers.  This 
is  why,  in  those  exercises  of  your  own,  though  there 
is  a  value  in  plenty  of  extempore  speaking,  it  is  still 
more  serviceable  to  take  time  for  consideration,  and 
to  speak  better  prepared  and  more  carefully.  But 
the  chief  thing  is  what,  to  tell  the  truth,  we  do  least 
(for  it  needs  great  pains  which  most  of  us  shirk), — 
to  write  as  much  as  possible.  The  pen  is  the  best  and 
most  eminent  author  and  teacher  of  eloquence,  and 
rightly  so.  For  if  an  extempore  and  casual  speech  is 
easily  beaten  by  one  prepared  and  thought-out,  this 
latter  in  turn  will  assuredly  be  surpassed  by  what  has 

161  been  ^vritten  with  care  and  diligence.  The  truth  is 
that  all  the  commonplaces,  whether  furnished  by  art 
or  by  individual  talent  and  wisdom,  at  any  rate  such 
as  appertain  to  the  subject  of  our  writing,  appear 

103 


CICERO 

omnique  acie  ingenii  contemplantibus  ostendunt  se 
et  occurrunt ;  omnesque  sententiae,  verbaque  omnia, 
quae  sunt  cuiusque  generis  maxime  illustria,  sub 
acumen  stili  subeant  et  succedant  necesse  est ;  tum 
ipsa  collocatio  conformatioque  verborum  perficitur  in 
scribendo,  non  poetico,  sed  quodam  oratorio  numero 
et  modo. 
162  Haec  sunt,  quae  clamores  et  admirationes  in  bonis 
oratoribus  efficiunt ;  neque  ea  quisquam,  nisi  diu 
multumque  scriptitarit,  etiamsi  vehementissime  se  in 
his  subitis  dictionibus  exercuerit,  consequetur  ;  et 
qui  a  scribendi  consuetudine  ad  dicendum  venit,  hanc 
afFert  facultatem,  ut,  etiam  subito  si  dicat,  tamen  illa, 
quae  dicantur,  similia  scriptorum  esse  videantur ; 
atque  etiam,  si  quando  in  dicendo  scriptum  attulerit 
aliquid,  cum  ab  eo  discesserit,  reliqua  similis  oratio 

153  consequetur.  Ut  concitato  navigio,  cum  remiges 
inhibuerunt,  retinet  tamen  ipsa  navis  motum  et  cur- 
sum  suum,  intermisso  impetu  pulsuque  remorum  : 
sic  in  oratione  perpetua,  cum  scripta  deficiunt, 
parem  tamen  obtinet  oratio  reliqua  cursum,  scrip- 
torum  similitudine  et  vi  concitata. 

154  XXXIV.  In  quotidianis  autem  commentationibus 
equidem  mihi  adolescentulus  proponere  solebam 
illam  exercitationem  maxime,  qua  C.  Carbonem, 
nostrum  illum  inimicum,  sohtum  esse  uti  sciebam,  ut 
aut  versibus  propositis  quam  maxime  gravibus,  aut 

104 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxiii.  151— xxxiv.  154 

and  rush  forward  as  we  are  searching  out  and 
surveying  the  matter  with  all  our  natural  acute- 
ness  ;  and  all  the  thoughts  and  expressions,  which 
are  the  most  brilliant  in  their  several  kinds,  must 
needs  flow  up  in  succession  to  the  point  of  our  pen ; 
then  too  the  actual  marshalling  and  arrangement 
of  words  is  made  perfect  in  the  course  of  writing,  in 
a  rhythm  and  measure  proper  to  oratory  as  distinct 
from  poetry. 

152  "  These  are  the  things  which  in  good  orators  pro- 
duce  applause  and  admiration  ;  and  no  man  will 
attain  these  except  by  long  and  large  practice  in 
writing,  however  ardently  he  may  have  trained 
himself  in  those  ofF-hand  declamations ;  he  too 
who  approaches  oratory  by  way  of  long  practice  in 
writing,  brings  this  advantage  to  his  task,  that  even 
if  he  is  extemporizing,  whatever  he  may  say  bears  a 
likeness  to  the  written  word  ;  and  moreover  if  ever, 
during  a  speech,  he  has  introduced  a  written  note, 
the  rest  of  his  discourse,  when  he  turns  away  from 

153  tJie  writing,  will  proceed  in  unchanging  style.  Just 
as  when  a  boat  is  moving  at  high  speed,  if  the  crew 
rest  upon  their  oars,  the  craft  iherself  still  keeps  her 
way  and  her  run,  though  the  driving  force  of  the 
oars  has  ceased,  so  in  an  unbroken  discourse,  when 
written  notes  are  exhausted,  the  rest  of  the  speech 
still  maintains  a  like  progress,  under  the  impulse 
given  by  the  similarity  and  energy  of  the  written 
word. 

164  XXXIV.  "  For  my  part,  in  the  daily  exercises  of 
youth,  I  used  chiefly  to  set  myself  that  task  which 
I  knew  Gaius  Carbo,  my  old  enemy,  was  wont  to 
practise  :  this  was  to  set  myself  some  poetry,  the 
most  impressive  to  be  found,  or  to  read  as  much  of 
E  105 


CICERO 

oratione  aliqua  lecta  ad  eum  finem,  quem  memoria 
possem  comprehendere,  eam  rem  ipsam,  quam  legis- 
sem,  verbis  aliis  quam  maxime  possem  lectis,  pro- 
nuntiarem.  Sed  post  animadverti,  hoc  esse  in  hoc 
vitii,  quod  ea  verba,  quae  maxime  cuiusque  rei  pro- 
pria,  quaeque  essent  ornatissima  atque  optima, 
occupasset  aut  Ennius,  si  ad  eius  versus  me  exer- 
cerem,  aut  Gracchus,  si  eius  orationem  mihi  forte 
proposuissem.  Ita,  si  eisdem  verbis  uterer,  nihil 
prodesse  ;  si  aliis,  etiam  obesse,  cum  minus  idoneis 

155  uti  consuescerem.  Postea  mihi  placuit,  eoque  sum 
usus  adolescens,  ut  summorum  oratorum  graecas 
orationes  explicarem.  Quibus  lectis  hoc  assequebar, 
ut,  cum  ea,  quae  legerem  graece,  latine  redderem, 
non  solum  optimis  verbis  uterer,  et  tamen  usitatis, 
sed  etiam  exprimerem  quaedam  verba  imitando,  quae 
nova  nostris  essent,  dummodo  essent  idonea. 

156  lam  vocis,  et  spiritus,  et  totius  corporis,  et  ipsius 
Unguae  motus  et  exercitationes,  non  tam  artis  in- 
digent,  quam  laboris  ;  quibus  in  rebus  habenda  est 
ratio  diligenter,  quos  imitemur,  quorum  similes  veli- 
mus  esse.  Intuendi  nobis  sunt  non  solum  oratores, 
sed  etiam  actores,  ne  mala  consuetudine  ad  aliquam 

257  deformitatem  pravitatemque  veniamus.  Exercenda 
est  etiam  memoria,  ediscendis  ad  verbum  quam 
plurimis  et  nostris  scriptis,  et  alienis.  Atque  in  ea 
exercitatione  non  sane  mihi  disphcet  adhibere,  si 
consueris,    etiam    istam    locorum    simulacrorumque 

"  The  speeches  of  C.  Gracchus  (see  Index)  were  studied 
as  models  in  the  rhetorical  schools  of  the  Empire. 

'  Crassus  is  speaking  of  some  system  of  mnemonics,  such 
as  Antonius  discusses  in  Book  II,  ixxxvi.-lxjucviii. 
106 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxiv.  154-157 

some  speech  as  I  could  keep  in  my  memory,  and  then 
to  declaim  upon  the  actual  subject-matter  of  my 
reading,  choosing  as  far  as  possible  different  words. 
But  later  I  noticed  this  defect  in  my  method, 
that  those  words  which  best  befitted  each  subject, 
and  were  the  most  elegant  and  in  fact  the  best,  had 
been  already  seized  upon  by  Ennius,  if  it  was  on 
his  poetry  that  I  was  practising,  or  by  Gracchus,"  if 
I  chanced  to  have  set  myself  a  speech  of  his.  Thus 
I  saw  that  to  employ  the  same  expressions  profited 
me  nothing,  while  to  employ  others  was  a  positive 
hindrance,  in  that  I  was  forming  the  habit  of  using 

155  the  less  appropriate.  Afterwards  I  resolved, — and 
this  practice  I  followed  when  somewhat  older, — to 
translate  freely  Greek  speeches  of  the  most  eminent 
orators.  The  result  of  reading  these  was  that,  in 
rendering  into  Latin  what  I  had  read  in  Greek, 
I  not  only  found  myself  using  the  best  words — and 
yet  quite  famiUar  ones — but  also  coining  by  analogy 
certain  words  such  as  would  be  new  to  our  people, 
provided  only  they  were  appropriate. 

156  "  To  proceed,  the  control  and  training  of  voice, 
breathing,  gestures  and  the  tongue  itself,  call  for 
exertion  rather  than  art ;  and  in  these  matters  we 
must  carefully  consider  whom  we  are  to  take  as 
patterns,  whom  we  should  wish  to  be  like.  We  have 
to  study  actors  as  well  as  orators,  that  bad  practice 
may  not  lead  us  into  some  inelegant  or  ugly  habit. 

157  The  memory  too  must  be  trained  by  carefully 
learning  by  heart  as  many  pieces  as  possible  both 
from  our  Latin  writers  and  the  foreigner.  Moreover 
in  this  work  I  do  not  altogether  dislike  the  use  as 
well,  if  you  are  accustomed  to  it,  of  that  system  of 
associating  commonplaces  with  symbols  *  which  is 

107 


CICERO 

rationem,  quae  in  arte  traditur.  Educenda  deinde 
dictio  est  ex  hac  domestica  exercitatione  et  umbratili 
medium  in  agmen,  in  pulverem,  in  clamorem,  in 
castra,  atque  in  aciem  forensem  ;  subeundus  usus 
omnium,  et  periclitandae  vires  ingenii  ;  et  illa  com- 
mentatio  inclusa  in  veritatis  lucem  proferenda  est. 

158  Legendi  etiam  poetae,  cognoscenda  historia,  omnium 
bonarum  artium  scriptores  ac  doctores  et  legendi,  et 
pervolutandi,  et  exercitationis  causa  laudandi,  inter- 
pretandi,  corrigendi,  vituperandi,  refellendi ;  dis- 
putandumque  de  omni  re  in  contrarias  partes,  et, 
quidquid  erit  in  quaque  re,  quod  probabile  videri 

159  possit,  eliciendum  atque  dicendum  ;  perdiscendum 
ius  civile,  cognoscendae  leges,  percipienda  om- 
nis  antiquitas,  senatoria  consuetudo,  disciplina  rei- 
publicae,  iura  sociorum,  foedera,  pactiones,  causa 
imperii  cognoscenda  est :  libandus  est  etiam  ex 
omni  genere  urbanitatis  facetiarum  quidam  lepos ; 
quo,  tanquam  sale,  perspergatur  omnis  oratio. 

EfFudi  vobis  omnia,  quae  sentiebam,  quae  fortasse, 
quemcumque  patremfamilias  arripuissetis  ex  aliquo 
circulo,  eadem  vobis  percunctantibus  respondisset. 

160  XXXV.  Haec  cum  Crassus  dixisset,  silentium  est 
consecutum.  Sed  quanquam  satis  eis,  qui  aderant, 
ad  id,  quod  erat  propositum,  dictum  videbatur,  tamen 
sentiebant  celerius  esse  multo,  quam  ipsi  vellent,  ab 
eo  peroratum.  Tum  Scaevola  :  Quid  est,  Cotta  ? 
inquit,  quid  tacetis  ?  Nihilne  vobis  in  mentem  venit, 
quod  praeterea  a  Crasso  requiratis  ? 

108 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxiv.  157— xxxv.  160 

taught  in  the  profession.  Then  at  last  must  our 
Oratory  be  conducted  out  of  this  sheltered  training- 
ground  at  home,  right  into  action,  into  the  dust  and 
uproar,  into  the  camp  and  the  fighting-line  of  public 
debate ;  she  must  face  putting  everything  to  the 
proof  and  test  the  strength  of  her  talent,  and  her 
secluded  preparation  must  be  brought  forth  into  the 

158  daylight  of  reality.  We  must  also  read  the  poets, 
acquaint  ourselves  with  histories,  study  and  peruse 
the  masters  and  authors  in  every  excellent  art,  and 
by  way  of  practice  praise,  expound,  emend,  criticize 
and  confute  them  ;  we  must  argue  every  question  on 
both  sides,  and  bring  out  on  every  topic  whatever 

159  points  can  be  deemed  plausible ;  besides  this  we 
must  become  learned  in  the  common  law  and  familiar 
with  the  statutes,  and  must  contemplate  all  the  olden 
time,  and  investigate  the  ways  of  the  senate,  political 
philosophy,  the  rights  of  allies,  the  treaties  and 
conventions,  and  the  policy  of  empire ;  and  lastly 
we  have  to  cull,  from  all  the  forms  of  pleasantry, 
a  certain  charm  of  humour,  with  which  to  give  a 
sprinkle  of  salt,  as  it  were,  to  all  of  our  discourse. 

"  Well,  I  have  poured  out  for  you  all  my  ideas,  and 
perhaps  any  chance  patriarch,  upon  whom  you  had 
fastened  at  some  party  or  other,  would  have  given 
the  same  replies  to  your  interrogatories." 

160  XXXV.  When  Crassus  had  finished  these  observa-  Further 
tions,   a  general  silence   ensued.     But  though  the  re^ested. 
company  held  that  he  had  said  enough  on  the  topic 
propounded  to  him,  yet  they  felt  that  he  had  ended 

far  more  speedily  than  they  could  have  wished.  Then 
Scaevola  inquired,  "  Well,  Cotta,  why  are  you  two 
silent  ?  Does  nothing  come  to  mind  on  which  you 
would  like  to  question  Crassus  further  ?  " 

109 


CICERO 

161  Immo  id  mehercule,  inquit,  ipsum  attendo.  Tantus 
enim  cursus  verborum  fuit,  et  sic  evolavit  oratio,  ut 
eius  vim  atque  incitationem  aspexerim,  vestigia 
ingressumque  vix  viderim ;  et  tanquam  in  aliquam 
locupletem  ac  refertam  domum  venerim,  non  ex- 
plicata  veste,  neque  proposito  argento,  neque  tabulis 
et  signis  propalam  collocatis,  sed  his  omnibus  mul- 
tis  magnificisque  rebus  constructis  ac  reconditis  :  sic 
modo  in  oratione  Crassi  divitias  atque  ornamenta  eius 
ingenii  per  quaedam  involucra  atque  integumenta 
perspexi ;  sed  ea  cum  contemplari  cuperem,  vix 
aspiciendi  potestas  fuit.  Ita  neque  hoc  possum 
dicere,  me  omnino  ignorare,  quid  possideat,  neque 
plane  nosse,  ac  vidisse. 

162  Quin  tu  igitur  facis  idem,  inquit  Scaevola,  quod 
faceres,  si  in  aliquam  domum,  plenam  ornamentorum, 
villamve  venisses  ?  Si  ea  seposita,  ut  dicis,  essent,  tu 
valde  spectandi  cupidus  esses  ;  non  dubitares  rogare 
dominum,  ut  proferri  iuberet,  praesertim  si  esses 
familiaris.  Simihter  nunc  petes  a  Crasso,  ut  eam 
copiam  omamentorum  suorum,  quam  constructam 
uno  in  loco,  quasi  per  transennam  praetereuntes 
strictim  aspeximus,  in  lucem  proferat,  et  suo  quid- 
que  in  loco  collocet  ? 

163  Ego  vero,  inquit  Cotta,  a  te  peto,  Scaevola — me 
enim,  et  hunc  Sulpicium  impedit  pudor  ab  homine 
omnium  gravissimo,  qui  genus  huiusmodi  disputa- 
tionis  semper  contempserit,  haec,  quae  isti  forsitan 

110 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxv.  161-16S 

161  "  In  truth,"  replied  the  other,  "  that  is  just  what 
I  am  considering.  For  so  great  was  the  speed  of 
his  words,  and  so  swiftly  ^vinged  his  discourse  that, 
while  reahzing  its  rushing  energy,  I  could  hardly 
foUow  the  traces  of  its  advance  ;  and  just  as  though  I 
had  entered  some  richly  stored  mansion,  wherein  the 
draperies  were  not  unrolled,  nor  the  plate  set  forth, 
nor  the  pictures  and  statuary  displayed  to  view,  but 
all  these  many  and  splendid  things  were  piled  to- 
gether  and  hidden  away :  even  so  just  now,  during 
this  discourse  of  Crassus,  I  discerned  the  wealth  and 
magnificence  of  his  talent  as  through  some  wTappings 
and  coverings,  but  though  I  was  longing  to  scrutinize 
them,  I  had  hardly  the  chance  of  a  peep.  And  so  I 
cannot  say  either  that  I  know  nothing  at  all  of  the 
extent  of  his  possessions,  or  that  I  know  and  have 
seen  them  clearly." 

162  "  Why  not  do  then,"  said  Scaevola,  "  as  you  would 
do,  if  you  had  come  to  some  mansion  or  country- 
house  that  was  full  of  objects  of  art  ?  If  these  were 
laid  aside,  as  you  describe,  and  you  had  a  strong 
desire  to  behold  them,  you  would  not  hesitate  to  ask 
the  master  of  the  house  to  order  them  to  be  brought 
out,  especially  if  you  were  his  familiar  friend.  So 
too  now  will  you  beg  Crassus  to  bring  out  into  the 
dayhght  that  abundance  of  his  treasures,  of  which, 
piled  together  in  one  place,  we  in  passing  have  caught 
just  a  gHmpse,  as  through  a  lattice,  and  also  to  set  up 
every  piece  in  its  proper  position  ?  " 

163  "  Nay,"  rephed  Cotta,  "  I  beg  you,  Scaevola,  to 
do  so  (for  modesty  hinders  myself  and  Sulpicius  here 
from  asking  the  most  eminent  of  men,  and  one  who 
has  always  despised  this  kind  of  debate,  about  things 
which  to  him  may  well  seem  the  elementary  con- 

111 


CICERO 

puerorum  elementa  videantur,  exquirere —  :  sed  tu 
hoc  nobis  da,  Scaevola,  et  perfice,  ut  Crassus  haec, 
quae  coarctavit,  et  peranguste  refersit  in  oratione 
sua,  dilatet  nobis  atque  explicet. 

164  Ego  mehercule,  inquit  Mucius,  antea  vestra 
magis  hoc  causa  volebam,  quam  mea  :  neque  enim 
tantopere  hanc  a  Crasso  disputationem  desiderabam, 
quantopere  eius  in  causis  oratione  delector.  Nunc 
vero,  Crasse,  mea  quoque  etiam  causa  rogo,  ut, 
quoniam  tantum  habemus  otii,  quantum  iamdiu  nobis 
non  contigit,  ne  graveris  exaedificare  id  opus,  quod 
instituisti.  Formam  enim  totius  negotii  opinione 
maiorem  melioremque  video ;  quam  vehementer 
probo. 

165  XXXVI.  Enimvero,  inquit  Crassus,  mirari  satis 
non  queo,  etiam  te  haec,  Scaevola,  desiderare,  quae 
neque  ego  teneo,  uti  ei  qui  docent ;  neque  sunt  eius 
generis,  ut,  si  optime  tenerem,  digna  essent  ista 
sapientia  ac  tuis  auribus.  Ain'  tu  ?  inquit  ille.  Si 
de  istis  communibus  et  pervagatis  vix  huic  aetati 
audiendum  putas,  etiamne  illa  neglegere  possumus, 
quae  tu  oratori  cognoscenda  esse  dixisti,  de  naturis 
hominum,  de  moribus,  de  rationibus  eis,  quibus 
hominum  mentes  et  incitarentur  et  reprimerentur, 
de  historia,  de  antiquitate,  de  administratione  rei- 
pubhcae,  denique  de  nostro  ipso  iure  civiU  .''  Hanc 
enim  ego  omnem  scientiam,  et  copiam  rerum  in 
tua    prudentia    sciebam    inesse ;    in    oratoris    vero 

11£ 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxv.  163— xxxvi.  165 

cerns  of  schoolboys)  :  but  do  us  this  favour  yourself, 
Scaevola,  and  persuade  Crassus  to  enlarge  upon  and 
develop  for  us  everything  that  in  his  discourse  he 
has  compressed  and  stufFed  into  the  narrowest  of 
spaces." 

164  "  Truly  for  my  part,"  said  Mucius,  "  at  first  it  was 
more  for  your  sake  than  my  own  that  I  desired  this  : 
for  my  anxiety  to  hear  this  discourse  from  Crassus 
was  not  commensurate  with  the  delight  aiforded  me 
by  his  speeches  in  Court.  But  now,  Crassus,  for  my 
own  sake  as  well  I  ask  you,  since  we  are  enjoying 
leisure  more  ample  than  has  been  allotted  to  us 
for  a  long  time,  not  to  find  it  a  trouble  to  complete 
the  structure  you  have  begun.  For  I  perceive  the 
design  of  the  undertaking  as  a  whole  to  be  better 
and  more  comprehensive  than  I  looked  for  ;  and  one 
of  which  I  heartily  approve." 

165  XXXVI.  "  Well  to  be  sure,"  said  Crassus,  "  I  instances  of 
cannot  feel  surprised  enough,  Scaevola,  that  you  ™fe°g^°°* 
too  should  ask  for  these  things,  which  I  do  not  under-  knowiedge. 
stand  as  do  those  who  teach  them,  and  which  are  not 

of  such  a  nature  that,  even  if  I  understood  them 
perfectly,  they  would  be  worthy  of  your  wisdom  and 
your  ear."  "  You  don't  say  so  !  "  answered  the 
other.  "  Even  if  you  think  these  everyday  and 
hackneyed  maxims  hardly  deserving  of  the  attention 
of  a  man  of  my  years,  can  we  for  all  that  neglect  the 
truths  which,  you  have  told  us,  the  orator  must  know, 
concerning  varieties  of  human  nature,  ethics,  the 
methods  of  kindUng  and  calming  the  minds  of  men, 
history,  ancient  times,  the  government  of  the  State, 
and  lastly  our  own  science  of  common  law  ?  For  I 
knew  that  all  this  knowledge  and  this  multitude  of 
things  were  to  be  found  in  your  wisdom ;  but  I  had 

113 


CICERO 

instrumento    tam    lautam    supellectilem    nunquam 
videram. 

166  Potes  igitur,  inquit  Crassus — ut  alia  omittam 
innumerabilia  et  immensa,  et  ad  ipsum  tuum  ius 
civile  veniam — ,  oratores  putare  eos,  quos  multas 
horas  exspectavit,  cum  in  campum  properaret,  et 
ridens  et  stomachans  Scaevola,  cum  Hypsaeus  ma- 
xima  voce,  plurimis  verbis,  a  M.  Crasso  praetore 
contenderet,  ut  ei,  quem  defendebat,  causa  cadere 
hceret,  Cn.  autem  Octavius,  homo  consularis,  non 
minus  longa  oratione  recusaret,  ne  adversarius  causa 
caderet,  ac  ne  is,  pro  quo  ipse  diceret,  turpi  tutelae 
iudicio,    atque    omni    molestia,  stultitia    adversarii, 

167  hberaretur  ?  Ego  vero  istos,  inquit — memini  enim 
mihi  narrare  Mucium — ,  non  modo  oratoris  nomine, 
sed  ne  foro  quidem  dignos  putarim.  Atqui  non  de- 
fuit  illis  patronis,  inquit  Crassus,  eloquentia,  neque 
dicendi  ratio  aut  copia,  sed  iuris  civilis  prudentia  : 
quod  alter  plus,  lege  agendo,  petebat,  quam  quan- 
tum  lex  in  Duodecim  Tabuhs  permiserat ;  quod  cum 
impetrasset,  causa  caderet :  alter  iniqumn  putabat 
plus  secum  agi,  quam  quod  erat  in  actione  ;  neque 
intellegebat,  si  ita  esset  actum,  litem  adversarium 
perditurum. 

168  XXXVII.  Quid  ?    his  paucis  diebus,  nonne,  nobis 

114 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxvi.  165— xxxvii.  168 

never  observed  furniture  so  sumptuous  in  the  outfit 
of  an  orator." 

166  "  Can  you  then,"  said  Crassus  "  (to  pass  over 
other  matters  innumerable  and  of  vast  importance, 
and  come  to  your  favourite  common  law  itself),  can 
you  consider  those  men  to  be  orators,  for  whom 
Scaevola,  half  laughing  and  half  enraged,  waited 
many  hours,  though  in  a  hurry  to  start  for  the 
Playing  Field,  while  Hypsaeus,  at  the  top  of  his  voice 
and  with  most  exuberant  verbosity,  was  strugghng 
to  procure  from  Marcus  Crassus  the  praetor  the 
non-suiting  of  the  party  for  whom  he  himself  was 
appearing,  and  Gnaeus  Octavius,  though  a  man  of 
consular  rank,  was  objecting,  in  a  speech  every  bit 
as  long,  to  having  his  opponent  cast  in  his  suit,  and 
his  own  chent  reheved,  by  the  folly  of  the  other  side, 
from  a  degrading  verdict  of  dishonest  guardianship 

167  and  from  all  trouble  whatever  ?  "  "  No,"  returned 
Scaevola,  "  as  for  such  men  (for  I  remember  having 
the  story  from  Mucius),  I  should  not  hold  them  fit 
even  to  appear  in  Court,  much  less  to  bear  the  title  of 
orators."  "  And  yet,"  Crassus  went  on,  "  it  was  not 
eloquence,  or  the  art  of  speaking,  or  copiousness  that 
was  wanting  in  those  counsel,  but  knowledge  of  the 
common  law  :  for  the  one  was  claiming,  by  action 
on  the  statute,  more  than  the  provision  in  the 
Twelve  Tables  permitted  and,  had  he  carried  his 
point,  his  action  must  fail :  the  other  thought  it 
unjust  that  the  claim  against  him  should  be  for  more 
than  the  amount  in  suit ;  not  obperving  that,  if  the 
issue  had  been  defined  in  that  way,  his  opponent 
would  lose  his  case. 

168  XXXVII.  "  Again,  within  these  last  few  days, 
when  we  were  sitting  as  assessors  on  the  Bench  of 

115 


CICERO 

in  tribunali  Q.  Pompeii,  praetoris  urbani,  familiaris 
nostri,  sedentibus,  homo  ex  numero  disertorum  pos- 
tulabat,  ut  illi,  unde  peteretur,  vetus  atque  usitata 
exceptio  daretur,  Cuius  pecuniae  dies  fuisset  ?  quod 
petitoris  causa  comparatum  esse,  non  intellegebat : 
ut,  si  ille  infitiator  probasset  iudici  ante  petitam  esse 
pecuniam  quam  esset  coepta  deberi,  petitor,  rursus 
cum  peteret,  ne  exceptione  excluderetur,  quod  ea  res 

169  iN  lUDiciUM  antea  venisset.  Quid  ergo  hoc  fieri 
turpius,  aut  dici  potest,  quam  eum,  qui  hanc  per- 
sonam  susceperit,  ut  amicorum  controversias  causas- 
que  tueatur,  laborantibus  succurrat,  aegris  medeatur, 
afflictos  excitet,  hunc  in  minimis  tenuissimisque  rebus 
ita  labi,  ut  aliis  miserandus,  aliis  irridendus  esse 
videatur  ? 

170  Equidem  propinquum  nostrum,  P.  Crassum,  illum 
Divitem,  cum  multis  ahis  rebus  elegantem  hominem 
et  ornatum,  tum  praecipue  in  hoc  efFerendum  et 
laudandum  puto,  quod,  cum  P.  Scaevola  frater 
esset,  sohtus  est  ei  persaepe  dicere,  neque  illum  in 
iure  civili  satis  illi  arti  facere  posse,  nisi  dicendi 
copiam  assumpsisset — quod  quidem  hic,  qui  mecum 
consul  fuit,  filius  eius,  est  consecutus — ;  neque  se 
ante  causas  amicorum  tractare  atque  agere  coepisse, 
quam  ius  civile  didicisset. 

171  Quid  vero  ille  M.  Cato  ?  Nonne  et  eloquentia 
tanta  fuit,  quantam  illa  tempora,  atque  illa  aetas  in 
hac  civitate  ferre  maximam  potuit,  et  iuris  civilis 

•  95  B.c. 
116 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxvii.  168-171 

our  friend  Quintus  Pompeius,  the  City  praetor,  did 
not  one  of  our  accomplished  advocates  apply,  on 
behalf  of  the  defendant  in  an  action  of  debt,  for  the 
insertion  of  the  ancient  and  familiar  restriction,  '  As 
regards  such  moneys  as  have  already  accrued  due,'  not 
understanding  that  this  clause  had  been  ordained 
for  the  benefit  of  a  plaintifF,  to  the  end  that,  if  a 
repudiating  defendant  should  satisfy  the  judge  that 
money  had  been  claimed  before  it  had  become 
payable,  the  plaintifF  should  not  be  barred,  on 
bringing  a  fresh  action,  by  the  special  plea  *  That  this 

169  matter  has  already  been  litigated '  ?  Can  anything 
then  more  unseemly  be  done  or  suggested  than  this, 
that  the  very  man  who  has  undertaken  the  part  of 
the  champion  of  the  quarrels  and  interests  of  his 
friends,  of  their  helper  in  trouble,  the  healer  of  their 
sufferings,  and  their  upholder  when  they  have  fallen, 
should  blunder  so  grossly  in  the  most  trifling  and 
insignificant  technicalities,  as  to  arouse  the  pity  of 
some,  and  the  ridicule  of  others  ? 

170  "  Assuredly  I  think  that  our  relative  Publius 
Crassus,  surnamed  Dives,  while  in  many  other  ways 
a  man  of  taste  and  accomphshment,  was  particularly 
to  be  extolled  and  eulogized  for  this  that,  being  the 
brother  of  Publius  Scaevola,  he  used  continually  to 
tell  him  that  in  common  law  he  could  never  do  justice 
to  his  art,  without  acquiring  as  well  a  copious  diction 
(advice  certainly  followed  by  this  son  of  his,  who  was 
my  colleague  in  the  consulship  "),  and  that  he  himself 
had  learned  the  common  law,  before  he  began  to 
handle  and  conduct  the  causes  of  his  friends. 

171  "  And  what  of  the  eminent  Marcus  Cato  ?  Did  he 
not  combine  eloquence  as  grand  as  those  times  and 
that  epoch  could  produce  in  this  State,  with  an  un- 

117 


CICERO 

omnium  peritissimus  ?  Verecundius  hac  de  re  iam- 
dudum  loquor,  quod  adest  vir  in  dicendo  summus, 
quem  ego  unum  oratorem  maxime  admiror  ;    sed 

172  tamen  idem  hoc  semper  ius  civile  contempsit.  Verum, 
quoniam  sententiae  atque  opinionis  meae  voluistis 
esse  participes,  nihil  occultabo  ;  et,  quoad  potero, 
vobis  exponam  quid  de  quaque  re  sentiam. 

XXXVIII.  Antonii  incredibilis  quaedam,  et  prope 
singularis  et  divina  vis  ingenii  videtur,  etiamsi  hac 
scientia  iuris  nudata  sit,  posse  se  facile  ceteris  armis 
prudentiae  tueri  atque  defendere.  Quam  ob  rem  hic 
nobis  sit  exceptus  ;  ceteros  vero  non  dubitabo  pri- 
mum  inertiae  condemnare  sententia  mea,  post  etiam 

173  impudentiae.  Nam  volitare  in  foro,  haerere  in  iure 
ac  praetorum  tribunalibus,  iudicia  privata  magnariun 
rerum  obire,  in  quibus  saepe  non  de  facto,  sed  de 
aequitate  ac  iure  certetur,  iactare  se  in  causis 
centumvirahbus,  in  quibus  usucapionum,  tutelarum, 
gentilitatum,  agnationum,  alluvionum,  circumluvi- 
onum,  nexorum,  mancipiorum,  parietum,  luminum, 
stillicidiorum,  testamentorum  ruptorum  aut  ratorum, 
ceterarumque  rerum  innumerabilium  iura  versentur, 
cum  omnino,  quid  suum,  quid  alienum,  quare  deni- 
que  civis  aut  peregrinus,  servus  aut  liber  quispiam  sit, 
ignoret,  insignis  est  impudentiae. 

"  A  bench  of  iudges  appointed  yearly  for  civil  suits, 
especially  those  relating  to  inheritance. 

118 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxvii.  171— xxxviii.  173 

equalled  knowledge  of  the  common  law  ?  It  is  with 
some  diffidence  that  I  have  been  so  long  discussing 
this  topic,  when  we  have  with  us  the  greatest  of 
speakers,  a  man  whom  I  admire  above  all  others  as 
an  unique  orator,  but  who  nevertheless  has  always 

172  despised  this  common  law.  Since  however  you  have 
sought  to  be  partakers  of  my  view  and  my  judgement, 
I  will  suppress  nothing  but,  so  far  as  lies  in  my  power, 
will  lay  before  you  what  I  think  upon  every  point. 

XXXVIII.  "  In    Antonius   what     I    may  call    aoniygenius 
marvellous  and  almost  unrivalled  and  godhke  power  can  dispensa 

j,  .  .1  1  °       .  /.    ,  .     with  study. 

oi  genius  seems,  even  without  the  protection  oi  tnis 
legal  knowledge,  to  be  able  easily  to  guard  and 
defend  itself  with  the  rest  of  the  armoury  of 
practical  wisdom.  Let  him  then  be  left  out  of  our 
indictment  but,  as  for  the  rest,  I  shall  not  hesitate 
to  give  my  vote  for  a  verdict  of  '  Guilty,'  first  of 

173  laziness  and  secondly  of  effrontery  as  well.  For  to 
flit  around  the  Courts,  to  loiter  about  the  Bench  and 
judgement-seats  of  the  praetors,  to  engage  in  civil 
proceedings  involving  weighty  interests,  in  which 
the  dispute  is  often  not  as  to  facts  but  as  to  equity 
and  law,  to  vaunt  oneself  in  cases  before  the  Hundred 
Commissioners,'*  where  are  debated  the  rights  con- 
cerning  long  user,  guardianship,  clanship,  relation- 
ship  through  males,  alluvial  accessions,  the  formation 
of  islands,  obligations,  sales,  party-walls,  ancient 
lights,  rain-drip  from  the  eaves,  the  revocation  or 
establishment  of  wills,  and  all  those  other  matters 
innumerable,  when  a  man  is  wholly  ignorant  as  to 
what  is  his  own  and  what  another's,  and  even  of  the 
essential  difference  between  citizen  and  foreigner, 
or  between  bond  and  free,  this  is  the  mark  of  no 
ordinary  effrontery. 

119 


CICERO 

174  Illa  vero  deridenda  arrogantia  est,  in  minoribus 
navigiis  rudem  esse  se  confiteri ;  quinqueremes,  aut 
etiam  maiores,  gubernare  didicisse.  Tu  mihi  cum 
in  circulo  decipiare  adversarii  stipulatiuncula,  et 
cum  obsignes  tabellas  clientis  tui,  quibus  in  tabellis 
id  sit  scriptum,  quo  ille  capiatur  ;  ego  tibi  uUam 
causam  maiorem  committendam  putem?  Citius 
hercule  is,  qui  duorum  scalmorum  naviculam  in  portu 
everterit,   in   Euxino   ponto   Argonautarum   navem 

175  gubernarit !  Quid,  si  ne  parvae  quidem  causae  sunt, 
sed  saepe  maximae,  In  quibus  certatur  de  iure  civili ; 
quod  tandem  os  est  illius  patroni,  qui  ad  eas  causas 
sine  ulla  scientia  iuris  audet  accedere  ?  Quae  potuit 
igitur  esse  causa  maior,  quam  ilUus  miUtis,  de  cuius 
morte  cum  domum  falsus  ab  exercitu  nuntius  venis- 
set,  et  pater  eius,  re  credita,  testamentum  mutasset, 
et,  quem  ei  visum  esset,  fecisset  heredem,  essetque 
ipse  mortuus :  res  delata  est  ad  centmnviros,  cum 
miles  domum  revenisset,  egissetque  lege  in  heredi- 
tatem  paternam,  testamento  exheres  filius  ?  Nempe 
in  ea  causa  quaesitum  est  de  iure  civili,  possetne 
paternorum  bonorum  exheres  esse  fihus,  quem  pater 
testamento  neque  heredem,  neque  exheredem 
scripsisset  nominatim. 

176  XXXIX.  Quid  ?  qua  de  re  inter  Marcellos  et 
Claudios  patricios  centumviri  iudicarunt,  cum  Mar- 
120 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxviii.  174— xxxix.  176 

174  "  Derision  surely  befits  his  presumption,  who  owns 
himself  a  raw  hand  in  managing  smaller  barks,  while 
claiming  to  have  learned  the  piloting  of  five-banked 
galleys  or  vessels  larger  still.  When  I  see  you 
trapped  in  a  private  conference  by  a  quibble  of  your 
opponent's,  and  seahng  up  your  client's  deed,  such 
deed  containing  the  words  by  which  he  is  defeated, 
can  I  think  that  any  case  of  real  importance  ought  to 
be  entrusted  to  you  ?  Sooner,  I  vow,  shall  he  who 
has  upset  a  pair-oared  skifF  in  harbour  navigate  the 

175  ship  of  the  Argonauts  upon  the  Euxine  Sea  !  Suppose 
however  that  the  cases  are  not  even  trifling,  but 
often  of  the  greatest  moment,  involving  a  dispute 
about  the  common  law  :  what  cheek,  I  ask  you, 
has  that  advocate  who,  without  any  legal  knowledge, 
ventures  to  undertake  the  conduct  of  these  pro- 
ceedings  ?  What  case,  for  example,  could  be  more 
important  than  that  of  the  well-knovra  soldier,  of 
whose  death  false  news  had  arrived  home  from  the 
army,  and  whose  father,  beUeving  the  tale,  had 
altered  his  will,  and  instituted  an  heir  of  his  own 
choosing,  and  then  died  himself :  the  matter  came 
before  the  Hundred  Commissioners,  upon  the  soldier 
returning  home  and  starting  an  action  on  the 
statute  for  the  recovery  of  his  paternal  inheritance, 
as  a  son  disinherited  by  will  ?  Certainly  in  this  case 
the  issue  was  one  of  common  law,  that  is  to  say, 
whether  or  not  a  son  could  be  disinherited  in  respect 
of  his  father's  estate,  when  such  father  in  his  will  had 
neither  instituted  him  heir  jior  disinherited  him  by 
name. 

176  XXXIX.  "  What  again  of  the   dispute   between  Need  of 
the  Marcellans  and  the  patrician  Claudians,  deter-  p™^e*^°by 
mined  by  the  Hundred  Commissioners,  the  Marcellans  instances. 

121 


CICERO 

celli  ab  liberti  filio  stirpe,  Claudii  patricii  eiusdem 
hominis  hereditatem,  gente  ad  se  rediisse  dicerent ; 
nonne  in  ea  causa  fuit  oratoribus  de  toto  stirpis  ac 

177  gentilitatis  iure  dicendum  ?  Quid  ?  quod  item  in 
centumvirali  iudicio  certatum  esse  accepimus,  qui 
Romam  in  exsilium  venisset,  cui  Romae  exsulare  ius 
esset,  si  se  ad  aliquem  quasi  patronum  appHcuisset, 
intestatoque  esset  mortuus  :  nonne  in  ea  causa  ius 
applicationis,  obscurum  sane  et  ignotum,  patefactum 

178  in  iudicio  atque  illustratum  est  a  patrono  ?  Quid  ? 
nuper,  cum  ego  C.  Sergii  Oratae  contra  hunc  nos- 
trum  Antonium  iudicio  privato  causam  defenderem  ; 
nonne  omnis  nostra  in  iure  versata  defensio  est  ? 
Cum  enim  Marius  Gratidianus  aedes  Oratae  ven- 
didisset,  neque,  servire  quamdam  earum  aedium 
partem,  in  mancipii  lege  dixisset ;  defendebamus, 
quidquid  fuisset  incommodi  in  mancipio,  id  si  vendi- 
tor  scisset,  neque  declarasset,  praestare  debere. 

179  Quo  quidem  in  genere  familiaris  noster  M.  Buc- 
culeius,  homo  neque  meo  iudicio  stultus,  et  suo  valde 
sapiens,  et  a  iuris  studio  non  abhorrens,  simiH  in  re 
quodam  modo  nuper  erravit.  Nam  cum  aedes  L. 
Fufio  venderet,  in  mancipio  lumina,  uti  tum  essent, 
ita  recepit.  Fufius  autem,  simul  atque  aedificari 
coeptum  est  in  quadam  parte  urbis  quae  modo  ex 
illis  aedibus  conspici  posset,  egit  statim  cimi  Buc- 

"  For  this  point  of  law  see  Appendix  p.  480. 

'  Some  ambiguity  in  the  conveyancing  terms  used  by 
Bucculeius  in  reserving  his  '  ancient  lights  '  enabled  Fufius 
to  interpret  the  reservation  as  a  grant  ot  an  absolute  right  to 
light. 

122 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxix.  176-179 

alleging  that  an  inheritance  had  devolved  on  them 
from  a  freedman's  son  by  lineal  descent,  while  the 
patrician  Claudians  claimed  it  as  theirs  by  reverter 
through  clanship  ;  did  not  both  counsel  in  that  case 
have  to  discuss  the  entire  law  of  lineal  descent  and 

177  of  clanship  ?  And  what  of  that  other  contention 
which  we  have  heard  was  raised  in  the  Court  of  the 
Hundred  Commissioners,  where  a  foreigner  had  come 
into  exile  at  Rome,  having  a  legal  right  to  dwell 
there,  provided  that  he  had  attached  himself  to 
someone  as  a  kind  of  protector,  and  such  foreigner 
had  died  intestate  :  in  that  case  was  not  the  law  of 
vassalage,  a  truly  mysterious  and  unfamiUar  thing, 

178  revealed  and  elucidated  by  counsel  in  Court  ?  Then 
too,  when  recently  I  appeared,  in  a  civil  action,  on 
behalf  of  Gaius  Sergius  Orata,  with  our  friend  here 
Antonius  on  the  other  side,  was  not  our  defence 
concerned  solely  with  matter  of  law  ?  For  Marius 
Gratidianus  had  sold  a  house  to  Orata,  without 
stating  in  the  conditions  of  sale  that  a  certain  part 
of  the  building  was  subject  to  an  easement,  and  we 
were  urging  that  the  vendor  must  allow  compensa- 
tion  for  any  defect  in  the  property  sold,  if  he  had 
known  of  its  existence  and  had  not  disclosed  it.<* 

179  "  In  that  kind  ctf  action  too  our  friend  Marcus 
Bucculeius,  no  fool  in  my  opinion,  and  mightily  wise 
in  his  own,  and  a  man  with  no  distaste  for  legal 
studies,  somehow  went  wrong  lately  on  a  similar 
point.  For,  on  the  sale  of  a  house  to  Lucius  Fufius, 
he  made  a  reservation  in  his  conveyance  of  all  rights 
to  hght  '  as  then  enjoyed.'''  Fufius  however,  the 
moment  that  any  building  began  in  some  part  of  the 
city  of  which  as  much  as  a  glimpse  could  be  caught 
from  that  house  of  his,  immediately  launched  an 

123 


CICERO 

culeio,  quod,  cuicumque  particulae  coeli  officeretur, 
quamvis  esset  procul,  mutari  lumina  putabat. 

180  Quid  vero  ?  clarissima  M'.  Curii  causa  Marcique 
Coponii  nuper  apud  centumviros,  quo  concursu 
hominum,  qua  exspectatione  defensa  est !  cum 
Q.  Scaevola,  aequalis  et  collega  meus,  homo  omnium 
et  disciplina  iuris  civihs  eruditissimus,  et  ingenio  pru- 
dentiaque  acutissimus,  et  oratione  maxime  Umatus 
atque  subtilis,  atque,  ut  ego  soleo  dicere,  iuris  peri- 
torum  eloquentissimus,  eloquentium  iuris  peritis- 
simus,  ex  scripto  testamentorum  iura  defenderet, 
negaretque,  nisi  postumus  et  natus,  et,  antequam  in 
suam  tutelam  venisset,  mortuus  esset,  heredem  eum 
esse  posse,  qui  esset  secundum  postumum,  et  natum, 
et  mortuum,  heres  institutus  :  ego  autem  defen- 
derem,  hac  eum  tum  mente  fuisse,  qui  testamentura 
fecisset,  ut,  si  filius  non  esset,  qui  in  tutelam  veniret, 
M'.  Curius  esset  heres.  Num  destitit  uterque  no- 
strum  in  ea  causa,  in  auctoritatibus,  in  exemphs,  in 
testamentorum  formuhs,  hoc  est,  in  medio  iure  civiU, 
versari  ? 

181  XL.  Omitto  iam  plura  exempla  causarum  ampHs- 
simarum,  quae  sunt  innumerabiUa  :  capitis  nostri 
saepe  potest  accidere  ut  causae  versentur  in  iure. 
Etenim  sic  C.  Mancinum,  nobiUssimum  atque  opti- 
mum  virum,  ac  consularem,  cum  eum  propter  in- 
vidiam  Numantini  foederis  pater  patratus  ex  S.  C. 

•  See  Book  II,  §§  140,  221. 

*  See  Appendix  p.  480.  «  In  137  b.c. 

^  One  of  the  twenty  fetiales  appointed  (patratus)  with 
patria  potestas  over  citizens  whom  he  was  delegated  to  hand 
over  to  the  enemy. 

124 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xxxix.  179— xl.  181 

action  against  Bucculeius,  because  he  conceived  that 
his  rights  to  light  were  afFected,  if  any  scrap  of  his 
view  was  blocked,  however  far  away. 

IgO  "  Finally,  remember  the  conduct  of  the  famous 
case  "  of  Manius  Curius  against  Marcus  Coponius,  not 
long  ago  before  the  Hundred  Commissioners — the 
crowd  that  coUected,  the  anticipations  aroused ! 
There  was  Quintus  Scaevola,  my  contemporary 
and  colleague,  of  all  men  the  most  learned  in  the 
science  of  the  common  law,  the  most  sagacious  by 
talent  and  experience,  the  most  highly  polished  and 
exquisite  in  diction,  and  indeed,  as  I  always  say, 
among  lawyers  the  best  orator,  among  orators  the 
best  lawyei  :  he  was  arguing  the  rights  of  the  case 
on  the  hteral  terms  of  the  will,  and  contending  that 
the  person  who  had  been  nominated  heir  in  the 
second  grade,  as  substitute  for  a  posthumous  son, 
who  should  be  born  and  die,  could  never  inherit, 
unless  such  posthumous  son  had  in  fact  been  born 
and  died  before  becoming  his  own  master  ^  :  on  the 
other  side  I  was  afRrming  the  true  intention  of  the 
testator  to  have  been  that  Manius  Curius  should  be 
heir  in  the  event  of  no  son  coming  of  age.  In  these 
proceedings  were  not  both  of  us  unceasingly  occupied 
with  decisions,  with  precedents,  with  forms  of  wills, 
with  questions,  in  fact,  of  common  law  all  around  us  ? 

18]  XL.  "  I  pass  over  yet  further  examples  of  most 
important  cases,  countless  as  they  are :  it  may  Cases 
often  happen  that  actions  involving  our  civil  rights  dtizeiMhip. 
turn  upon  points  of  law.  For  in  truth  such  was 
the  experience  of  Gaius  Mancinus,  a  man  of  the 
highest  rank  and  character  and  a  past  consul,  who 
under  a  decree  of  the  Senate  had  been  deUvered  up  " 
to  the  Numantines  by  the  Priestly  Envoy,"^  for  con- 

125 


CICERO 

Numantinis  dedidisset,  eumque  illi  non  recepissent, 
posteaque  Mancinus  domum  revenisset,  neque  in 
senatum  introire  dubitasset ;  P.  Rutilius,  M.  filius, 
tribunus  plebis,  de  senatu  iussit  educi,  quod  eum 
civem  negaret  esse  ;  quia  memoria  sic  esset  proditum, 
quem  pater  suus,  aut  populus  vendidisset,  aut  pater 
patratus  dedidisset,  ei  nullum  esse  postliminium. 

182  Quam  possumus  reperire  ex  omnibus  rebus  civilibus 
causam  contentionemque  maiorem,  quam  de  ordine, 
de  civitate,  de  libertate,  de  capite  hominis  consularis  ; 
praesertim  cum  haec  non  in  crimine  aliquo,  quod 
ille  posset  infitiari,  sed  in  civili  iure  consisteret  ? 
Similique  in  genere,  inferiore  ordine,  si  quis  apud 
nos  servisset  ex  populo  foederato,  seseque  liberasset, 
ac  postea  domum  revenisset ;  quaesitum  est  apud 
maiores  nostros,  num  is  ad  suos  postliminio  rediisset, 

183  et  amisisset  hanc  civitatem.  Quid  ?  de  libertate,  quo 
iudicium  gravius  esse  nullum  potest,  nonne  ex  iure 
civili  potest  esse  contentio,  cum  quaeritur,  is,  qui 
domini  voluntate  census  sit,  continuone,  an  ubi  lus- 
trum  conditum,  liber  sit  ?  Quid,  quod  usu,  memoria 
patrum,  venit,  ut  paterfamihas,  qui  ex  Hispania 
Romam  venisset,  cum  uxorem  praegnantem  in  pro- 
vincia  reliquisset,  Romaeque  alteram  duxisset,  neque 

"  '  Return  behind  one's  threshold,'  return  home  and  re- 
sumption  of  former  status  and  privileges, 

*  The  lustrum  was  the  sacrifujc  of  purification,  which  con- 
126 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xl.  181-183 

cluding  an  unpopular  treaty  with  their  nation,  and 
whose  surrender  they  had  refused  to  accept,  where- 
upon  he  returned  home  and  unhesitatingly  came 
into  the  Senate-house  :  Publius  Rutilius,  son  of 
Marcus  and  tribune  of  the  commons,  ordered  him 
to  be  removed,  affirming  that  he  was  no  citizen, 
in  view  of  the  traditional  rule  that  a  man  sold  by 
his  father  or  by  the  people,  or  dehvered  up  by  the 
Priestly  Envoy,  had  no  right  of  restoration.* 

"  What  judicial  controversy  can  we  discover,  with- 

182  in  the  whole  range  of  public  hfe,  more  important 
than  one  touching  the  rank,  state-membership,  free- 
dom  and  entire  civil  rights  of  a  past  consul,  especially 
as  this  issue  did  not  depend  upon  some  accusation  of 
fact,  which  the  defendant  might  be  able  to  disprove, 
but  upon  a  point  of  common  law  ?  And  in  a  simi- 
lar  case,  afFecting  humbler  folk,  if  a  member  of  an 
allied  people,  after  being  a  slave  in  Rome,  had  ac- 
quired  his  freedom  and  subsequently  retumed  home ; 
it  was  a  moot  point  with  our  forefathers  whether  by 
process  of  restoration  he  had  not  reverted  to  his 
former  nationaUty  and  lost  his  Roman  citizenship. 

183  Then  as  to  freedom,  the  most  serious  issue  there 
can  be,  may  not  controversy  arise  out  of  the 
common  law,  on  the  question  whether  a  slave,  en- 
rolled  with  his  master's  consent  on  the  censor's  Ust, 
is  to  date  his  enfranchisement  from  that  moment, 
or  from  completion  of  the  lustrum  ?  *  And  what  of 
a  case  that  reaUy  happened,  within  our  fathers' 
recoUection,  of  the  head  of  a  family  coming  from 
Spain  to  Rome,  and  leaving  in  the  province  his  wife 
with    child :    at   Rome    he   married    another   wife, 

cluded  the  proceedings  of  the  census  and  brought  the  new  re- 
gister  of  citizens  into  operation  for  the  ensuing  five  years. 

127 


CICERO 

nuntium  priori  remisisset,  mortuusque  esset  intestato, 
et  ex  utraque  filius  natus  esset  ;  mediocrisne  res 
in  controversiam  adducta  est,  cum  quaereretur  de 
duobus  civium  capitibus,  et  de  puero,  qui  ex  pos- 
teriore  natus  erat,  et  de  eius  matre  ?  Quae,  si  iudi- 
caretur,  certis  quibusdam  verbis,  non  novis  nuptiis, 
fieri  cum  superiore  divortium,  in  concubinae  locum 
duceretur. 

184  Haec  igitur,  et  horum  similia  iura  suae  civitatis 
ignorantem,  erectum  et  celsum,  alacri  et  prompto  ore 
ac  vultu,  huc  atque  illuc  intuentem,  vagari  magna 
cum  caterva  toto  foro,  praesidium  clientibus,  atque 
opem  amicis,  et  prope  cunctis  civibus  lucem  ingenii 
et  consilii  sui  porrigentem  atque  tendentem,  nonne  in 
primis  flagitiosum  putandum  est  ? 

185  XLI.  Et  quoniam  de  impudentia  dixi,  castigemus 
etiam  segnitiem  hominum  atque  inertiam.  Nam  si 
esset  ista  cognitio  iuris  magna  ac  difficilis,  tamen 
utilitatis  magnitudo  deberet  homines  ad  suscipiendum 
discendi  laborem  impellere.  Sed,  o  dii  immortales  ! 
non  dicerem  hoc,  audiente  Scaevola,  nisi  ipse  dicere 
soleret,  nullius  artis  faciliorem  sibi  cognitionem  videri. 

186  Quod  quidem  certis  de  causis  a  plerisque  aliter  existi- 
matur  :  primum,  quia  veteres  ilh,  qui  huic  scientiae 
praefuerunt,  obtinendae  atque  augendae  potentiae 
suae  causa,  pervulgari  artem  suam  noluerunt,  deinde, 
posteaquam  est  editum,  expositis  a  Cn.  Flavio  pri- 
mum  actionibus,  nulH  fuerunt,  qui  illa  artificiose 
128 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xl.  183— xli.  186 

without  having  sent  notice  of  divoree  to  the  first, 
and  afterwards  died  intestate,  when  each  woman  had 
borne  a  son  ;  was  it  but  an  ordinary  dispute  that 
thereupon  arose,  involving  as  it  did  the  civil  rights 
of  two  citizens,  the  boy  born  of  the  second  consort, 
and  his  mother  ?  She,  if  it  were  held  that  the  first 
wife  could  be  divorced  only  by  using  some  specific 
formula,  and  not  by  marrying  again,  would  be 
regarded  as  being  in  the  position  of  a  concubine. 

184  "  Accordingly,  that  a  man,  ignorant  of  these  and 
similar  laws  of  his  own  community,  should  roam  with 
a  large  following  from  court  to  court,  haughtily  and 
with  head  upraised,  eager  and  assured  in  mien  and 
countenance,  directing  his  gaze  hither  and  thither, 
and  holding  out  and  tendering  protection  to  clients, 
aid  to  friends,  and  the  illumination  of  his  talent  and 
advice  to  wellnigh  every  citizen,  is  not  all  this  to  be 
considered  something  supremely  scandalous  ? 

185  XLI.  "  And  since  I  have  spoken  of  the  effrontery  Lawnota 
of  men,  let  us  go  on  to  chastise  their  slackness  and  ^?lfiflly 
lazmess.     ror  even  ii  this  legal  study  were  a  matter  study, 
of  great  difficulty,  yet  its  great  utility  should  urge  men 

to  undergo  the  toil  of  learning.  But,  by  Heaven,  I 
should  not  say  this  with  Scaevola  listening,  were  he 
not  himself  in  the  habit  of  affirming  that  he  thinks 

186  no  art  easier  of  attainment.  As  to  this  indeed  most 
people,  for  definite  reasons,  think  otherwise :  first  be- 
cause  those  men  of  old  time  who  presided  over  this 
study,  in  their  anxiety  to  maintain  and  increase  their 
own  authority,  would  not  have  their  art  made  common 
property,  and  secondly,  after  the  law  had  been 
published,  and  the  forms  of  pleading  first  set  forth 
by  Gnaeus  Flavius,  there  were  none  able  to  distribute 
these  matters  into  their  kinds  and  arrange  them 

129 


CICERO 

digesta  generatim  componerent.  Nihil  est  enim, 
quod  ad  artem  redigi  possit,  nisi  ille  prius,  qui  illa 
tenet,  quorum  artem  instituere  vult,  habeat  illam 
scientiam,  ut  ex  eis  rebus,  quarum  ars  nondum  sit, 

187  artem  efficere  possit.  Hoc  video,  dum  breviter 
voluerim  dicere,  dictum  a  me  esse  paulo  obscurius  ; 
sed  experiar,  et  dicam,  si  potero,  planius. 

XLII.  Omnia  fere,  quae  sunt  conclusa  nunc  artibus, 
dispersa  et  dissipata  quondam  fuerunt  :  ut  in  musicis, 
numeri,  et  voces,  et  modi ;  in  geometria,  lineamenta, 
formae,  intervalla,  magnitudines  ;  in  astrologia,  caeli 
conversio,  ortus,  obitus  motusque  siderum  ;  in  gram- 
maticis,  poetarum  pertractatio,  historiarum  cognitio, 
verborum  interpretatio,  pronuntiandi  quidam  sonus  ; 
in  hac  denique  ipsa  ratione  dicendi,  excogitare,  or- 
nare,  disponere,  meminisse,  agere  ;  ignota  quondam 

188  omnibus,  et  difFusa  late  videbantur.  Adhibita  est 
igitur  ars  quaedam  extrinsecus  ex  alio  genere  quo- 
dam,  quod  sibi  totum  philosophi  assumunt,  quae  rem 
dissolutam  divulsamque  conglutinaret,  et  ratione 
quadam  constringeret.  Sit  ergo  in  iure  civiU  finis 
hic,  legitimae  atque  usitatae  in  rebus  causisque  ci- 

Igg  vium  aequabilitatis  conservatio.  Tum  sunt  notanda 
genera,  et  ad  certum  numerum  paucitatemque  re- 
vocanda.  Genus  autem  est  id,  quod  sui  similes 
communione  quadam,  specie  autem  difFerentes,  duas 
aut  plures  complectitur  partes.     Partes  autem  sunt, 

ISO 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xli.  186— xlii.  189 

artistically.  For  nothing  can  be  reduced  to  an  art 
unless  the  man  who  has  mastered  the  subject,  of 
which  he  would  organize  an  art,  already  possesses 
the  special  knowledge  requisite  to  enable  him,  out 
of  particulars  not  yet  embodied  in  an  art,  to  con- 

187  struct  one.  I  see  that,  in  my  desire  to  be  brief,  I 
have  spoken  a  httle  obscurely,  but  I  will  try  to 
express  myself,  if  I  can,  in  clearer  terms. 

XLII.  "  Nearly  all  elements,  now  forming  the  con-  xhe  nature 
tent  of  arts,  were  once  without  order  or  correla-  of.i^gai 
tion :  in  music,  for  example,  rhythms,  sounds  and 
measures ;  in  geometry,  Hnes,  figures,  dimensions 
and  magnitudes  ;  in  astronomy,  the  revolution  of 
the  sky ,  the  rising,  setting  and  movement  of  heavenly 
bodies  ;  in  Uterature,  the  study  of  poets,  the  learning 
of  histories,  the  explanation  of  words  and  proper 
intonation  in  speaking  them  ;  and  lastly  in  this  very 
theory  of  oratory,  invention,  style,  arrangement, 
memory  and  dehvery,  once  seemed  to  all  men  things 
unknown   and  widely  separate   one  from   another. 

188  And  so  a  certain  art  was  called  in  from  outside, 
derived  from  another  definite  sphere,  which  philo- 
sophers  arrogate  wholly  to  themselves,  in  order  that 
it  might  give  coherence  to  things  so  far  disconnected 
and  sundered,  and  bind  them  in  some  sort  of  scheme. 
Let  the  goal  then  of  the  common  law  be  defined  as 
the  preservation,  in  the  concerns  and  disputes  of 
citizens,  of  an  impartiaHty  founded  on  statute  and 

189  custom.  We  must  next  designate  the  general 
classes  of  cases,  restricting  these  to  a  smaH  fixed 
number.  Now  a  general  class  is  that  which  em- 
braces  two  or  more  species,  resembHng  one  another 
in  some  common  property  while  difFering  in  some 
pecuHarity.     And  species  are   subdivisions,  ranged 

131 


CICERO 

quae  generibus  eis,  ex  quibus  emanant,  subiciuntur ; 
omniaque,  quae  sunt  vel  generum  vel  partiumnomina, 
definitionibus,  quam  vim  habeant,  est  exprimendum. 
Est  enim  definitio,  earum  rerum,  quae  sunt  eius  rei 
propriae,  quam  definire  volumus,  brevis  et  circum- 
scripta  quaedam  explicatio. 

190  Hisce  ergo  rebus  exempla  adiungerem,  nisi,  apud 
quos  haec  habetur  oratio,  cernerem  :  nunc  com- 
plectar  quod  proposui,  brevi.  Si  enim  aut  mihi  facere 
licuerit,  quod  iamdiu  cogito,  aut  aUus  quispiam,  aut, 
me  impedito,  occuparit,  aut  mortuo  efFecerit,  ut 
primum  omne  ius  civile  in  genera  digerat,  quae  per- 
pauca  sunt ;  deinde  eorum  generum  quasi  quaedam 
membra  dispertiat ;  tum  propriam  cuiusque  vim 
definitione  declaret ;  perfectam  artem  iuris  civilis 
habebitis,  magis  magnam  atque  uberem,  quam  dif- 

191  ficilem  atque  obscuram.  Atque  interea  tamen,  dum 
haec,  quae  dispersa  sunt,  coguntur,  vel  passim  licet 
carpentem,  et  coUigentem  undique,  repleri  iusta  iuris 
civilis  scientia. 

XLIII.  Nonne  videtis,  equitem  Romanum,  ho- 
minem  acutissimo  omnium  ingenio,  sed  minime 
ceteris  artibus  eruditum,  C.  Aculeonem,  qui  mecum 
vlvit,  semperque  vixit,  ita  tenere  ius  civile,  ut  ei, 
cum  ab  hoc  discesseritis,  nemo  de  eis,  qui  peritissimi 

192  sunt,  anteponatur  ,''  Omnia  enim  sunt  posita  ante 
oculos,  collocata  in  usu  quotidiano,  in  congressione 
hominum  atque  in  foro  ;  neque  ita  multis  Htteris  aut 
132 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlii.  189— xliii.  192 

under  those  general  classes  from  which  they  spring  ; 
while  all  names,  whether  of  general  classes  or  species, 
iq^  must  be  so  defined  as  to  show  the  significance  of 
each.  A  definition  of  course  I  may  describe  as  a 
concise  and  accurate  statement  of  the  attributes 
belonging  to  the  thing  we  would  define. 

"  I  would  therefore  append  illustrations  to  what  I  Projectfor 
have  said,  were  I  not  mindful  of  the  quahty  of  the  *  ^"^®**-'*®- 
hearers  of  this  discourse  :  as  it  is,  I  will  briefly 
summarize  my  plan.  For  if  I  am  permitted  to  do 
what  I  have  long  been  projecting,  or  if  someone 
else  anticipates  me,  preoccupied  as  I  am,  or  does 
the  work  when  I  am  dead,  first  dividing  the  entire 
common  law  into  its  general  classes,  which  are  very 
few,  and  next  distributing  what  I  may  call  the  sub- 
divisions  of  those  classes,  and  after  that  making  plain 
by  definition  the  proper  significance  of  each,  then 
you  will  have  a  complete  art  of  the  common  law, 
magnificent  and  copious  but  neither  inaccessible  nor 

191  mysterious.  And  yet  in  the  meantime,  while  these 
disconnected  materials  are  being  assembled,  a  man 
may,  by  culhng  even  at  random  and  gathering  from 
every  quarter,  become  filled  with  a  tolerable  know- 
ledge  of  the  common  law. 

XLIII.  "  Do  you  not  notice  that  Gaius  Aculeo,  Sources 
Roman  knight,  a  man  of  the  keenest  intelUgence,  *^*'     *" 
but  of  slender   accomplishment  in   any   other  art, 
who  dwells  and  has  always  dwelt  with  me,  is  so 
complete  a  master  of  the  common  law,  that  if  you 
except  our  friend  here,  not  one  of  the  most  learned 

192  is  to  be  placed  before  him  .''  The  reason  is  that  all 
its  materials  He  open  to  view,  having  their  setting 
in  everyday  custom,  in  the  intercourse  of  men,  and 
in  pubUc  scenes  :   and  they  are  not  enclosed  in  so 

133 


CICERO 

voluminibus  magnis  continentur  :  eadem  enim  sunt 
elata  primum  a  pluribus  ;  deinde,  paucis  verbis  com- 
mutatis,  etiam  ab  eisdem  scriptoribus,  scripta  sunt 

193  saepius.  Accedit  vero,  quo  facilius  percipi  cognosci- 
que  ius  civile  possit  (quod  minime  plerique  arbi- 
trantur),  mira  quaedam  in  cognoscendo  suavitas  et 
delectatio.  Nam,  sive  quem  haec  Aeliana  studia 
delectant ;  plurima  est,  et  in  omni  iure  civili,  et  in 
pontificum  libris,  et  in  Duodecim  Tabulis,  antiquitatis 
effigies,  quod  et  verborum  prisca  vetustas  cognoscitur, 
et  actionum  genera  quaedam  maiorum  consuetu- 
dinem  vitamque  declarant :  sive  quis  civilem  scien- 
tiam  contempletur,  quam  Scaevola  non  putat  oratoris 
esse  propriam,  sed  cuiusdam  ex  alio  genere  pru- 
dentiae  ;  totam  hanc,  descriptis  omnibus  civitatis 
utihtatibus  ac  partibus,  Duodecim  Tabuhs  contineri 
videbit ;  sive  quem  ista  praepotens  et  gloriosa  philo- 
sophia  delectat,  dicam  audacius,  hosce  habebit  fontes 
omnium  disputationum  suarum,  qui  iure  civili  et  legi- 

194  bus  continentur.  Ex  his  enim  et  dignitatem  maxime 
expetendam  videmus,  cum  verus,  iustus,  atque  ho- 
nestus  labor  honoribus,  praemiis,  splendore  decora- 
tur  ;  vitia  autem  hominum,  atque  fraudes,  damnis, 
ignominiis,  vinculis,  verberibus,  exsiliis,  morte  mul- 
tantur;  et  docemur  non  infinitis,  concertationum- 
que  plenis  disputationibus,  sed  auctoritate,  nutuque 
legum,   domitas   habere   libidines,   coercere   omnes 

"  Philosophia  means  here  moral  philosophy  or  ethics. 
1S4, 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xliii.  192-194 

very  many  records  or  in  books  so  very  big  :  for 
identical  matters  were  originally  published  by 
numerous  authors,  and  afterwards,  with  slight 
variations  in  terms,  were  set  down  time  and  again 

193  even  by  the  same  wTiters.  Another  help  in  faciU- 
tating  the  learning  and  understanding  of  the  common 
law  (though  most  people  hardly  credit  this),  is  the 
peculiarly  wonderful  charm  and  dehght  of  that  study. 
For  if  these  pursuits  associated  with  Aelius  attract 
a  man,  he  has  throughout  the  common  law,  and  in 
the  priestly  books  and  the  Twelve  Tables,  a  complete 
picture  of  the  olden  time,  since  a  primitive  antiquity 
of  language  can  be  studied  there,  and  certain  forms 
of  pleading  reveal  the  manners  and  the  way  of  Ufe 
of  our  forerunners  ;  if  he  is  studying  political  science, 
which  Scaevola  does  not  regard  as  the  business  of 
an  orator,  but  of  someone  belonging  to  a  different 
department  of  learning,  he  will  find  the  whole  of 
this  subject  dependent  upon  the  Twelve  Tables, 
wherein  are  described  all  the  interests  and  the 
entire  organization  of  the  State  ;  if  he  is  a  lover  of 
your  most  mighty  and  arrogant  philosophy  "• — I  shall 
speak  rather  boldly — ,  he  will  have  here  the  sources 
of  all  his  discussions,  since  these  sources  derive  frora 

194  common  law  and  statutes.  For  from  these  we  both 
see  that  merit  is  above  all  else  to  be  coveted, 
since  true,  fitting  and  reputable  exertion  wins  the 
adornment  of  high  office,  rewards  and  honour, 
while  the  misdeeds  and  knaveries  of  mankind  are 
visited  with  fines,  degradation,  chains,  scourgings, 
banishment  and  death  ;  and  we  learn  too,  not  by 
debates  without  end  and  fuU  of  recriminations,  but 
by  the  authoritative  decision  of  the  laws,  to  have 
our  passions  in  subjection,  bridle  every  lust,  hold 

135 


CICERO 

cupiditates,  nostra  tueri,  ab  alienis  mentes,  oculos, 
manus  abstinere. 

195  XLIV.  Fremant  omnes  licet ;  dicam  quod  sentio  : 
bibliothecas  mehercule  omnium  philosophorum  unus 
mihi  videtur  Duodecim  Tabularum  hbellus,  si  quis 
legum  fontes  et  capita  viderit,et  auctoritatis  pondere, 

196  et  utihtatis  ubertate  superare.  Ac,  si  nos,  id  quod 
maxime  debet,  nostra  patria  delectat ;  cuius  rei 
tanta  est  vis,  ac  tanta  natura,  ut  '  Ithacam  illam  in 
asperrimis  saxuhs,  tanquam  nidulum,  affixam,'  sapi- 
entissimus  vir  immortahtati  anteponeret ;  quo  amore 
tandem  inflammati  esse  debemus  in  eiusmodi  patriam, 
quae  una  in  omnibus  terris  domus  est  virtutis,  imperii, 
dignitatis !  Cuius  primum  nobis  mens,  mos,  disciphna, 
nota  esse  debet ;  vel  quia  est  patria,  parens  omnium 
nostrum,  vel  quia  tanta  sapientia  fuisse  in  iure  con- 
stituendo  putanda  est,  quanta  fuit  in  his  tantis 
opibus  imperii  comparandis. 

197  Percipietis  etiam  illam  ex  cognitione  iuris  laetitiam 
et  voluptatem,  quod,  quantum  praestiterint  nostri 
maiores  prudentia  ceteris  gentibus,  tum  facilHme 
intehegetis,  si  cum  illorum  Lycurgo,  et  Dracone,  et 
Solone  nostras  leges  conferre  volueritis.  Incredibile 
est  enim,  quam  sit  omne  ius  civile,  praeter  hoc 
nostrum,  inconditum,  ac  paene  ridiculum  :  de  quo 
multa  soleo  in  sermonibus  quotidianis  dicere, 
cum  hominum  nostrorum  prudentiam  ceteris  homini- 
bus,  et  maxime  Graecis,  antepono.  His  ego  de 
causis  dixeram,  Scaevola,  eis,  qui  perfecti  oratores 

"  For  Calypso's  offer  of  immortality  to  Odysseus  see  Od. 
V.  135 ;  for  the  hero's  nostalgia,  Od.  1.  SS-59,  v.  151-158,  and 
ix.  27-28. 

136 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xliii.  194— xliv.  197 

what  we  have,  and  keep  our  thoughts,  eyes  and 
hands  from  what  is  our  neighbour's. 

195  XLIV.  "  Though  the  whole  world  grumble,  I  will 
speak  my  mind  :  it  seems  to  me,  I  solemnly  declare, 
that,  if  anyone  looks  to  the  origins  and  sources  of 
the  laws,  the  small  manual  of  the  Twelve  Tables  by 
itself  surpasses  the  hbraries  of  all  the  philosophers, 
in  weight  of  authority  and  wealth  of  usefulness  ahke. 

196  And  if  our  own  native  land  is  our  joy,  as  to  the 
uttermost  it  ought  to  be, — a  sentiment  of  such 
strength  and  quality  that  a  hero  of  consummate 
prudence  gave  preference  over  immortahty''  to 
'  that  Ithaca  of  his,  lodged  hke  a  tiny  nest  upon  the 
roughest  of  small  crags,' — with  love  how  ardent  must 
we  surely  be  fired  for  a  country  such  as  ours,  standing 
alone  among  all  lands  as  the  home  of  excellence, 
imperial  power  and  good  report  !  It  is  her  spirit, 
customs  and  constitution  that  we  are  bound  first  to 
learn,  both  because  she  is  the  motherland  of  all  of 
us,  and  because  we  must  needs  hold  that  wisdom  as 
perfect  went  to  the  estabUshment  of  her  laws,  as 
to  the  acquisition  of  the  vast  might  of  her  empire. 

197  "  You  will  win  from  legal  studies  this  further  joy  interestand 
and  dehght,  that  you  will  most  readily  understand  H^^^'^^  °' 
how  far  our  ancestors  surpassed  in  practical  wisdom  studies. 
the  men  of  other  nations,  if  you  will  compare  our 

ovm  laws  with  those  of  Lycurgus,  Draco  and  Solon, 
among  the  foreigners.  For  it  is  incredible  how 
disordered,  and  wellnigh  absurd,  is  all  national  law 
other  than  our  own  ;  on  which  subject  it  is  my  habit 
to  say  a  great  deal  in  everyday  talk,  when  upholding 
the  wisdom  of  our  own  folk  against  that  of  all  others, 
the  Greeks  in  particular.  On  these  grounds,  Scae- 
vola,  did  I  declare  a  knowledge  of  the  common  law 
-  137 


CICERO 

esse  vellent,  iuris  civilis  cognitionem  esse  neces- 
sariam. 

198  XLV.  lam  vero  ipsa  per  sese  quantum  afferat  eis, 
qui  ei  praesunt,  honoris,  gratiae,  dignitatis,  quis 
ignorat  ?  Itaque,  non,  ut  apud  Graecos  infimi  ho- 
mines,  mercedula  adducti,  ministros  se  praebent  in 
iudiciis  oratoribus,  ei,  qui  apud  illos  Trpayixa-iKol 
vocantur,  sic  in  nostra  civitate  ;  contra  amphssimus 
quisque  et  clarissimus  vir  ;  ut  ille,  qui  propter  hanc 
iuris  civihs  scientiam  sic  appellatus  a  summo  poeta 
est, 

Egregie  cordatus  homo,  catus  Aeliu'  Sextus, 

multique  praeterea,  qui,  cum  ingenio  sibi  auctore 
dignitatem  reperissent,  perfecerunt,  ut  in  respon- 
dendo  iure,  auctoritate  plus  etiam,  quam  ipso  ingenio, 
valerent. 

199  Senectuti  vero  celebrandae  et  ornandae  quod 
honestius  potest  esse  perfugium,  quam  iuris  inter- 
pretatio .''  Equidem  mihi  hoc  subsidium  iam  ab 
adolescentia  comparavi,  non  solum  ad  causarum  usum 
forensium,  sed  etiam  ad  decus  atque  ornamentum 
senectutis  ;  ut,  cum  me  vires  (quod  fere  iam  tem- 
pus  adventat)  deficere  coepissent,  ista  ab  sohtudine 
domum  meam  vindicarem.  Quid  est  enim  prae- 
clarius,  quam  honoribus  et  reipubhcae  muneribus 
perfunctum  senem  posse  suo  iure  dicere  idem,  quod 
apud  Ennium  dicat  ille  Pythius  ApoUo,  se  esse  eum, 

"  Similar  practitioners  appeared  at  Rome  under  the 
Empire,  but  in  Cicero's  time  the  great  advocates  got  their 
law  from  the  most  eminent  jurists. 

'  i.e.  Ennius,  Ann.  x.  326,  Remaint  of  Old  Latin  (L.C.L.), 
L  120,  121. 

138 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xliv.  197— xlv.  199 

to  be  indispensable  to  such  as  sought  to  become 
complete  orators. 

198  XLV.  "  Who  again  does  not  know  how  much  pre- 
ferment,  credit  and  authority  this  study  of  itself 
secures  for  its  leaders  ?  Thus,  while  among  the 
Greeks  the  humblest  persons,  '  attorneys  '  *  as  they 
are  called  in  that  country,  are  induced  for  a  mere 
pittance  to  profFer  their  assistance  to  advocates  in 
Court,  in  our  own  comjnunity,  on  the  contrary,  all 
the  most  honourable  and  illustrious  men  have  done 
this  work,  he  for  example  who,  for  his  knowledge  of 
this  common  law,  was  described  by  the  greatest  of 
poets  ^  as  follows  : 

Notably  wise  and  shrewd  among  men  there  was  Aelius  Sextus, 

and  many  besides  him  who,  after  gaining  eminence 
on  the  strength  of  their  talent,  brought  it  about 
that,  in  advising  on  law,  their  strength  lay  less 
even  in  their  unaided  talent  than  in  their  reputa- 
tion. 

199  "  Then  too,  for  giving  to  old  age  companionship 
and  grace,  what  worthier  resource  can  there  be  than 
the  interpretation  of  law  ?  For  my  part,  even  from 
earliest  manhood,  I  laid  up  for  myself  this  provision, 
not  only  with  a  view  to  my  actual  practice  in  the 
Courts,  but  also  to  be  the  glory  and  distinction  of  my 
age,  to  the  end  that,  when  my  bodily  powers  should 
have  begun  to  fail  (a  time  already  almost  upon  me), 
I  might  preserve  my  home  from  loneliness  at  the  last. 
For  what  is  there  grander  than  for  an  old  man,  who 
has  discharged  the  high  offices  and  functions  of  the 
State,  to  be  able  to  say  as  of  right,  with  the  great 
Pythian  ApoUo  in  Ennius,"  that  he  is  the  one  from 

«  In  Eummides,  ibid.  270,  271. 

139 


CICERO 

unde  sibi,  si  non  '  populi  et  reges/  at  omnes  sui 
cives  consilium  expetant, 

Suarum  rerum  incerti ;  quos  ego  mea  ope  ex 
Incertis  certos,  compotesque  consili 
Dimitto,  ut  ne  res  temere  tractent  turbidas. 

200  Est  enim  sine  dubio  domus  iurisconsulti  totius 
oraculum  civitatis.  Testis  est  huiusce  Q.  Mucii  ianua 
et  vestibulum,  quod  in  eius  infirmissima  valetudine, 
affectaque  iam  aetate,  maxima  quotidie  frequentia 
civium,  ac  summorum  hominum  splendore  celebratur. 

201  XLVI.  lam  vero  illa  non  longam  orationem  de- 
siderant,  quam  ob  rem  existimem  publica  quoque 
iura,  quae  sunt  propria  civitatis  atque  imperii,  tum 
monumenta  rerum  gestarum,  et  vetustatis  exempla, 
oratori  nota  esse  debere.  Nam  ut  in  rerum  priva- 
tarum  causis  atque  iudiciis  depromenda  saepe  oratio 
est  ex  iure  civili,  et  idcirco,  ut  ante  diximus,  oratori 
iuris  civiHs  scientia  necessaria  est :  sic  in  causis  pub- 
licis  iudiciorum,  concionum,  Senatus,  omnis  haec  et 
antiquitatis  memoria,  et  publici  iuris  auctoritas, 
et  regendae  reipublicae  ratio  ac  scientia,  tanquam 
aliqua  materies,  eis  oratoribus,  qui  versantur  in  re- 
pubUca,  subiecta  esse  debent. 

202  Non  enim  causidicum  nescio  quem,  neque  pro- 
clamatorem,  aut  rabulam,  hoc  sermone  nostro  con- 
quirimus,  sed  eum  virum,  qui  primum  sit  eius  artis 
antistes,  cuius  cum  ipsa  natura  magnam  homini 
facultatem  daret,  tamen  dedisse  deus  putabatur  ;  ut 
et  ipsum,  quod  erat  hominis  proprium,  non  partum 
140 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlv.  199-~-xlvi.  202 

whom  all  his  fellow-citizens  at  any  rate,  if  not  '  the 
peoples  and  the  kings,'  seek  counsel  for  themselves, 

Men  doubtful  of  their  good,  whom  by  my  help, 
Their  doubts  dispelled,  confirmed  in  their  designs, 
I  send  away,  no  troubled  track  to  thread. 

For  the  house  of  a  great  lawyer  is  assuredly 
the  oracular  seat  of  the  whole  community.  This  is 
attested  by  the  gateway  and  forecourt  of  our  friend 
here,  Quintus  Mucius,  thronged  as  they  are  daily, 
notvdthstanding  his  very  poor  health  and  now  ad- 
vanced  age,  by  a  huge  concourse  of  citizens,  among 
whom  are  personages  of  the  highest  distinction. 

XLVI.  "  Moreover  no  long  discussion  is  needed  The  orator 
to  explain  why  I  think  that  the  orator  must  also  feanfing. 
be  acquainted  with  pubUc  law,  which  is  exclusively 
concerned  with  the  State  and  Empire,  and  also  the 
records  of  past  events  and  the  precedents  of  antiquity. 
For  as,  in  cases  and  proceedings  relating  to  private 
interests,  his  language  must  often  be  borrowed  from 
common  law,  so  that,  as  we  have  said  already,  a 
knowledge  of  common  law  is  indispensable  to  the 
orator  ;  just  so,  in  pubUc  causes,  ahke  in  the  law- 
courts,  in  popular  assembUes  and  in  the  Senate,  all 
this  story  of  old  times,  the  precedents  of  pubUc  law, 
and  the  method  and  science  of  State  administration 
should  be  material,  as  it  were,  at  the  disposal  of  those 
orators  who  occupy  themselves  ynth  politics. 

"  For  in  this  talk  of  ours  we  are  not  seeking  some 
pettifogger,  declaimer  or  ranter,  but  that  man  who, 
to  begin  with,  is  high-priest  of  that  art  which,  though 
unaided  nature  bestowed  on  mankind  a  great  capacity 
for  it,  was  yet  deemed  to  have  been  the  gift  of  a 
divinity,  so  that  a  property  pecuUar  to  humanity 
might   seem   no   ofFspring   of  ourselves,  but  to  be 

141 


CICERO 

per  nos,  sed  divinitus  ad  nos  delatum  videretur ; 
deinde,  qui  possit,  non  tam  caduceo,  quam  nomine 
oratoris  ornatus,  incolumis,  vel  inter  hostium  tela, 
versari ;  tum,  qui  scelus  fraudemque  nocentis  possit 
dicendo  subicere  odio  civium,  supplicioque  con- 
stringere  ;  idemque  ingenii  praesidio  innocentiam 
iudiciorum  poena  liberare  ;  idemque  languentem 
labentemque  populum  aut  ad  decus  excitare,  aut  ab 
errore  deducere,  aut  inflammare  in  improbos,  aut 
incitatum  in  bonos,  mitigare  ;  qui  denique,  quem- 
cumque  in  animis  hominum  motum  res  et  causa 
postulet,  eum  dicendo  vel  excitare  possit,  vel  sedare. 

203  Hanc  vim  si  quis  existimat,  aut  ab  eis,  qui  de  dicendi 
ratione  scripserunt,  expositam  esse,  aut  a  me  posse 
exponi  tam  brevi,  vehementer  errat ;  neque  solum 
inscientiam  meam,  sed  ne  rerum  quidem  magni- 
tudinem  perspicit.  Equidem  vobis,  quoniam  ita 
voluistis,  fontes,  unde  hauriretis,  atque  itinera  ipsa, 
ita  putavi  esse  demonstranda,  non  ut  ipse  dux  essem 
- — quod  et  infinitum  est,  et  non  necessarium — sed 
ut  commonstrarem  tantum  viam,  et,  ut  fieri  solet, 
digitum  ad  fontes  intenderem. 

204  XLVII.  Mihi  vero,  inquit  Mucius,  satis  superque 
abs  te  videtur  istorum  studiis,  si  modo  sunt  studiosi, 
esse  factum.  Nam,  ut  Socratem  illum  soHtum  aiunt 
dicere,  perfectum  sibi  opus  esse,  si  quis  satis  esset 
concitatus  cohortatione  sua  ad  studium  cognoscendae 

142 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlvi.  202— xlvii.  204 

sent  down  upon  us  from  heaven  ;  who  secondly  can 
abide  unharmed  even  on  the  field  of  battle,  through 
the  respect  felt  for  his  title  of  orator  rather  than 
any  heraldic  staff;  who  furthermore  can  by  his 
eloquence  expose  to  the  indignation  of  fellow- 
citizens,  and  restrain  by  punishment,  the  crimes 
and  iniquities  of  the  guilty  ;  who  also,  by  the  shield 
of  his  talent,  can  dehver  innocence  from  legal 
penalties  ;  who  again  can  either  inspire  a  lukewarm 
and  erring  nation  to  a  sense  of  the  fitting,  or  lead 
them  away  from  their  blundering,  or  kindle  their 
wrath  against  the  wicked,  or  soothe  them  when  they 
are  excited  against  good  men  ;  who  lastly  can  by  his 
eloquence  either  arouse  or  calm,  within  the  souls  of 
men,  whatever  passion  the  circumstances  and  occasion 
may  demand. 

203  "  If  any  man  imagines  that  this  power  has  been 
explained  by  the  writers  on  the  theory  of  speaking, 
or  that  I  can  explain  it  in  so  short  a  span,  he  is  very 
greatly  mistaken,  not  even  perceiving  the  vastness 
of  the  subject,  much  less  my  own  ignorance.  For 
myself  indeed,  as  such  was  your  wish,  I  have  thought 
fit  to  reveal  to  you  the  springs  from  which  to  drink, 
and  the  approaches  to  them,  not  as  one  seeking 
to  be  myself  your  guide  (an  endless  and  superfluous 
task),  but  just  indicating  the  road,  and,  in  the  usual 

2Q4  way,  pointing  with  my  finger  to  the  fountains." 

XLVII.  "  To  me  indeed,"  observed  Mucius,  "  you  Acknow- 
seem  to  have  done  enough  and  to  spare  for  the  requeTt^for' 
enthusiasms  of  your  friends,  if  only  they  are  real  further 
enthusiasts.     For,  just  as  great  Socrates  is  said  to  *  ^'°** 
have  been  fond  of  describing  his  work  as  accomplished, 
once  some  man  had  been  so  far  stimulated  by  his 
encouragement   as   to   pursue   the   knowledge   and 

143 


CICERO 

percipiendaeque  virtutis — quibus  enim  id  persuasum 
esset,  ut  nihil  mallent  se  esse,  quam  bonos  viros,  eis 
reliquam  facilem  esse  doctrinam — :  sic  ego  intellego, 
si  in  haec,  quae  patefecit  oratione  sua  Crassus,  in- 
trare  volueritis  ;  facillime  vos  ad  ea,  quae  cupitis, 
perventuros  ab  hoc  aditu,  ianuaque  patefacta. 

205  Nobis  vero,  inquit  Sulpicius,  ista  sunt  pergrata 
perque  iucunda  :  sed  pauca  etiam  requirimus,  in- 
primisque  ea,  quae  valde  breviter  a  te,  Crasse,  de 
ipsa  arte  percursa  sunt,  cum  illa  te  et  non  con- 
temnere,  et  didicisse  confiterere.  Ea  si  paulo  latius 
dixeris,  expleris  omnem  exspectationem  diuturni 
desiderii  nostri.  Nam  nunc,  quibus  studendum  rebus 
esset,  accepimus,  quod  ipsum  est  tamen  magnum  ; 
sed  vias  earum  rerum  rationemque  cupimus  cog- 
noscere. 

206  Quid  si,  inquit  Crassus,  quoniam  ego,  quo  faciHus 
vos  apud  me  tenerem,  vestrae  potius  obsecutus  sum 
voluntati,  quam  aut  consuetudini,  aut  naturae  meae, 
petimus  ab  Antonio,  ut  ea,  quae  continet,  neque 
adhuc  protuht,  ex  quibus  unum  libellum  sibi  excidisse 
iamdudum  questus  est,  exphcet  nobis,  et  illa  dicendi 
mysteria  enuntiet .''  Ut  videtur,  inquit  Sulpicius. 
Nam  Antonio  dicente,  etiam  quid  tu  intellegas,  sen- 

207  tiemus.  Peto  igitur,  inquit  Crassus,  a  te,  quoniam  id 
nobis,  Antoni,  hominibus  id  aetatis,  oneris  ab  horum 
adolescentium  studiis  imponitur,  ut  exponas,  quid  eis 
de  rebus,  quas  a  te  quaeri  vides,  sentias. 

U4> 


DE  ORATORE,  I,   xlvii.  204-207 

apprehension  of  excellence  (since  further  instruction 
came  easily  to  such  as  had  been  persuaded  to  set 
the  attainment  of  virtue  above  all  else),  so  I  see  that, 
if  you  two  will  consent  to  enter  upon  these  courses 
revealed  by  Crassus  in  what  he  says,  you  will  most 
readily  reach  the  end  of  your  desires  by  this  Way 
and  through  this  Door  which  he  has  opened." 

205  "  We,"  added  Sulpicius,  "  are  indeed  most  grateful 
for  your  statement  and  highly  delighted  with  it, 
but  we  ask  for  a  little  more,  and  especially  for  those 
particulars  concerning  the  art  itself,  which  you, 
Crassus,  ran  over  very  briefly,  though  owning  that, 
so  far  from  despising,  you  had  even  learned  them. 
If  you  will  state  these  rather  more  at  large,  you  will 
satisfy  every  hope  of  our  continual  longing.  For  so 
far  we  have  heard  what  objects  we  must  pursue, 
which  anyhow  is  a  great  thing  in  itself ;  but  we  are 
yearning  to  know  the  methods  and  the  theory  of 
these  studies." 

£06  "  Well,"  said  Crassus,  "  since,  to  keep  you  with 
me  more  easily,  I  have  followed  your  wishes  rather 
than  my  own  practice  or  natural  bent,  what  if  we 
ask  Antonius  to  unfold  to  us  all  that  he  is  keeping 
to  himself  and  has  not  yet  pubhshed  abroad,  of 
which  he  complained  just  now  that  a  single  httle 
book  had  already  shpped  out  of  his  hands,  and 
to  disclose  those  secrets  of  oratory  ? "  "  As  you 
please,"  replied  Sulpicius.  "  For  from  the  Ups  of 
Antonius  we  shall  be  learning  your  own  views  also." 

207  "  I  ask  you  then,  Antonius,"  went  on  Crassus,  "  as 
this  burden  is  laid  upon  people  of  our  years  by  the 
eagerness  of  these  young  men,  to  express  your 
sentiments  upon  these  matters  which  you  see  are 
required  of  you." 

145 


CICERO 

XLVIII.  Deprehensum  equidem  me,  inquit 
Antonius,  plane  video  atque  sentio,  non  solum  quod 
ea  requiruntur  a  me,  quorum  sum  ignarus  atque 
insolens,  sed  quia,  quod  in  causis  valde  fugere  soleo, 
ne  tibi,  Crasse,  succedam,  id  me  nunc  isti  vitare  non 

208  sinunt.  Verum  hoc  ingrediar  ad  ea,  quae  vultis, 
audacius,  quod  idem  mihi  spero  usu  esse  venturum 
in  hac  disputatione,  quod  in  dicendo  solet,  ut  nulla 
exspectetur  ornata  oratio.  Neque  enim  sum  de  arte 
dicturus,  quam  nunquam  didici,  sed  de  mea  con- 
suetudine  ;  ipsaque  illa,  quae  in  commentarium 
meum  rettuli,  sunt  eiusmodi,  non  aliqua  mihi  doctrina 
tradita,  sed  in  rerum  usu  causisque  tractata  :  quae 
si  vobis,  hominibus  eruditissimis,  non  probabuntur, 
vestram  iniquitatem  accusatote,  qui  ex  me  ea  quae- 
sieritis,  quae  ego  nescirem  ;  meam  facilitatem  lauda- 
tote,  cum  vobis,  non  meo  iudicio,  sed  vestro  studio 
inductus,  non  gravate  respondero. 

209  Tum  Crassus  :  Perge  modo,  inquit,  Antoni.  Nul- 
lum  est  enim  periculum,  ne  quid  tu  eloquare,  nisi 
ita  prudenter,  ut  neminem  nostrum  poeniteat  ad 
hunc  te  sermonem  impulisse. 

Ego  vero,  inquit,  pergam  :  et  id  faciam,  quod  in 
principio  fieri  in  omnibus  disputationibus  oportere 
censeo  :  ut,  quid  illud  sit,  de  quo  disputetur,  ex- 
planetur,  ne  vagari  et  errare  cogatur  oratio,  si  ei, 
qui  inter  se  dissenserint,  non  idem  esse  illud,  quo 
de  agitur,  intellegant. 

146 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlviii.  207-209 

XLVIII.  "  For  my  part,"  answered  Antonius,  "  I  viewsof 
see  and  feel  myself  in  evident  straits,  not  only  in  ^°ned  from 
being  questioned  as  to  things  beyond  my  knowledge  his  experi- 
and  experience,  but  also   because  this   time   your  ^°^' 
friends  do  not  let  me  shirk  a  situation  from  which 
in  Court  I  always  do  my  best  to  run  away,  I  mean 

208  that  of  speaking  next  after  yourself,  Crassus.  But 
I  shall  the  more  courageously  approach  this  under- 
taking  of  your  choice,  in  that  I  hope  for  the  same 
fortune  in  this  discussion  which  generally  befalls 
my  speeches,  namely,  that  no  elegance  of  diction 
will  be  expected  of  me.  For  I  am  not  going  to 
speak  of  an  art  which  I  never  learned,  but  of  my  own 
practice  ;  and  those  very  commonplaces,  which  I 
have  set  dovm  in  my  note-book,  are  no  traditions 
taught  to  me  by  some  one  or  other,  but  such  as  have 
been  used  in  actual  afFairs  and  at  the  Bar :  and  if 
they  do  not  commend  themselves  to  men  of  your 
consummate  accomplishment,  pray  blame  your  own 
unfairness  in  seeking  to  learn  of  me  things  I  did  not 
know  ;  and  extol  my  good  nature  in  answering  you 
with  a  good  grace,  won  over  by  your  enthusiasm, 
not  my  own  discretion." 

209  "  Just  go  on,  Antonius,"  retumed  Crassus.  "  For 
there  is  no  danger  of  your  delivering  yourself  without 
such  practical  wisdom  that  not  a  man  of  us  will 
repent  of  having  urged  you  on  to  this  discussion." 

"  Yes,  I  will  go  on,"  said  the  other  :  "  and  I  will 
do  what  I  think  should  be  the  first  thing  done  in 
every  debate,  which  is  that  the  subject  for  discussion 
should  be  clearly  ascertained,  so  that  a  discourse  may 
not  have  to  ramble  and  lose  itself,  if  perhaps  the 
disputants  do  not  understand  the  issue  in  one  and 
the  same  sense. 

147 


CICERO 

210  Nam,  si  forte  quaereretur,  quae  esset  ars  impera- 
toris,  constituendum  putarem  principio,  quis  esset 
imperator  :  qui  cum  esset  constitutus  administrator 
quidam  belli  gerendi,  tum  adiungeremus  de  exercitu, 
de  castris,  de  agminibus,  de  signorum  collationibus, 
de  oppidorum  oppugnationibus,  de  commeatu,  de 
insidiis  faciendis  atque  vitandis,  de  reliquis  rebus, 
quae  essent  propriae  belli  administrandi ;  quarum 
qui  essent  animo  et  scientia  compotes,  eos  esse  im- 
peratores  dicerem  ;  utererque  exemplis  Africanorum 
et  Maximorum  ;  Epaminondam  atque  Hannibalem, 
atque  eius  generis  homines  nominarem. 

211  Sin  autem  quaereremus  quis  esset  is,  qui  ad  rem- 
publicam  moderandam  usum,  et  scientiam,  et  studium 
suum  contulisset,  definirem  hoc  modo  :  Qui,  quibus 
rebus  utiUtas  reipublicae  pararetur  augereturque, 
teneret,  eisque  uteretur  ;  hunc  reipublicae  rectorem, 
et  consilii  publici  auctorem  esse  habendum  ;  praedi- 
caremque  P.  Lentulum,  principem  illum,  et  Tib. 
Gracchum  patrem,  et  Q.  Metellum,  et  P.  Africanum, 
et  C.  Laelium,  et  innumerabiles  ahos  cum  ex  nostra 

212  civitate,  tum  ex  ceteris.  Sin  autem  quaereretur, 
quisnam  iurisconsultus  vere  nominaretur ;  eum  dice- 
rem,  qui  legum,  et  consuetudinis  eius,  qua  privati 
in  civitate  uterentur,  et  ad  respondendum,  et  ad 
agendum,  et  ad  cavendum,  peritus  esset ;  et  ex  eo 
genere  Sext.  Aehum,  M'.  Manilium,  P.  Mucium 
nominarem. 

XLIX.  Atque,  ut  iam  ad  leviora  artium  studia 

148 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlviii.  210— xlix.  212 

210  "  For,  if  the  question  chanced  to  be  as  to  the  nature  The  orator, 
of  the  generars  art,  I  should  think  it  proper  to  settle  so^dier^the 
at  the  outset,  who  is  a  general  :  and,  having  defined  statesman 
him  as  a  man  in  charge  of  the  conduct  of  war,  we  phiiosopher 
should  then  add  some  particulars  of  troops,  encamp-  !*  *  speciai. 
ment,   marching   formation,   close   fighting,   invest- 

ment  of  towns,  food-supply,  laying  and  avoidance 
of  ambuscades,  and  all  else  pertaining  to  the  manage- 
ment  of  warfare  ;  and  those  men  who  are  intellectu- 
ally  and  theoretically  masters  of  these  subjects  I 
should  call  generals,  citing  as  examples  men  like 
Scipio  and  Fabius  Maximus,  and  making  mention  of 
Epaminondas  and  Hannibal  and  persons  of  that  type. 

211  "  But  if  we  were  inquiring  who  is  he  that  has 
devoted  his  experience,  knowledge  and  enthusiasm 
to  the  guidance  of  the  State,  I  should  define  him 
thus  :  '  Whoever  knows  and  uses  everything  by 
which  the  advantage  of  a  State  is  secured  and 
developed,  is  the  man  to  be  deemed  the  helmsman 
of  the  State,  and  the  originator  of  national  policy,' 
and  I  should  tell  of  Publius  Lentulus  that  illustrious 
leader,  of  Tiberius  Gracchus  the  elder,  Quintus 
Metellus,  Publius  Africanus,  Gaius  LaeUus,  and 
countless   others,   some   from   our   own   community 

212  and  some  from  abroad.  If  again  the  question  were, 
who  is  rightly  described  as  learned  in  the  law,  I  should 
say  it  is  the  man  who  is  an  expert  in  the  statuteis, 
and  in  the  customary  law  observed  by  individuals 
as  members  of  the  community,  and  who  is  quaUfied 
to  advise,  direct  the  course  of  a  lawsuit,  and  safe- 
guard  a  client,  and  in  this  class  I  should  refer  to 
Sextus  Aelius,  Manius  Manilius  and  Pubhus  Mucius. 

XLIX.    "  And,  to  come  now  to  the  pursuits  of 
the  more  trivial  arts,  if  the  devotee  of  music,  the 

149 


CICERO 

veniam,  si  musicus,  si  grammaticus,  si  poeta  quae- 
ratur,  possim  similiter  explicare,  quid  eorum  quisque 
profiteatur,  et  quo  non  amplius  ab  quoque  sit  postu- 
landum.  Philosophi  denique  ipsius,  qui  de  sua  vi  ac 
sapientia  unus  omnia  paene  profitetur,  est  tamen 
quaedam  descriptio,  ut  is,  qui  studeat  omnium  rerum 
divinarum  atque  humanarum  vim,  naturam  causasque 
nosse,  et  omnem  bene  vivendi  rationem  tenere  et 

213  persequi,  nomine  hoc  appelletur.  Oratorem  autem, 
quoniam  de  eo  quaerimus,  equidem  non  facio  eum- 
dem,  quem  Crassus  ;  qui  mihi  visus  est  omnem 
omnium  rerum  atque  artium  scientiam  comprehen- 
dere  uno  oratoris  officio  ac  nomine  :  atque  eura  puto 
esse,  qui  verbis  ad  audiendum  iucundis,  et  sententiis 
ad  probandum  accommodatis  uti  possit  in  causis 
forensibus  atque  communibus.  Hunc  ego  appello 
oratorem,  eumque  esse  praeterea  instructum  voce, 
et  actione,  et  lepore  quodam  volo. 

214  Crassus  vero  mihi  noster  visus  est  oratoris  facul- 
tatem  non  illius  artis  terminis,  sed  ingenii  sui  finibus, 
immensis  paene,  describere.  Nam  et  civitatum  re- 
gendarum  oratori  gubemacula  sententia  sua  tradidit : 
in  quo  per  mihi  mirum  visum  est,  Scaevola,  te  hoc 
ilU  concedere  ;  cum  saepissime  tibi  Senatus,  brevi- 
ter  impohteque  dicenti,  maximis  sit  de  rebus  assensus. 
M.  vero  Scaurus,  quem  non  longe,  ruri,  apud  se  esse 
audio,    vir    regendae    reipubhcae    scientissimus,    si 

150 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlix.  212-214 

philologist,  or  the  poet  should  be  under  examina- 
tion,  I  could  explain  in  Uke  fashion  their  several 
claims,  and  the  most  that  ought  to  be  required  of 
each.  Lastly,  of  the  philosopher  himself,  who  by 
virtue  of  his  special  faculty  and  wisdom  stands  alone 
in  claiming  something  like  omniscience,  there  is 
after  all  a  kind  of  definition,  to  the  effect  that  he 
who  strives  to  know  the  significance,  nature  and 
causes  of  everything  divine  or  human,  and  to  master 
and  follow  out  as  a  whole  the  theory  of  right  hving, 

213  is  to  be  thus  denominated.  But  the  orator,  since 
it  is  he  whom  we  are  studying,  I  myself  do  not 
picture  as  Crassus  did,  who  I  thought  included, 
under  the  single  vocation  and  title  of  orator,  omni- 
science  in  every  topic  and  every  art :  in  fact  I  take 
him  to  be  a  man  who  can  use  language  agreeable 
to  the  ear,  and  arguments  suited  to  convince,  in 
law-court  disputes  and  in  debates  of  public  business. 
Such  a  man  I  call  an  orator,  and  would  have  him 
endowed  besides  with  intonation,  delivery  and  a 
certain  charm. 

214  '  Now  our  friend  Crassus  seemed  to  me  to  delimit  Crassus^s 
the  range  of  the  orator,  not  by  the  bounds  of  the  art  ^^^^0  wlda, 
concerned,  but  by  the  wellnigh  infinite  extent  of 

his  own  talent.  For  by  his  verdict  he  even  handed 
over  to  the  orator  the  helm  of  statesmanship ;  and 
I  thought  it  passing  strange,  Scaevola,  that  you 
should  grant  him  this  point,  when  times  without 
number  the  Senate  has  agreed  with  you  on  matters 
of  extreme  gravity,  though  your  speech  has  been 
short  and  without  ornament.  Indeed  if  Marcus 
Scaurus,  who  I  am  told  is  at  his  country-house  not 
far  away,  one  of  the  highest  authorities  on  states- 
manship,  had  happened  to  hear  that  the  influence 

151 


CICERO 

audierit,  hanc  auctoritatem  gravitatis  et  consilii  sui 
vindicari  a  te,  Crasse,  quod  eam  oratoris  propriam 
esse  dicas  :  iam,  credo,  huc  veniat,  et  hanc  loquaci- 
tatem  nostram  vultu  ipso  aspectuque  conterreat : 
qui,  quanquam  est  in  dicendo  minime  contemnendus, 
prudentia   tamen    rerum    magnarum    magis,    quam 

215  dicendi  arte,  nititur.  Neque  vero,  si  quis  utrumque 
potest,  aut  ille  consihi  publici  auctor,  ac  senator 
bonus,  ob  eam  ipsam  causam  orator  est ;  aut  hic 
disertus  atque  eloquens,  si  est  idem  in  procuratione 
civitatis  egregius,  illam  scientiam  dicendi  copia  est 
consecutus.  Multum  inter  se  distant  istae  facultates, 
longeque  sunt  diversae  atque  seiunctae ;  neque  ea- 
dem  ratione  ac  via  M.  Cato,  P.  Africanus,  Q.  Me- 
tellus,  C.  Laehus,  qui  omnes  eloquentes  fuerunt, 
orationem  suam  et  reipublicae  dignitatem  exoma- 
bant. 

216  L.  Neque  enim  est  interdictum  aut  a  rerum  natura, 
aut  a  lege  aliqua  atque  more,  ut  singuhs  hominibus 
ne  ampUus,  quam  singulas  artes,  nosse  Uceat.  Quare 
non,  etsi  eloquentissimus  Athenis  Pericles,  idemque 
in  ea  civitate  plurimos  annos  princeps  consilii  publici 
fuit,  idcirco  eiusdem  hominis  atque  artis  utraque 
facultas  existimanda  est ;  nec,  si  P.  Crassus  idem  fuit 
eloquens,  et  iuris  peritus,  ob  eam  causam  inest  in 

217  facultate  dicendi  iuris  civilis  scientia.  Nam  si  quis- 
que,  ut  in  aliqua  arte  et  facultate  exceUens,  aUam 
quoque  artem  sibi  assumpserit,  ita  perficiet,  ut,  quod 
praeterea  sciet,  id  eius,  in  quo  exceUet,  pars  quaedam 

15S 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  xlix.  214— 1.  217 

natural  to  his  own  worth  and  wisdom  was  being 
claimed  by  yourself,  Crassus,  as  the  right  of  an 
orator,  he  would,  I  do  beUeve,  instantly  proceed 
hither  and  thoroughly  frighten  us  chatterers  by  the 
mere  look  on  his  face  :  for,  though  no  mean  speaker, 
he   yet  reUes  rather  on  his  knowledge   of  higher 

215  poHtics  than  on  the  art  of  oratory.  Then  too,  if  a 
man  is  capable  in  both  ways,  such  as  the  originator 
of  national  policy  who  is  also  a  good  senator,  he  is 
not  just  for  that  reason  an  orator  ;  nor  did  the 
accomplished  orator,  who  happens  also  to  be  out- 
standing  in  pubUc  administration,  attain  that  special 
knowledge  through  his  fluency  in  speaking.  There 
is  a  vast  difference  between  these  gifts,  and  far  apart 
are  they  sundered  ;  nor  was  it  by  any  uniform  theory 
and  method  that  Marcus  Cato,  PubUus  Africanus, 
Quintus  MeteUus  and  Gaius  LaeUus,  orators  aU, 
gave  briUiance  to  their  own  style  and  to  the  reputa- 
tion  of  their  community. 

216  L-  "  For  neither  the  nature  of  things,  nor  any  wide 
statute  or  custom,  requires  any  one  man  to  refrain  cuiture  not 
from  learning  more  than  one  art.     And  so,  although  LbieToTthe 
Pericles  was  the  most  eloquent  man  at  Athens,  and  ^'^^^' 
also  for   very  many  years   the  leader  of  national 

poUcy  in  that  community,  it  is  not  therefore  to 
be  supposed  that  these  two  accompUshments  pertain 
to  one  and  the  same  man  or  art ;  nor,  because 
PubUus  Crassus  combined  eloquence  with  legal 
learning,  does  it  foUow  that  knowledge  of  common 

217  law  is  impUed  in  oratorical  abiUty.  For  if  every- 
one  who,  while  outstanding  in  some  art  and  capacity, 
has  embraced  another  art  as  well,  is  thereby  to 
create  the  beUef  that  such  subsidiary  knowledge 
is  a  specific  part  of  that  wherein  he  excels,  we  may 

153 


CICERO 

esse  videatur  :  licet  ista  ratione  dicamus,  pila  bene, 
et  Duodecim  Scriptis  ludere,  proprium  esse  iuris 
civilis,  quoniam  utrumque  eorum  P.  Mucius  optime 
fecerit ;  eademque  ratione  dicantur,  et  quos  (^vo-tKoi-s 
Graeci  nominant,  eidem  poetae,  quoniam  Empedocles 
physicus  egregium  poema  fecerit.  At  hoc  ne  philo- 
sophi  quidem  ipsi,  qui  omnia,  sicut  propria,  sua  esse, 
atque  a  se  possideri  volunt,  dicere  audent,  geo- 
metriam,  aut  musicam,  philosophi  esse,  quia  Plato- 
nem  omnes  in  illis  artibus  praestantissimum  fuisse 
fateantur. 

218  Ac,  si  iam  placet  omnes  artes  oratori  subiungere, 
tolerabihus  est,  sic  potius  dicere,  ut,  quoniam  dicendi 
facultas  non  debeat  esse  ieiuna  atque  nuda,  sed 
aspersa  atque  distincta  multarum  rerum  iucunda 
quadam  varietate,  sit  boni  oratoris  multa  auribus 
accepisse,  multa  vidisse,  multa  animo  et  cogitatione^ 
multa  etiam  legendo  percurrisse  ;  neque  ea,  ut  sua, 
possedisse  ;  sed,  ut  aliena,  hbasse.  Fateor  enim, 
calUdum  quemdam  hunc,  et  nulla  in  re  tironem  ac 
rudem,  nec  peregrinum  atque  hospitem  in  agendo 
esse  debere. 

219  LI.  Neque  vero  istis  tragoediis  tuis,  quibus  uti 
philosophi  maxime  solent,  Crasse,  perturbor,  quod 
ita  dixisti,  neminem  posse  eorum  mentes,  qui  audi- 
rent,  aut  inflanamare  dicendo,  aut  inflammatas  restin- 
guere,  cum  eo  maxime  vis  oratoris  magnitudoque 
cernatur,  nisi  qui  rerum  omnium  naturam,  mores 

"  In  Cicero's  time,  and  much  later,  pila  was  no  definite 
game,  but  a  series  of  gymnastic  exercises  for  the  promotion 
of  bodily  suppleness  and  health. 

Duodecim  scripta  involved  dice-throwing,  and  the  use  of 
difFerently  coloured  counters  on  a  special  board,  divided  into 
spaces  by  12  slanting  lines. 

154 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  1.  217— li.  219 

on  the  same  principle  assert  that  to  play  well  at  ball 
or  Twelve-Lines  *  is  a  pecuharity  of  common  lawyers, 
since  PubUus  Mucius  did  both  things  to  perfection ; 
and  by  the  same  Une  of  argument  those  also  whom 
the  Greeks  call  *  natural  philosophers  '  may  be 
pronounced  to  be  poets  into  the  bargain,  seeing  that 
Empedocles,  a  natural  philosopher,  has  composed 
a  notable  poem.  But  in  reaUty  even  the  moral 
philosophers  themselves,  who  would  have  all  things 
for  their  own,  in  right  of  dominion  and  in  fact  of 
possession  as  well,  do  not  venture  to  claim  that  either 
geometry  or  the  pursuit  of  music  belongs  to  the 
moral  philosopher,  merely  because  Plato  is  admitted 
on  all  hands  to  have  been  pre-eminent  in  those  arts. 

"  And,  if  for  once  we  decide  to  place  all  the  arts  in 
subjection  to  the  orator,  our  case  may  more  accept- 
ably  be  stated  in  this  way,  that,  since  abiUty  to 
speak  ought  not  to  starve  and  go  naked,  but  to 
be  besprinkled  and  adorned  with  a  kind  of  charming 
variety  in  many  details,  it  is  the  part  of  a  good  orator 
to  have  heard  and  seen  much,  and  to  have  run  over 
much  in  thought  and  reflection,  as  well  as  in  his 
reading,  not  acquiring  all  this  as  his  own  possession, 
but  tasting  what  belongs  to  others.  For  I  agree 
that  he  ought  to  be  a  shrewd  sort  of  man,  and 
nowhere  an  untrained  recruit,  and  no  stranger  or 
sojourner  in  his  sphere  of  action. 

LI.  "  Nor  again,  Crassus,  am  I  greatly  troubled  by  To  inflnence 
those  histrionics  of  yours,  the  favourite  medium  of  he^ife^ds*'^°* 
philosophers,  setting  forth  that  by  the  spoken  word  knowiedge 
no  man  can  kindle  the  feeUngs  of  his  hearers,  or  °^*^®*°ri<i; 
quench  them  when  kindled  (though  it  is  in  this  that 
the  orator's  virtue  and  range  are  chiefly  discerned), 
unless  he  has  gazed  into  the  depths  of  the  nature  of 

155 


CICERO 

hominum  atque  rationes  penitus  perspexerit  :  in  quo 
philosophia  sit  oratori  necessario  percipienda  ;  quo  in 
studio  hominum  quoque  ingeniosissimorum  otiosis- 
simorumque  totas  aetates  videmus  esse  contritas. 
Quorum  ego  copiam  magnitudinemque  cognitionis 
atque  artis  non  modo  non  contemno,  sed  etiam  vehe- 
menter  admiror  :  nobis  tamen,  qui  in  hoc  populo 
foroque  versamur,  satis  est,  ea  de  moribus  hominum 
et  scire,  et  dicere,  quae  non  abhorrent  ab  hominum 
moribus. 

220  Quis  enim  unquam  orator  magnus,  et  gravis,  cum 
iratum  adversario  iudicem  facere  vellet,  haesitavit  ob 
eam  causam,  quod  nesciret,  quid  esset  iracundia, 
fervorne  mentis,  an  cupiditas  puniendi  doloris  ?  Quis, 
cum  ceteros  animorum  motus  aut  iudicibus,  aut 
populo  dicendo  miscere  atque  agitare  vellet,  ea  dixit, 
quae  a  philosophis  dici  solent  ?  Qui  partim  omnino 
motus  negant  in  animis  ullos  esse  debere,  quique  eos 
in  iudicum  mentibus  concitent,  scelus  eos  nefarium 
facere  ;  partim,  qui  tolerabiliores  volunt  esse,  et  ad 
veritatem  vitae  propius  accedere,  permediocres  ac 
potius  leves  motus  debere  esse  dicunt. 

221  Orator  autem  omnia  haec,  quae  putantur  in  com- 
muni  vitae  consuetudine,  mala,  ac  molesta,  et 
fugienda,  multo  maiora  et  acerbiora  verbis  facit ; 
itemque  ea,  quae  vulgo  expetenda  atque  optabiUa 
videntur,  dicendo  amplificat  atque  ornat  :  neque  vult 
ita  sapiens  inter  stultos  videri,  uti,  qui  audiant,  aut 


"  Wilkins's  argument  for  reading  motibus  animorum  for 
moribus  hominum  is  unconvincing. 

*  Cf.  Aristotle,  Rhet.  II.  ii.  2  ;   and  Cicero,  Tusc.  Disp. 
iv.  9.  21  and  10.  24. 
156 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  li.  219-221 

everything,  including  human  characters  and  motives  : 
in  which  connexion  the  orator  must  needs  make 
philosophy  his  own  ;  and  in  this  pursuit  we  see  that 
whole  Uves  of  most  talented  and  leisured  persons 
have  been  consumed.  The  copiousness  of  their 
learning  and  the  wide  range  of  their  art  I  am  so  far 
from  despising  that  in  fact  I  ardently  admire  these  : 
yet  for  ourselves,  busied  in  the  public  Ufe  of  this 
community,  it  is  enough  to  know  and  give  expression 
to  such  things  concerning  human  characters**  as  are 
not  alien  to  human  character. 

220  "  For  what  grand  and  impressive  speaker,  trying  to 
make  an  arbitrator  angry  with  his  opponent,  was 
ever  at  a  loss  merely  through  not  knowing  whether 
wrath  is  a  vehement  heat  of  the  mind,  or  a  strong 
desire  to  avenge  pain  .''  ^  Who,  in  seeking  by  his 
word  to  confound  and  stir  up  the  other  feelings  in 
the  minds  of  a  tribunal  or  popular  assembly,  has 
uttered  the  hackneyed  sayings  of  the  philosophers  ? 
Of  whom  some  deny  to  the  feelings  any  rightful 
place  at  all  within  the  mind,  regarding  it  as  an 
infamous  crime  to  awaken  such  in  the  hearts  of  a 
tribunal,  while  others,  pretending  to  some  tolerance 
and  a  closer  approach  to  the  facts  of  Hfe,  assert  that 
the  feelings  should  be  exceedingly  temperate,  or 
rather  of  only  trivial  force. 

221  "  The  orator  however  by  his  words  greatly  magni- 
fies  and  exaggerates  the  grievousness  of  such  things 
as  in  everyday  life  are  thought  evils  and  troubles  to 
be  shunned,  while  he  enlarges  upon  and  beautifies 
by  his  eloquence  whatever  is  commonly  deemed 
delectable  and  worthy  to  be  desired  :  and  he  does 
not  wish  to  appear  so  completely  a  sage  among  fools, 
as  to  have  his  hearers  either  regarding  him  as  a 

157 


CICERO 

illum  ineptum  et  Graeculum  putent ;    aut,  etiamsi 
valde    probent    ingenium    oratoris,    sapientiam    ad- 

222  mirentur,  se  esse  stultos  moleste  ferant  :  sed  ita 
peragrat  per  animos  hominum,  ita  sensus  mentesque 
pertractat,  ut  non  desideret  philosophorum  descrip- 
tiones,  neque  exquirat  oratione,  summum  illud 
bonum  in  animone  sit,  an  in  corpore  ;  virtute  an 
voluptate  definiatur  ;  an  haec  inter  se  iungi  copulari- 
que  possint ;  an  vero,  ut  quibusdam  visum,  nihil 
certum  sciri,  nihil  plane  cognosci  et  percipi  possit. 
Quarum  rerum  fateor  magnam  multiplicemque  esse 
discipUnam,  et  multas,  copiosas  variasque  rationes ; 
sed  aliud  quiddam,  longe  aliud,  Crasse,  quaerimus. 

223  Acuto  homine  nobis  opus  est,  et  natura  usuque 
callido,  qui  sagaciter  pervestiget,  quid  sui  cives,  eique 
homines,  quibus  aliquid  dicendo  persuadere  velit, 
cogitent,  sentiant,  opinentur,  exspectent. 

LII.  Teneat  oportet  venas  cuiusque  generis,  aeta- 
tis,  ordinis,  et  eorum,  apud  quos  ahquid  aget,  aut  erit 

224  acturus,  mentes  sensusque  degustet ;  philosophorum 
autem  hbros  reservet  sibi  ad  huiuscemodi  Tusculani 
requiem  atque  otium,  ne,  si  quando  ei  dicendum  erit 
de  iustitia  et  fide,  mutuetur  a  Platone  ;  qui,  cum 
haec  exprimenda  verbis  arbitraretur,  novam  quam- 
dam  finxit  in  libris  civitatem  :  usque  eo  illa,  quae 
dicenda  de  iustitia  putabat,  a  vitae  consuetudine  et 

225  a  civitatum  moribus  abhorrebant.     Quod  si  ea  pro- 

158 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  li.  221— lii.  225 

clumsy  Greekling,  or  for  all  their  approval  of  the 
orator's  talent  and  astonishment  at  his  wisdom,  yet 

222  taking  it  ill  that  they  themselves  are  foolish  :  but 
in  such  way  does  he  range  over  men's  souls,  and 
explore  their  feelings  and  thoughts,  that  he  needs 
no  philosophers'  definitions,  and  does  not  inquire  in 
his  discourse  whether  '  the  supreme  good '  is  sub- 
jective  or  objective,  whether  it  is  to  be  defined  as 
virtue  or  pleasure,  or  whether  these  two  can  be 
wedded  together,  or,  to  be  sure,  whether,  as  some 
have  thought,  nothing  can  be  known  for  certain, 
nothing  clearly  understood  and  apprehended.  On 
these  questions  I  admit  that  the  teaching  is  abund- 
ant  and  manifold,  and  the  theories  numerous,  copious 
and  varied  ;    but  we,  Crassus,  are  looking  for  some- 

223  thing  difFerent,  and  widely  different.  We  require  a 
man  of  sharpness,  ingenious  by  nature  and  experience 
alike,  who  with  keen  scent  will  track  down  the 
thoughts,  feelings,  beliefs  and  hopes  of  his  fellow- 
citizens  and  of  any  men  whom  on  any  issue  he  would 
fain  win  over  by  his  word. 

LII.  "  He  ought  to  feel  the  pulses  of  every  class,  hedoegnot 
time  of  life,  and  degree,  and  to  taste  the  thoughts  p^^jJJ^ophy. 
and  feelings  of  those  before  whom  he  is  pleading  or 

224  intending  to  plead  any  cause  ;  but  his  philosophical 
books  he  should  keep  back  for  a  restful  holiday,  such 
as  this  one  of  ours  at  Tusculum,  so  as  not  to  borrow 
from  Plato,  if  ever  he  has  to  speak  of  justice  and 
righteousness  ;  for  Plato,  when  he  thought  fit  to  put 
these  things  into  writing,  depicted  in  his  pages  an 
unknown  sort  of  republic,  so  completely  in  contrast 
with  everyday  life  and  the  customs  of  human  com- 
munities  were  his  considered  statements  concerning 

225  justice.     But   if  his   ideas   were   approved   in   real 

159 


CICERO 

barentur  in  populis  atque  in  civitatibus,  quis  tibi, 
Crasse,  concessisset,  clarissimo  viro,  et  amplissimo 
principi  civitatis,  ut  illa  diceres  in  maxima  concione 
tuorum  civium,  quae  dixisti  ?  *  Eripite  nos  ex  miseriis, 
eripite  nos  ex  faucibus  eorum,  quorum  crudelitas 
nostro  sanguine  non  potest  expleri ;  nolite  sinere  nos 
cuiquam  servire,  nisi  vobis  universis,  quibus  et  pos- 
sumus  et  debemus.'  Omitto  '  miserias,'  in  quibus, 
ut  illi  aiunt,  vir  fortis  esse  non  potest ;  omitto 
'  fauces,'  ex  quibus  te  eripi  vis,  ne  iudicio  iniquo 
exsorbeatur  sanguis  tuus ;  quod  sapienti  negant 
accidere  posse  ;  '  servire  '  vero  non  modo  te,  sed 
universum  Senatum,  cuius  tum  causam  agebas,  ausus 
es  dicere  ? 
226  Potestne  virtus,  Crasse,  servire,  istis  auctoribus, 
quorum  tu  praecepta  oratoris  facultate  complecteris  ? 
Quae  et  semper,  et  sola  libera  est,  quaeque,  etiamsi 
corpora  capta  sint  armis,  aut  constricta  vinculis, 
tamen  suum  ius,  atque  omnium  rerum  impunitam 
libertatem  tenere  debeat.  Quae  vero  addidisti,  non 
modo  Senatum  servire  '  posse  '  populo,  sed  etiam 
'  debere,'  quis  hoc  philosophus  tam  mollis,  tam 
languidus,  tam  enervatus,  tam  omnia  ad  voluptatem 
corporis  doloremque  referens,  probare  posset,  Sena- 
tum  servire  populo,  cui  populus  ipse  moderandi  et 
regendi  sui  potestatem,  quasi  quasdam  habenas, 
tradidisset  ? 

160 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  lii.  225-226 

nations  and  States,  who  would  have  allowed  you, 
Crassus,  for  all  your  high  reputation,  and  all  your 
splendour  as  a  pohtical  leader,  to  expres^  yourself 
as  you  did  before  a  densely  crowded  assembly  ot 
your  fellow-citizens  ?  '  Dehver  us  out  of  our  woes, 
dehver  us  out  of  the  jaws  of  those  whose  ferocity 
cannot  get  its  fill  of  our  blood  ;  sufFer  us  not  to  be 
in  bondage  to  any,  save  to  yourselves  as  a  nation, 
whose  slaves  we  can  and  ought  to  be.'  I  pass  over 
*  woes,'  in  which,  according  to  the  philosophers, 
the  brave  can  never  become  involved  ;  I  pass  over 
'  jaws,'  out  of  which  you  desire  to  be  dehvered,  for 
fear  of  your  blood  being  sucked  out  of  you  by  an  un- 
just  judgement,  a  thing  which  they  say  cannot  befall 
the  wise  ;  but  '  slavery,'  did  you  dare  to  say  that  not 
yourself  only,  but  the  entire  Senate,  whose  interests 
you  were  that  day  upholding,  could  be  slaves  ? 
226  "  Can  Virtue  be  a  slave,  Crassus,  according  to  those 
authorities  of  yours,  whose  maxims  you  include 
within  the  range  of  the  orator's  knowledge  ?  She 
who  for  ever  and  alone  is  free,  and  who,  though  the 
body  be  made  prisoner  of  war  or  bound  with  chains, 
ought  still  to  hold  fast  to  her  own  rights  and  un- 
restricted  freedom  in  all  things  !  And  as  for  your 
further  pronouncement,  that  the  Senate  not  only 
'  can '  but  actually  *  ought  to '  be  the  slaves  of 
the  nation,  could  any  philosopher  be  so  unmanly, 
spiritless  and  weak,  so  resolved  to  make  physical 
pleasure  and  pain  the  standard  of  everything,  as 
to  approve  of  this  suggestion  that  the  Senate  is  in 
bondage  to  the  nation,  when  it  is  to  the  Senate  that 
the  nation  itself  has  committed  the  power  of  con- 
troUing  and  guiding  it,  as  some  driver  might  hand 
over  his  reins  ? 

161 


CICERO 

227  LIII.  Itaque  haec  cum  a  te  divinitus  ego  dicta 
arbitrarer,  P.  Rutilius  Rufus,  homo  doctus,  et  philo- 
sophiae  deditus,  non  modo  parum  commode,  sed 
etiam  turpiter  et  flagitiose  dicta  esse  dicebat.  Idem- 
que  Servium  Galbam,  quem  hominem  probe  com- 
meminisse  se  aiebat,  pergraviter  reprehendere 
solebat,  quod  is,  L.  Scribonio  quaestionem  in  eum 
ferente,  populi  misericordiam  concitasset,  cum 
M.  Cato,  Galbae  gravis  atque  acer  inimicus,  aspere 
apud  populum  Romanum  et  vehementer  esset  locu- 
tus,  quam  orationem  in  Originibus  suis  exposuit  ipse. 

228  Reprehendebat  igitur  Galbam  RutiUus,  quod  is 
C.  Sulpicii  GalU,  propinqui  sui,  Quintum  pupillum 
fiUum  ipse  paene  in  humeros  suos  extuUsset,  qui 
patris  clarissimi  recordatione  et  memoria  fletum 
populo  moveret,  et  duos  fiUos  suos  parvos  tutelae 
populi  commendasset,  ac  se,  tanquam  in  procinctu 
testamentum  faceret,  sine  Ubra  atque  tabuUs,  popu- 
lum  Romanum  tutorem  instituere  dixisset  illorum 
orbitati.  Itaque  cum  et  invidia  et  odio  popuU  tum 
Galba  premeretur,  his  quoque  eum  tragoediis  Ubera- 
tum  ferebat ;  quod  item  apud  Catonem  scriptum 
esse  video, '  nisi  pueris  et  lacrimis  usus  esset,  poenas 
eum  daturum  fuisse.'  Haec  RutiUus  valde  vitupera- 
bat,  et  huic  humiUtati,  dicebat  vel  exsiUum  fuisse, 

229  ^^^  mortem  anteponendam.  Neque  vero  hoc  solum 
162 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  liii.  227-229 

227  LIII.  "  Andso,althoughIpersonal]ythoughtthese  indeed 
words  of  yours  inspired,  Publius  Rutilius  Rufus,  a  P^'i°f°phy 

f    1  •  11  1  1.1  1  1  migntdis- 

man  oi    learning   and  devoted  to  philosophy,  used  approve  of 
to  say  they  were  not  only  wanting  in  diseretion,  but  i^veHnes^of" 
positively  unseemly  and  disgraceful.     He  it  was  who  pieading. 
used  also  to  censure  very  severely  Servius  Galba, 
whom   he   claimed   to   remember   well,   for   having 
worked  upon  the  compassion  of  the  assembly,  when 
Lucius  Scribonius  was  moving  for  his  prosecution, 
after  Marcus  Cato,  a  troublesome  and  bitter  foe  to 
Galba,  had  harangued  the  Roman  people  in  a  rough 
and   violent   strain  :  this   speech   Cato   hiraself  has 
recorded  in  his  Early  History. 

228  "  As  I  was  saying,  Rutilius  used  to  find  fault  with 
Galba,  for  having  almost  hoisted  on  to  his  shoulders, 
v/ith  his  own  hands,  his  ward  Quintus,  the  son  of 
his  near  relative  Gaius  Sulpicius  Gallus,  so  that  his 
appearance  might  set  the  assembly  a-weeping,  by 
recalling  the  memory  of  his  most  illustrious  father ; 
and  for  having  committed  two  small  sons  of  his  own 
to  the  guardianship  of  the  nation ;  and  for  having 
proclaimed,  like  a  soldier  making  his  will  under  arms, 
without  scales  or  tablets,  that  he  appointed  the 
Roman  people  to  be  their  guardians  in  their  father- 
less  plight.  The  result,  according  to  Rutilius,  was 
that  Galba,  though  at  that  time  weighed  down  by 
popular  ill-will  and  hatred,  actually  secured  an 
acquittal  by  means  of  these  histrionics,  and  I  also 
find  the  incident  recorded  in  Cato's  book,  with  the 
comment  that  '  but  for  his  employment  of  boys  and 
blubbering,  the  accused  would  have  got  his  deserts.' 
These  methods  Rutilius  used  roundly  to  condemn, 
affirming  that  banishment  or  death  itself  was  better 

229  than  such  abjectness.     Nor  was  this  mere  talk  on 

163 


CICERO 

dixit,  sed  ipse  et  sensit,  et  fecit.  Nam  cum  esset 
ille  vir  exemplum,  ut  scitis,  innocentiae,  cumque 
illo  nemo  neque  integrior  esset  in  civltate,  neque 
sanctior,  non  modo  supplex  iudicibus  esse  noluit,  sed 
ne  ornatius  quidem,  aut  liberius  causam  dici  suam, 
quam  simplex  ratio  veritatis  ferebat.  Paulum  huic 
Cottae  tribuit  partium,  disertissimo  adolescenti, 
sororis  suae  filio.  Dixit  item  causam  illam  quadam 
ex  parte  Q.  Mucius,  more  suo,  nuUo  apparatu,  pure 
et  dilucide. 

230  Quod  si  tu  tunc,  Crasse,  dixisses,  qui  subsidium 
oratori  ex  illis  disputationibus  quibus  philosophi 
utuntur,  ad  dicendi  copiam  petendum  esse  paulo 
ante  dicebas  ;  et,  si  tibi  pro  P.  Rutilio  non  philo- 
sophorum  more,  sed  tuo  licuisset  dicere  :  quamvis 
scelerati  illi  fuissent,  sicuti  fuerunt,  pestiferi  cives, 
supplicioque  digni ;  tamen  omnem  eorum  impor- 
tunitatem  ex  intimis  mentibus  evellisset  vis  orationis 
tuae.  Nunc  talis  vir  amissus  est,  dum  causa  ita 
dicitur,  ut  si  in  illa  commentitia  Platonis  civitate  res 
ageretur.  Nemo  ingemuit,  nemo  inclamavit  patro- 
norum,  nihil  cuiquam  doluit,  nemo  est  questus,  nemo 
rempublicam  imploravit,  nemo  supphcavit.  Quid 
multa  ?  pedem  nemo  in  illo  iudicio  supplosit,  credo, 
ne  Stoicis  renuntiaretur. 

231  LIV.  Imitatus  est  homo  Romanus  et  consularis 
veterem  illum  Socratem,  qui,  cum  omnium  sapientis- 
simus   esset  sanctissimeque  vixisset,  ita  in  iudicio 

164 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  liii.  229— liv.  231 

his  part,  but  he  meant  what  he  said,  and  acted  upon 
it  himself.  For  though,  as  you  know,  that  great 
man  was  a  pattern  of  righteousness,  and  there  was 
no  more  honourable  and  blameless  individual  in  the 
community,  he  dechned  not  only  to  crave  mercy  of 
his  judges,  but  also  to  be  defended  more  eloquently 
or  elaborately  than  the  plain  truth  of  the  matter 
permitted.  To  Cotta  here,  though  a  highly  accom- 
plished  young  man  and  his  sister's  son,  he  allotted 
but  a  fragment  of  his  case.  Quintus  Mucius  too 
argued  a  part  of  it  in  his  own  way,  with  no  trappings, 
his  diction  simple  and  crystal-clear. 

230  "  But  had  you  spoken  that  day,  Crassus, — you  who 
were  saying  just  now  that  the  orator  must  have 
recourse  to  the  ordinary  debates  of  the  philosophers 
for  the  material  of  his  speeches, — and  had  you  been 
allowed  to  plead  for  Pubhus  Rutihus,  in  no  philo- 
sophic  style  but  in  your  own,  then,  even  though 
those  judges  had  been, — as  they  were — ,  accursed 
and  pernicious  men  deserving  of  death,  the  power  of 
your  eloquence  would  none  the  less  have  rent  away 
all  savagery  from  the  bottom  of  their  hearts.  As 
matters  stand,  a  man  of  such  quality  has  been  lost, 
through  his  case  being  conducted  as  if  the  trial  had 
been  taking  place  in  that  ideal  repubhc  of  Plato. 
None  of  his  counsel  groaned  or  shrieked,  none  was 
pained  at  anything,  or  made  any  complaint,  or 
invoked  the  State,  or  humbled  himself.  In  a  word, 
not  one  of  them  stamped  a  foot  during  those  pro- 
ceedings,  for  fear,  no  doubt,  of  being  reported  to  the 
Stoics. 

231  LIV.  "  Thus  did  a  Roman  of  consular  rank  foUow  Theinstance 
the  example  of  great  Socrates  of  old  who,  as  he  of  Socrates. 
was  the  wisest  of  all  men,  and  had  lived  the  most 

165 


CICERO 

capitis  pro  se  ipse  dixit,  ut  non  supplex  aut  reus,  sed 
magister,  aut  dominus  videretur  esse  iudicum.  Quin 
etiam,  cum  ei  scriptam  orationem  disertissimus 
orator  Lysias  attulisset,  quam,  si  ei  videretur,  edis- 
ceret,  ut  ea  pro  se  in  iudicio  uteretur,  non  invitus 
legit,  et  commode  scriptam  esse  dixit :  '  Sed,'  inquit, 
'  ut,  si  mihi  calceos  Sicyonios  attulisses,  non  uterer, 
quamvis  essent  habiles  et  apti  ad  pedem,  quia  non 
essent  viriles  ;  sic  illam  orationem  disertam  sibi  et 
oratoriam  videri,  fortem  et  virilem  non  videri.'  Ergo 
ille  quoque  damnatus  est ;  neque  solum  primis  sen- 
tentiis,  quibus  tantum  statuebant  iudices,  damnarent, 
an  absolverent,  sed  etiam  iUis,  quas  itenmi  legibus 

232  ferre  debebant.  Erat  enim  Athenis,  reo  damnato, 
si  fraus  capitahs  non  esset,  quasi  poenae  aestimatio  ; 
et  sententia  cum  iudicibus  daretur,  interrogabatur 
reus,  quam  quasi  aestimationem  commeruisse  se 
maxime  confiteretur.  Quod  cum  interrogatus  So- 
crates  esset,  respondit,  sese  meruisse,  ut  amplissimis 
honoribus  et  praemiis  decoraretur,  et  ei  victus  quoti- 
dianus  in  Prytaneo  pubhce  praeberetur  ;    qui  honos 

233  apud  Graecos  maximus  habetur.  Cuius  responso 
sic  iudices  exarserunt,  ut  capitis  hominem  innocen- 
tissimum  condemnarent.  Qui  quidem  si  absolutus 
esset ;  quod  mehercule,  etiamsi  nihil  ad  nos  pertinet, 
tamen  propter  eius  ingenii  magnitudinem  vellem  i 
quonam  modo  istos  philosophos  ferre  possemus,  qui 

166 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  liv.  231-233 

blameless  of  lives,  defended  himself  in  person,  when 
indicted  on  a  capital  charge,  in  such  fashion  as 
to  seem  no  submissive  prisoner,  but  the  teacher  or 
domestic  superior  of  his  judges.  Indeed  on  Lysias, 
a  most  accomphshed  orator,  bringing  him  a  written 
speech,  to  be  committed  to  memory,  if  he  thought 
proper,  for  use  in  his  defence  at  his  trial,  he  read 
it  not  unwillingly,  and  said  it  was  aptly  phrased  : 
'  But,'  quoth  he,  '  just  as,  if  you  had  brought  me  a 
pair  of  Sicyonian  half-boots,  were  they  never  so  easy 
and  well-fitting,  I  should  reject  them  as  womanish, 
even  so  I  think  your  speech  is  skilful  oratory  but 
not  the  utterance  of  a  brave  man.'  And  so  he  too 
was  condemned,  not  only  at  the  first  count,  when  the 
tribunal  merely  determined  the  issue  of  conviction 
or  acquittal,  but  also  on  the  further  vote  which  they 

232  were  bound  by  law  to  give.  For  at  Athens,  on  a 
defendant  being  convicted  of  an  offence  carrying  no 
fixed  penalty,  something  like  an  appraisement  of 
hability  was  made  and,  when  the  judges'  vote  was 
being  taken,  the  accused  was  asked  what  was  the 
highest  assessment,  as  it  were,  that  he  owned  to 
having  thoroughly  merited.  When  this  question 
was  put  to  Socrates  he  replied  that  he  had  earned 
the  distinction  of  the  most  splendid  preferments  and 
rewards,  with  provision  for  him,  at  the  public  expense, 
of  daily  sustenance  in  the  Hall  of  the  Presidents,  this 
being  rated  among  the  Greeks  as  the  highest  of 

233  honours.  His  answer  so  incensed  the  tribunal  that 
they  condemned  a  perfectly  blameless  man  to  death. 
Had  he  indeed  been  acquitted,  as  I  devoutly  wish  he 
had  been, — not  that  it  is  any  business  of  ours — but 
for  the  sake  of  his  vast  genius,  how  could  we  ever 
endure  your  philosophers,  who  even  as  it  is,  with 

167 


CICERO 

nunc,  cum  ille  damnatus  est,  nullam  aliam  ob  cul- 
pam,  nisi  propter  dicendi  inscientiam,  tamen  a  se 
oportere  dicunt  peti  praecepta  dicendi  ?  Quibuscum 
ego  non  pugno,  utrum  sit  melius,  aut  verius  :  tantum 
dico,  et  aliud  illud  esse,  atque  hoc,  et  hoc  sine  illo 
summum  esse  posse. 

234  LV.  Nam  quod  ius  civile,  Crasse,  tam  vehementer 
amplexus  es,  video,  quid  egeris.  Tum,  cum  dicebas, 
videbam.  Primum  Scaevolae  te  dedisti,  quem  omnes 
amare  meritissimo  pro  eius  eximia  suavitate  de- 
bemus  :  cuius  artem  cum  indotatam  esse  et  incom- 
ptam  videres,  verborum  eam  dote  locupletasti  et 
ornasti.  Deinde  quod  in  ea  tu  plus  operae  laborisque 
consumpseras,  cum  eius  studii  tibi  et  hortator  et 
magister  esset  domi,  veritus  es,  nisi  istam  artem 
oratione  exaggerasses,  ne  operam  perdidisses. 

235  Sed  ego  ne  cum  ista  quidem  arte  pugno.  Sit  sane 
tanta,  quantam  tu  illam  esse  vis.  Etenim  sine  con- 
troversia  et  magna  est,  et  late  patet,  et  ad  multos 
pertinet,  et  summo  in  honore  semper  fuit,  et  claris- 
simi  cives  ei  studio  etiam  hodie  praesunt.  Sed  vide, 
Crasse,  ne,  dum  novo  et  alieno  ornatu  velis  ornare 
iuris  civilis  scientiam,  suo  quoque  eam  concesso  et 

23g  tradito  spolies  atque  denudes.  Nam,  si  ita  diceres, 
qui  iurisconsultus  esset,  esse  eum  oratorem,  itemque 
qui  esset  orator,  iuris  eimidem  esse  consultum  :  prae- 
168 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  liv.  233— Iv.  236 

their  Master  condemned  solely  for  the  ofFence  of 
inexperience  in  oratory,  yet  tell  us  that  it  is  from 
themselves  that  the  rules  of  eloquence  ought  to  be 
sought  ?  For  my  part  I  have  no  quarrel  with  them 
as  to  which  of  these  faculties  is  the  better  or  more 
real ;  I  simply  say  that  theirs  and  ours  are  two 
distinct  things,  and  that  consummate  eloquence  can 
exist  quite  apart  from  philosophy. 

234  LV.  "  For  I  see  now,  Crassus,  the  purpose  of  your  Nordoesthe 
so  ardent  afFection  for  the  common  law.  Indeed  I  ^^^know^ 
saw  it  as  you  were  speaking.  First  you  did  service  ledgeof  law. 
to  Scaevola,  whom  we  are  all  most  justly  bound  to 

love  for  his  exceeding  great  courtesy  :  seeing  his 
Art  to  be  portionless  and  unadorned,  you  have  en- 
riched  and  decorated  her  with  the  dower  of  diction. 
Secondly,  having  squandered  upon  her  too  much 
work  and  labour,  since  you  had  at  home  an  encourager 
and  instructor  in  that  pursuit,  you  were  afraid  that, 
unless  you  glorified  that  Art  of  yours  by  eloquence, 
you  would  have  lost  your  labour. 

235  "  But  I  myself  have  no  quarrel  with  this  art  of  yours 
either.  By  all  means  let  it  be  of  such  consequence 
as  you  would  have  it  be.  For  indisputably  it  is  a 
noble  art,  extending  far  and  wide  and  touching 
the  concerns  of  many,  while  it  has  ever  been  held 
in  the  highest  repute,  and  even  now  the  most  illus- 
trious  citizens  are  the  leaders  in  that  field.  But  see 
to  it,  Crassus,  that,  in  your  desire  to  deck  out  the 
science  of  common  law  in  new-fangled  and  foreign 
apparel,  you  do  not  at  the  same  time  despoil  and  strip 
her  of  what  has  been  confirmed  to  her  and  made  her 

236  own.  For  if  you  were  to  put  it  in  this  way,  that  the 
man  learned  in  the  law  is  an  orator,  and  likewise  the 
orator  is  one  learned  in  the  law,  you  would  be  setting 

o  169 


CICERO 

claras  duas  artes  constitueres,  atque  inter  se  pares,  et 
eiusdem  socias  dignitatis.  Nunc  vero,  iurisconsultum 
sine  hac  eloquentia,  de  qua  quaerimus,  fateris  esse 
posse,  fuisseque  plurimos  ;  oratorem  negas,  nisi  illam 
scientiam  assumpserit,  esse  posse.  Ita  est  tibi  iuris- 
consultus  ipse  per  se  nihil,  nisi  leguleius  quidam 
cautus  et  acutus,  praeco  actionum,  cantor  formula- 
rum,  auceps  syllabarum  ;  sed  quia  saepe  utitur  orator 
subsidio  iuris  in  causis,  idcirco  istam  iuris  scientiam 
eloquentiae,  tanquam  ancillulam  pedisequamque, 
adiunxisti. 

237  LVI.  Quod  vero  impudentiam  admiratus  es  eorum 
patrononmi,  qui  aut,  cum  parva  nescirent,  magna 
profiterentur,  aut  ea,  quae  maxima  essent  in  iure 
civili,  tractare  auderent  in  causis,  cum  ea  nescirent, 
nunquamque  didicissent ;  utriusque  rei  facilis  est  et 
prompta  defensio.  Nam  neque  illud  est  mirandum, 
qui,  quibus  verbis  coemptio  fiat,  nesciat,  eumdem  eius 
muheris,  quae  coemptionem  fecerit,  causam  posse  de- 
fendere  ;  nec  si  parvi  navigii  et  magni  eadem  est  in 
gubernando  scientia,  idcirco  qui,  quibus  verbis  erctum 
cieri  oporteat,  nesciat,  idem  herciscundae  famihae 

238  causam  agere  non  possit.  Nam,  quod  maximas  cen- 
tumvirales  causas  in  iure  positas  protulisti :  quae 
tandem  earum  causa  fuit,  quae  ab  homine  eloquenti, 
iuris  imperito,  non  ornatissime  potuerit  dici  ?  Quibus 

170 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Iv.  236— Ivi.  238 

up  two  glorious  arts,  on  an  equality  with  each  other, 
and  partners  in  one  grandeur.  But  as  it  is  you 
admit  that  a  man  may  be  learned  in  the  law  without 
possessing  this  eloquence  which  we  are  investigating, 
and  that  many  such  have  appeared  ;  while  you  deny 
the  possibility  of  the  existence  of  an  orator  who  has 
not  acquired  that  legal  knowledge  as  well.  So  by 
your  account  the  learned  lawyer,  in  and  by  himself, 
is  nothing  but  a  circumspect  and  sharp  kind  of  petti- 
fogger,  a  crier  of  legal  actions,  a  chanter  of  legal 
formulas,  a  trapper  of  syllables  ;  but,  because  the 
orator  in  Court  often  employs  the  aid  of  the  law,  you 
have  therefore  associated  your  legal  knowledge  with 
Eloquence,  as  a  Uttle  maid  to  follow  at  her  heels. 

237  LVI.  "  But  as  for  your  wondering  at  the  shameless-  indeedoftei 
ness  of  those  counsel  who  either  made  great  pro-  uncertain' 
fessions,  though  ignorant  of  small  details,  or  dared 

to  handle  in  Court  the  highest  topics  of  common  law, 
though  they  knew  nothing  about  them,  and  had 
never  studied  them,  there  is  a  simple  and  obvious 
excuse  in  each  case.  For  there  is  nothing  marvellous 
in  a  man,  who  is  ignorant  of  the  formaUties  of 
marriage  by  purchase,  being  none  the  less  able  to 
conduct  the  case  of  a  woman  married  in  that  manner  ; 
nor,  because  the  same  kind  of  skill  is  exercised  in 
steering  a  Uttle  craft  as  a  large  vessel,  does  it 
foUow  that  he,  who  does  not  know  the  technical 
phrases  required  for  the  division  of  an  inheritance, 
cannot  conduct  a  suit  for  the  partition  of  an  estate. 

238  Why  !  to  take  your  own  citations  of  most  important 
proceedings  before  the  Hundred  Commissioners, 
which  turned  upon  questions  of  law,  which  of  those 
cases,  pray,  could  not  have  been  most  handsomely 
argued  by  a  man  of  eloquence  unversed  in  law  ? 

171 


CICERO 

quidem  in  causis  omnibus,  sicut  in  ipsa  M*.  Curii,  quae 
abs  te  nuper  est  dicta,  et  in  C.  Hostilii  Mancini  con- 
troversia,  atque  in  eo  puero,  qui  ex  altera  natus  erat 
uxore,  non  remisso  nuntio  superiori,  fuit  inter  peritis- 

239  simos  homines  summa  de  iure  dissensio.  Quaero 
igitur,  quid  adiuverit  oratorem  in  his  causis  iuris 
scientia,  cum  hic  iurisconsultus  superior  fuerit  dis- 
cessurus,  qui  esset  non  suo  artificio,  sed  alieno,  hoc 
est,  non  iuris  scientia,  sed  eloquentia,  sustentatus. 

Equidem  hoc  saepe  audivi,  cum  aedilitatem  P. 
Crassus  peteret,  eumque  maior  natu,  etiam  consularis, 
Ser.  Galba  assectaretur,  quod  Crassi  filiam  Gaio  filio 
suo  despondisset,  accessisse  ad  Crassum  consulendi 
causa  quemdam  rusticanum  :  qui  cum  Crassum  sedu- 
xisset,  atque  ad  eum  rettulisset,  responsumque  ab  eo 
verum  magis,  quam  ad  suam  rem  accommodatum  abs- 
tulisset ;  ut  eum  tristem  Galba  vidit,  nomine  appel- 
lavit,  quaesivitque,  qua  de  re  ad  Crassum  rettulisset. 

240  Ex  quo  ut  audivit,  commotumque  ut  vidit  hominem, 
'  Suspenso,'  inquit,  *  animo  et  occupato  Crassum  tibi 
respondisse  video  ' :  deinde  ipsum  Crassum  manu  pre- 
hendit,  et,  *  Heus  tu,'  inquit,  '  quid  tibi  in  mentem 
venit  ita  respondere .'' '  Tum  ille  fidenter,  homo  peritis- 
simus,  confirmare,  ita  se  rem  habere,  ut  respondisset ; 
nec  dubium  esse  posse.  Galba  autem  alludens  varie, 
et  copiose,  multas  similitudines  afFerre,  multaque  pro 
172 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ivi.  2S8-240 

Indeed  in  all  those  suits,  as  in  that  very  one  of 
Manius  Curius,  recently  conducted  by  yourself,  and 
in  the  dispute  over  Gaius  Hostilius  Mancinus,  and 
again  in  the  matter  of  the  boy  born  of  the  second 
wife,  before  her  predecessor  had  received  notice  of 
divorce,  dissent  as  to  the  law  was  complete  in  the 

239  most  learned  circles.     I  ask  then,  of  what  service  and  then  it 
was  legal  knowledge  to  an  advocate  in  those  cases,  thft*wiM!''* 
when  that  learned  lawyer  was  bound  to  come  ofF 
victorious,  who  had  been  upheld,  not  by  his  own 
dexterity  but  by  a  stranger's,  that  is  to  say,  not  by 

legal  knowledge  but  by  eloquence  ? 

"  Often  too  have  I  heard  how,  when  Publius  Crassus 
was  a  candidate  for  the  aedileship,  and  Servius  Galba, 
his  senior  and  a  past  consul,  was  in  attendance  upon 
him,  having  arranged  a  marriage  between  his  son 
Gaius  and  the  daughter  of  Crassus,  a  certain  country- 
man  approached  Crassus  to  obtain  his  opinion  :  he 
took  Crassus  apart  and  laid  the  facts  before  him,  but 
brought  away  from  him  advice  that  was  more  correct 
than  conformable  to  his  interest ;  whereupon  Galba, 
noting  his  chagrin,  accosted  him  by  name,  inquiring 
what  the  question  was  on  which  he  had  consulted 

240  Crassus.  Having  heard  the  cHent's  tale  and  ob- 
serving  his  agitation,  '  I  see,'  said  he,  *  that  Crassus 
was  preoccupied  and  distracted  when  he  advised 
you  '  :  he  then  seized  Crassus  himself  by  the  hand 
and  asked,  '  How  now,  what  ever  entered  your 
head  to  suggest  such  an  opinion  ? '  Upon  this  the 
other,  with  the  assurance  of  profound  knowledge, 
repeated  that  the  position  was  as  he  had  advised 
and  the  point  unarguable.  Galba  however,  sportively 
and  with  varied  and  manifold  illustrations,  brought 
forward  a  number  of  analogies,  and  urged  many 

173 


CICERO 

aequitate  contra  ius  dicere  ;  atque  illum,  cum  dis- 
serendo  par  esse  non  posset — quanquam  fuit  Crassus 
in  numero  disertorum,  sed  par  Galbae  nullo  modo — , 
ad  auctores  confugisse,  et  id,  quod  ipse  diceret,  et  in 
P.  Mucii,  fratris  sui,  libris,  et  in  Sext.  Aelii  commen- 
tariis  scriptum  protulisse,  ac  tamen  concessisse, 
Galbae  disputationem  sibi  probabilem  et  prope  veram 
videri. 

241  LVII.  Attamen,  quae  causae  sunt  eiusmodi,  ut  de 
earum  iure  dubium  esse  non  possit,  omnino  in  iudi- 
cium  vocari  non  solent.  Num  quis  eo  testamento, 
quod  paterfamilias  ante  fecit,  quam  ei  filius  natus 
esset,  hereditatem  petit  ?  Nemo  ;  quia  constat,  ag- 
nascendo  rumpi  testamentum.  Ergo  in  hoc  genere 
iuris  iudicia  nulla  sunt.  Licet  igitur  impune  oratori 
omnem   hanc   partem  iuris   incontroversi    ignorare, 

242  quae  pars  sine  dubio  multo  maxima  est  :  in  eo  autem 
iure,  quod  ambigitur  inter  peritissimos,  non  est  dif- 
ficile  oratori,  eius  partis,  quamcumque  defendat, 
auctorem  aliquem  invenire  ;  a  quo  cum  amentatas 
hastas  acceperit,  ipse  eas  oratoris  lacertis  viribusque 
torquebit.  Nisi  vero — bona  venia  huius  optimi  viri 
dixerim,  Scaevolae — tu  Hbelhs  aut  praeceptis  soceri 
tui,  causam  M'.  Curii  defendisti.  Nonne  arripuisti 
patrocinium  aequitatis  et  defensionem  testamen- 
torum,  ac  voluntatis  mortuorum  .'* 

243  Ac  mea  quidem  sententia — frequens  enim  te  audivi, 
atque  adfui — multo  maiorem  partem  sententiarum  sale 

"  These  were  javelins  with  a  slinging-strap  to  help  the 
thrower. 

174 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ivi.  240— Ivii.  243 

considerations  in  favour  of  equity  as  against  rigid 
law,  and  it  is  related  that  Crassus,  being  no  match 
for  him  in  discussion — though  ranked  among  the 
accomplished,  Crassus  came  nowhere  near  Galba — , 
took  refuge  in  authorities,  and  pointed  out  his  own 
statement  both  in  the  works  of  his  brother  Publius 
Mucius,  and  in  the  text-book  of  Sextus  Aelius,  yet 
after  all  admitted  that  Galba's  argument  seemed  to 
him  persuasive,  and  very  near  the  truth. 

241  LVII.  "  And  yet  those  cases  which  are  such  that 
the  law  involved  in  them  is  beyond  dispute,  do  not 
as  a  rule  come  to  a  hearing  at  all.  Does  anyone 
claim  an  inheritance  under  a  will  made  by  the  head 
of  a  household  before  the  birth  of  a  son  of  his  ?  No 
one  ;  since  it  is  settled  law  that  the  will  is  revoked  by 
such  subsequent  birth.  Thus  there  are  no  judicial 
decisions  on  this  branch  of  the  law.  And  so  the 
orator  may  safely  disregard  all  this  region  of  un- 
questionable  law,  being  as  it  certainly  is  by  far  the 

242  larger  portion  of  the  science  :  while,  as  for  the  law 
which  is  unsettled  in  the  most  learned  circles,  it  is 
easy  enough  for  him  to  find  some  authority  in  favour 
of  whichever  side  he  is  supporting,  and,  having 
obtained  a  supply  of  thonged  shafts  "  from  him,  he 
himself  will  hurl  these  with  all  the  might  of  an 
orator's  arm.  Unless  indeed  (let  me  say  this  by 
the  kind  indulgence  of  our  excellent  friend  here 
Scaevola)  it  was  by  means  of  the  works  and  maxims 
of  your  father-in-law  that  you  argued  the  case  for 
Manius  Curius  ?  Did  you  not  rather  snatch  at  the 
chance  of  protecting  righteousness  and  upholding 
last  wills  and  the  intentions  of  dead  men  ? 

243  "  And  in  my  opinion,  at  any  rate, — for  I  often  heard 
you  and  was  at  your  elbow — ,  it  was  by  your  wit  and 

175 


CICERO 

tuo,  et  lepore,  et  politissimis  facetiis  pellexisti,  cum 
et  illud  nimium  acumen  illuderes,  et  admirarere  in- 
genium  Scaevolae,  qui  excogitasset,  nasci  prius  opor- 
tere,  quam  emori ;  cumque  multa  colligeres,  et  ex 
legibus  et  ex  senatusconsultis,  et  ex  vita  ac  sermone 
communi,  non  modo  acute,  sed  etiam  ridicule  ac 
facete,  ubi  si  verba,  non  rem  sequeremur,  confici  nil 
posset.  Itaque  hilaritatis  plenum  iudicium  ac  laeti- 
tiae  fuit  :  in  quo  quid  tibi  iuris  civilis  exercitatio 
profuerit,  non  intellego  ;  dicendi  vis  egregia,  summa 
festivitate  et  venustate  coniuncta,  profuit. 

244  Ipse  ille  Mucius,  paterni  iuris  defensor,  et  quasi 
patrimonii  propugnator  sui,  quid  in  illa  causa,  cum 
contra  te  diceret,  attulit,  quod  de  iure  civili  deprom- 
ptum  videretur  ?  quam  legem  recitavit  ?  quid  pate- 
fecit  dicendo,  quod  fuisset  imperitis  occultius  ? 
Nempe  eius  omnis  oratio  versata  est  in  eo,  ut  scriptum 
plurimum  valere  oportere  defenderet.  At  in  hoc 
genere  pueri  apud  magistros  exercentur  omnes, 
cum  in  eiusmodi  causis  alias  scriptum,  ahas  aequi- 
tatem  defendere  docentur. 

245  Et,  credo,  in  illa  mihtis  causa,  si  tu  aut  heredem, 
aut  mihtem  defendisses,  ad  Hostihanas  te  actiones, 
non  ad  tuam  vim  et  oratoriam  facultatem  contuhsses  ! 


"  See  §  175,  supra. 
*  A  work  otherwise  unknown. 


176 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ivii.  243-245 

charm  and  highly  refined  pleasantries  that  you  won 
the  vast  majority  of  your  verdicts,  vehile  you  vv^ere 
mocking  at  that  over-subtlety  of  Scaevola's,  and 
marvelling  at  his  clevemess  in  having  thought  out 
the  proposition  that  a  man  must  be  born  before  he 
can  die ;  and  while,  amusingly  and  with  a  sense  of 
humour,  as  well  as  shrewdly,  you  were  adducing 
numerous  examples,  gathered  from  statutes  and 
senatorial  ordinances,  and  also  from  everyday  life 
and  conversation,  in  which  our  pursuit  of  the  letter 
instead  of  the  spirit  would  lead  to  no  result.  And 
so  the  Court  was  fiUed  with  gaiety  and  delight :  but 
of  what  avail  your  practice  in  the  common  law  was  to 
you  in  these  proceedings  I  cannot  see  ;  it  was  your 
surpassing  power  of  eloquence,  in  union  with  consum- 
mate  cheerfulness  and  grace,  that  proved  of  service. 

"  That  very  Mucius,  upholder  of  his  ancestral 
science,  and  champion,  as  it  were,  of  his  hereditary 
rights, — what  argument  did  he  introduce  in  that 
case  wherein  he  was  opposed  to  you,  which  sounded 
hke  a  borrowing  from  common  law  ?  What  statute 
did  he  read  over  ?  What  did  he  reveal  in  his  speech 
that  would  have  been  too  obscure  for  the  uninitiated  ? 
Surely  his  entire  address  was  concerned  vdth  the  one 
contention  that  the  written  word  ought  to  prevail  to 
the  uttermost.  Yet  it  is  in  this  kind  of  thing  that 
all  students  are  trained  in  the  schools,  when  in  mock 
trials  of  this  kind  they  are  taught  to  uphold  in  turn 
the  written  word  and  true  equity. 

"  I  presume  too  that,  in  The  Soldiers  Case,'^  if  you 
had  been  counsel  for  the  heir  or  for  the  soldier, 
you  would  have  betaken  yourself  to  Precedents  in 
Pleading  ^  by  Hostilius,  and  not  to  the  force  of  your 
own  ability  in  oratory  !     On  the  contrary,  if  you 

177 


CICERO 

Tu  vero,  vel  si  testamentum  defenderes,  sic  ageres,  ut 
omne  omnium  testamentorum  ius  in  eo  iudicio  posi- 
tum  videretur  ;  vel  si  causam  ageres  militis,  patrem 
eius,  ut  soles,  dicendo  a  mortuis  excitasses  ;  sta- 
tuisses  ante  oculos  ;  complexus  esset  filium,  flensque 
eum  centumviris  commendasset ;  lapides  mehercule 
omnes  flere  ac  lamentari  coegisset :  ut  totum  illud, 
Uti  lingua  nuncupassit,  non  in  Duodecim  Tabulis, 
quas  tu  omnibus  bibliothecis  anteponis,  sed  in  magi- 
stri  carmine  scriptum  videretur. 

246  LVIII.  Nam  quod  inertiam  accusas  adolescentium, 
qui  istam  artem,  primum  facillimam,  non  ediscant ; 
quae  quam  sit  facihs,  ilU  viderint,  qui  eius  artis 
arrogantia,  quasi  difficillima  sit,  ita  subnixi  ambulant, 
deinde  etiam  tu  ipse  videris,  qui  eam  artem  facilem 
esse  dicis,  quam  concedis  adhuc  artem  omnino  non 
esse,  sed  aliquando,  si  quis  aliam  artem  didicerit,  ut 
hanc  artem  efficere  possit,  tum  esse  illam  artem 
futuram  :  deinde,  quod  sit  plena  delectationis  ;  in 
quo  tibi  remittunt  omnes  istam  voluptatem,  et  ea  se 
carere  patiuntur  ;  nec  quisquam  est  eorum,  qui,  si 
iam  sit  ediscendum  sibi  aliquid,  non  Teucrum  Pacuvii 
maht  quam  Manihanas  venahum  vendendorum  leges 

247  ediscere.     Tum  autem,  quod  amore  patriae  censes 


"  See  Remains  of  Old  Latin  (L.C.L.),  iii.  pp.  456-457. 
»  Jbid.  ii.  pp.  286  303. 


178 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ivii.  245— Iviii.  247 

had  been  propounding  the  will,  you  would  have  so 
managed  matters  that  the  entire  security  of  every 
will  would  have  seemed  to  be  staked  on  the  issue  of 
those  proceedings  ;  and,  if  you  had  been  appearing 
for  the  soldier,  you  would  by  your  eloquence,  in 
your  usual  way,  have  called  up  his  father  from  the 
shades  ;  you  would  have  set  him  in  sight  of  all ;  he 
would  have  embraced  his  son  and  tearfuUy  committed 
him  to  the  care  of  the  Hundred  Commissioners  ;  I 
pledge  my  word  he  would  have  made  every  stone 
weep  and  wail,  with  the  result  that  the  whole  section 
beginning  *  As  the  tongue  hath  proclaimed  it '  would 
have  seemed  no  part  of  the  Twelve  Tables,"  which 
you  rate  higher  than  all  the  Ubraries,  but  just  a  piece 
of  moraUzing  doggerel  by  some  professor. 

246  LVIII.  "  For  as  to  your  indictment  of  the  young  for  Qiven  a 
their  laziness,  in  that  they  do  not  commit  to  memory  kno\^edge 
that  art  of  yours,  its  exceeding  simpUcity  being  your  ofiaw, 
first  point,  I  leave  the  question  of  its  simpUcity  to  points  can 
those  who  parade  about  in  the  haughty  assurance  D^i°<'J'®<i 
imparted  by  this  art,  just  as  though  it  were  ex- 
tremely  difficult,  and  do  you  yourself  see  to  this, 

who  describe  an  art  as  simple  which  by  your  own 
admission  is  not  yet  an  art  at  all,  but  some  day, 
should  somebody  have  learned  another  art,  and  so 
be  able  to  make  an  art  of  this  one,  will  then  become 
an  art :  secondly  you  urge  its  copious  deUghts,  in 
which  respect  they  all  resign  in  your  favour  this 
pleasure  of  yours,  and  are  content  themselves  to  go 
without  it,  nor  is  there  a  man  among  them  who,  if 
ever  he  had  to  learn  some  work  by  heart,  would  not 
choose    for   that  purpose  the   Teucer  *  of  Pacuvius 

247  rather   than   ManiUus's   Conditions  of  Sale.    Taking 
next  your  opinion  that  love  of  country  obUges  us 

179 


CICERO 

nos  nostrorum  maiorum  inventa  nosse  debere  :  non 
vides,  veteres  leges  aut  ipsa  sua  vetustate  consenuisse, 
aut  novis  legibus  esse  sublatas  ?  Quod  vero  viros 
bonos  iure  civili  fieri  putas,  quia  legibus  et  praemia 
proposita  sint  virtutibus,  et  supplicia  vitiis  :  equidem 
putabam,  virtutem  hominibus — si  modo  tradi  ratione 
possit — instituendo  et  persuadendo,  non  minis,  et  vi, 
ac  metu  tradi.  Nam  ipsum  quidem  illud,  etiam  sine 
cognitione  iuris,  quam  sit  bellum,  cavere  malum, 
scire  possumus. 

248  De  me  autem  ipso,  cui  uni  tu  concedis,  ut,  sine  ulla 
iuris  scientia,  tamen  causis  satisfacere  possim,  tibl 
hoc,  Crasse,  respondeo,  neque  me  unquam  ius  civile 
didicisse,  neque  tamen  in  eis  causis,  quas  in  iure  pos- 
sem  defendere,  unquam  istam  scientiam  desiderasse. 
Ahud  est  enim,  esse  artificem  cuiusdam  generis  atque 
artis,  ahud  in  communi  vita  et  vulgari  hominum  con- 

249  suetudine  nec  hebetem,  nec  rudem.  Cui  nostrum 
non  hcet  fundos  nostros  obire,  aut  res  rusticas,  vel 
fructus  causa,  vel  delectationis,  invisere  ?  Tamen 
nemo  tam  sine  ocuhs,  tam  sine  mente  vivit,  ut, 
quid  sit  sementis  ac  messis,  quid  arborum  putatio 
ac  vitium,  quo  tempore  anni,  aut  quo  modo  ea 
fiant,  omnino  nesciat.  Num  igitur,  si  cui  fundus 
inspiciendus,  aut  si  mandandum  ahquid  procuratori 
de  agricultura,  aut  imperandum  vihico  sit,  Magonis 
Carthaginiensis  sunt  hbri  perdiscendi  ?  An  hac  com- 
muni  inteUegentia  contenti  esse  possumus  ?  Cur  ergo 
180 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Iviii.  247-249 

to  get  a  knowledge  of  the  devices  of  our  ancestors, 
do  you  not  observe  that  the  ancient  statutes  have 
either  sunk  into  the  decrepitude  of  their  old  age, 
or  been  repealed  by  modern  legislation  ?  And  as 
for  your  behef  that  men  are  made  good  by  the 
common  law,  since  by  its  rules  prizes  are  oiFered 
to  virtue  and  punishments  appointed  for  vice,  I 
certainly  used  to  regard  virtue  as  being  taught  to 
mankind  (assuming  it  to  be  methodically  teachable 
at  all)  by  training  and  persuasion,  not  by  threats, 
and  force  and  even  terror.  For  thus  much,  at  any 
rate,  we  can  learn  even  without  legal  study,  namely, 
how  lovely  a  thing  it  is  to  eschew  evil. 

248  "  Now  as  to  myself,  to  whom  alone  you  allow  the 
faculty  of  doing  justice  to  my  cases  without  any 
legal  knowledge,  I  give  you  this  answer,  Crassus, 
that  I  never  learned  the  common  law,  and  yet  never 
felt  the  want  of  that  knowledge  in  the  suits  I  was 
able  to  argue  before  the  Praetor.  For  it  is  one  thing 
to  be  a  craftsman  in  a  specific  subject  and  art,  and 
another  to  be  no  dullard  or  raw  hand  in  social  Bfe 

249  and  the  general  practices  of  mankind.  Which  of 
us  may  not  survey  his  estate  or  go  to  see  his  rural 
concerns,  whether  in  quest  of  profit  or  of  amusement  ? 
Yet  no  one  passes  his  days  so  bereft  of  sight  and 
sense  as  to  be  wholly  ignorant  of  the  nature  of  sowing 
and  reaping,  or  of  the  lopping  of  trees  and  pruning 
of  vines,  or  of  the  times  of  year  for  doing  these  things, 
or  of  how  they  are  done.  If  then  some  one  of  us  has 
occasion  to  look  over  his  estate,  or  give  some  com- 
mission  to  his  agent,  or  order  to  his  bailifF,  on  details 
of  husbandry,  need  he  get  by  heart  the  volumes  of 
Mago  of  Carthage  ?  Or  may  we  be  satisfied  with 
our  own  mother-wit  ?     If  so  then,  especially  as  we 

181 


CICERO 

non  eidem  in  iure  civili,  praesertim  ciun  in  causis,  et 
in  negotiis,  et  in  foro  conteramur,  satis  instructi  esse 
possumus  ad  hoc  duntaxat,  ne  in  nostra  patria  pere- 

250  grini  atque  advenae  esse  videamur  ?  Ac  si  iam  sit 
causa  aliqua  ad  nos  delata  obscurior,  difficile,  credo, 
sit  cum  hoc  Scaevola  communicare  ;  quanquam  ipsi 
omnia,  quorum  negotium  est,  consulta  ad  nos  et 
exquisita  deferunt.  An  vero  si  de  re  ipsa,  si  de 
finibus,  cum  in  rem  praesentem  non  venimus,  si  de 
tabulis,  et  perscriptionibus  controversia  est,  contortas 
res  et  saepe  difficiles  necessario  perdiscimus  :  si  leges 
nobis,  aut  si  hominum  peritorum  responsa  cogno- 
scenda  sunt,  veremur  ne  ea,  si  ab  adolescentia  iuri 
civili  minus  studuerimus,  non  queamus  cognoscere  ? 
LIX.  Nihilne  igitur  prodest  oratori  iuris  civilis 
scientia  ?  Non  possum  negare  prodesse  uUam  scien- 
tiam,  ei  praesertim,  cuius  eloquentia  copia  rerum 
debeat  esse  ornata  ;  sed  multa,  et  magna,  et  difficilia 
sunt  ea,  quae  sunt  oratori  necessaria,  ut  eius  indu- 
striam  in  plura  studia  distrahere  nolim. 

261  Quis  neget,  opus  esse  oratori,  in  hoc  oratorio  motu 
statuque,  Roscii  gestum  et  venustatem  ?  Tamen  nemo 
suaserit  studiosis  dicendi  adolescentibus,  in  gestu  di- 
scendo  histrionum  more  elaborare.  Quid  est  oratori 
tam  necessarium,  quam  vox  ?  Tamen,  me  auctore, 
nemo   dicendi   studiosus,  Graecorimi  more   tragoe- 

189 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Iviii.  249— lix.  251 

are  worn  out  with  legal  and  other  business  and  with 
public  afFairs,  why  may  we  not  likewise  be  well 
enough  equipped  in  common  law,  to  the  extent  at 
any  rate  of  not  seeming  to  be  sojourners  and  strangers 

250  in  our  own  country  ?  And  if  some  day  an  excep- 
tionally  doubtful  case  were  submitted  to  us,  it  would 
be  quite  easy,  I  suppose,  to  take  counsel  with  Scae- 
vola  here  ;  although  in  fact  the  parties  themselves, 
whose  affair  it  is,  furnish  us  with  all  the  professional 
opinions  and  researches.  If  again  the  dispute  relates 
to  a  question  of  fact,  or  to  boundaries,  without  our 
having  a  view  of  the  very  spot,  or  to  account-books 
and  entries,  we  are  obliged  to  get  up  comphcated 
and  often  troublesome  matters  :  if  we  have  to  master 
statutes,  or  the  opinions  of  the  learned  in  the  law, 
are  we  afraid  of  not  being  able  to  do  so,  just  because, 
from  our  youth  upwards,  our  study  of  the  common 
law  has  been  inadequate  ? 

LIX.  "  Is  a  knowledge  of  the  common  law,  then, 
useless  to  an  orator  ?  I  cannot  assert  that  any 
knowledge  is  useless,  least  of  all  to  one  whose 
eloquence  ought  to  be  furnished  with  material  in 
plenty  ;  but  the  essential  needs  of  an  orator  are 
many  and  weighty  and  hard  to  come  by,  so  that  I 
would  not  dissipate  his  energy  over  too  wide  a  field 
of  study. 

251  "  Who  would  deny  that  in  his  movements  and  simiiariv 
carriage   the    orator   must   have    the   bearing    and  ^eiivery 

,  o  _  o  cloes  not  re- 

elegance  oi  Koscius  ?     Yet  no  one  wiil  urge  young  quirespeciai 
devotees  of  eloquence  to  toil  like  actors  at  the  study  ^^^^^- 
of  gesture.     What  is  so  essential  to  an  orator  as 
intonation  ?     Yet    no    devotee    of    eloquence    will 
become,  by  my  advice,  a  slave  to  his  voice,  after 
the   manner  of  the   Greek  tragedians,   who   both 

183 


CICERO 

dorum,  voci  serviet,  qui  et  annos  complures  seden- 
tes  declamitant,  et  quotidie,  antequam  pronuntient, 
vocem  cubantes  sensim  excitant,  eamdemque,  cum 
egerunt,  sedentes  ab  acutissimo  sono  usque  ad  gravis- 
simum  sonum  recipiunt,  et  quasi  quodam  modo 
colligunt.  Hoc  nos  si  facere  velimus,  ante  condem- 
nentur  ei,  quorum  causas  receperimus,  quam,  toties, 
quoties  perscribitur,  paeanem,  aut  nomionem^ 
citarimus. 

252  Quod  si  in  gestu,  qui  multum  oratorem  adiuvat,  et 
in  voce,  quae  una  maxime  eloquentiam  vel  com- 
mendat,  vel  sustinet,  elaborare  nobis  non  licet ;  ac 
tantum  in  utroque  assequi  possumus,  quantum  in  hac 
acie  quotidiani  muneris,  spatii  nobis  datur  :  quanto 
minus  est  ad  iuris  civilis  perdiscendi  occupationem 
descendendum,  quod  et  summatim  percipi  sine  doc- 
trina  potest,  et  hanc  habet  ab  illis  rebus  dissimilitu- 
dinem,  quod  vox  et  gestus  subito  sumi  et  aliunde 
arripi  non  potest ;  iuris  utilitas  ad  quamque  causam, 
quamvis  repente,  vel  a  peritis,  vel  de  Ubris  depromi 
potest ! 

263  Itaque  illi  disertissimi  homines  ministros  habent  in 
causis  iuris  peritos,  cum  ipsi  sint  peritissimi,  et  qui, 
ut  abs  te  paulo  ante  dictum  est,  pragmatici  vocantur. 
In  quo  nostri  omnino  melius  multo,  quod  clarissimo- 
rum  hominum  auctoritate  leges  et  iura  tecta  esse 
voluerunt.  Sed  tamen  non  fugisset  hoc  Graecos 
homines,  si  ita  necesse  esse  arbitrati  essent,  oratorem 

^  nomionem  (an  invocation  of  'AttoAAwv  Nd/iios)  is  the  con- 
jectural  emendation  adopted  by  Kayser,  Piderit,  and  others 
for  the  various  corruptions  ofthe  mss. 

"  The  most  eloquent  Greek  orators. 
184 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  lix.  251-253 

for  many  a  year  practise  declamation  from  their 
chairs,  and  every  day,  before  their  performance  on 
the  stage,  He  down  and  gradually  raise  the  voice, 
and  later,  after  playing  their  parts,  take  their  seats, 
and  bring  it  back  again  from  the  highest  treble 
to  the  lowest  bass,  and  in  a  way  regain  control  of  it. 
If  we  had  a  fancy  to  do  this,  the  parties  whose  cases 
we  had  undertaken  would  lose  their  cases,  before  we 
had  recited  our  hymn  or  chant  the  regulation  number 
of  times. 

252  "  But  if  we  are  not  to  work  hard  either  at  gesture, 
a  great  help  to  an  orator,  or  at  intonation,  that 
singular  and  unrivalled  recommendation  and  prop 
of  eloquence ;  and  if  in  each  of  these  matters  we 
can  attain  only  such  proficiency  as  corresponds  to 
the  leisure  allowed  us  amid  this  array  of  daily  duties  ; 
how  much  the  less  must  we  sink  into  becoming 
engrossed  with  getting  by  heart  the  common  law, 
of  which  a  general  knowledge  may  be  gained  even 
without  instruction,  and  which  bears  this  unhkeness 
to  those  other  things,  that  intonation  and  gesture 
cannot  be  acquired  all  at  once  and  caught  up  from 
extemal  sources,  while  anything  in  the  law  that  is 
of  use  for  a  particular  case,  may  be  fetched,  as 
hurriedly  as  you  please,  from  experts  or  text-books  ! 

253  "This  is  why  those  most  accomplished  speakers,* 
for  all  their  own  profound  skill,  have  with  them  in 
Court  assistants  learned  in  the  law,  and  these,  as  you 
said  a  Uttle  while  ago,  are  called  attorneys.  In  this 
respect  our  own  folk  have  done  infinitely  better,  by 
requiring  the  statutes  and  rules  of  law  to  be  safe- 
guarded  by  the  influence  of  most  illustrious  men. 
But  after  all,  had  they  thought  it  necessary,  this 
idea  of  training  the  orator  himself  in  the  common 

185 


CICERO 

ipsum  erudire  in  iure  civili,  non  ei  pragmaticum 
adiutorem  dare. 

254  LX.  Nam  quod  dicis  senectutem  a  solitudine  vin- 
dicari  iuris  civilis  scientia  :  fortasse  etiam  pecuniae 
magnitudine.  Sed  nos,  non  quid  nobis  utile,  verum 
quid  oratori  necessarium  sit,  quaerimus.  Quanquam, 
quoniam  multa  ad  oratoris  similitudinem  ab  uno 
artifice  sumimus,  solet  idem  Roscius  dicere,  se,  quo 
plus  sibi  aetatis  accederet,  eo  tardiores  tibicinis 
modos,  et  cantus  remissiores  esse  facturum.  Quod 
si  ille,  astrictus  certa  quadam  numerorum  modera- 
tione  et  pedum,  tamen  aliquid  ad  requiem  senectutis 
excogitat,  quanto  facilius  nos  non  laxare  modos,  sed 

266  totos  mutare  possumus  !  Neque  enim  hoc  te,  Crasse, 
fallit,  quam  multa  sint,  et  quam  varia  genera  dicendi, 
et  quod  haud  sciam,  an  tu  primus  ostenderis,  qui 
iamdiu  multo  dicis  remissius  et  lenius,  quam  solebas  ; 
neque  minus  haec  tamen  tua  gravissimi  sermonis 
lenitas,  quam  illa  summa  vis  et  contentio  probatur  : 
multique  oratores  fuerunt,  ut  illum  Scipionem  audi- 
mus,  et  Laelium,  qui  omnia  sermone  conficerent  paulo 
intentiore,  nunquam,  ut  Ser.  Galba,  lateribus,  aut 
clamore  contenderent.  Quod  si  iam  hoc  facere  non 
poteris,  aut  noles  :  vereris,  ne  tua  domus,  talis  et  viri, 
et  civis,  si  a  litigiosis  hominibus  non  colatur,  a  ceteris 
deseratur  ?  Equidem  tantum  absum  ab  ista  sen- 
18d 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  lix.  253— Ix.  255 

law,  instead  of  giving  him  an  attorney  to  help  him, 
would  not  have  failed  to  occur  to  the  Greeks. 

254      LX.  "  As  for  your  theory  that  old  age  is  redeemed  oidagedoe» 
from  loneliness  by  a  knowledge  of  the  common  law,  ^nowildg? 
possibly  a  large  fortune  will  do  as  much.     However  oftheiawto 
we  are  not  investigating  our  own  advantage,  but  the  ^cupation. 
essential  needs  of  the  orator.     And  yet,  as  we  are 
taking  from  a  single  artist  a  nimiber  of  details  for 
our  hkeness  of  an  orator,  that  same  Roscius  is  fond 
of  saying,  that,  the  older  he  grows,  the  slower  he  will 
make  the  flute-player's  rhythms  and  the  Hghter  the 
music.     Now  if  he,  fettered  as  he  is  by  a  definite 
system  of  measures  and  metres,  is  none  the  less 
thinking  out  some  relief  for  his  old  age,  how  much 
more  easily  can  we  not  merely  slacken  our  methods, 

265  but  change  them  altogether  !  For  you  cannot  fail 
to  see,  Crassus,  how  many  and  diverse  are  the  styles 
of  oratory,  a  fact  which  I  should  ahnost  think  you 
have  been  the  first  to  make  plain,  who  for  a  long  time 
have  been  speaking  in  a  far  lighter  and  calmer 
fashion  than  was  your  wont ;  though  the  present 
serenity  of  your  very  dignified  discourse  finds  as 
ready  acceptance  as  did  your  extreme  energy  and 
passion  of  old  :  and  there  have  been  many  orators 
including,  we  are  told,  the  famous  Scipio  and  Laelius, 
who  obtained  all  their  results  by  discourse  little 
more  emphatic  than  the  ordinary,  and  never  strained 
their  lungs  or  shouted,  as  Servius  Galba  did.  But 
if  some  day  you  should  be  unable  or  unwilling  to  do 
even  this,  are  you  afraid  that  the  house  of  such  a 
man  and  citizen  as  yourself  will  be  left  desolate  by 
the  rest  of  the  community,  just  because  it  may  no 
longer  be  the  shrine  of  the  Htigious  ?  Truly  I  am 
so  far  from  agreeing  with  that  view  of  yours,  that  I 

187 


CICERO 

tentia,  ut  non  modo  non  arbitrer  subsidium  senectutis 
in  eorum,  qui  consultum  veniant,  multitudine  esse 
ponendum,  sed  tanquam  portum  aliquem,  exspectem 
istam,  quam  tu  times,  solitudinem.  Subsidium  enim 
bellissimum  existimo  esse  senectuti,  otium. 

256  Reliqua  vero  etiamsi  adiuvant,  historiam  dico,  et 
prudentiam  iuris  publici,  et  antiquitatis  iter,^  et  ex- 
emplorum  copiam,  si  quando  opus  erit,  a  viro  optimo, 
et  istis  rebus  instructissimo,  familiari  meo,  Congo  * 
mutuabor.  Neque  repugnabo,  quominus — id  quod 
modo  hortatus  es — omnia  legant,  omnia  audiant,  in 
omni  recto  studio  atque  humanitate  versentur  :  sed 
mehercule  non  ita  multum  spatii  mihi  habere  viden- 
tur,  si  modo  ea  facere  et  persequi  volent,  quae  a  te, 
Crasse,  praecepta  sunt ;  qui  mihi  prope  etiam  nimis 
duras  leges  imponere  visus  es  huic  aetati,  sed  tamen 
ad  id,  quod  cupiunt,  adipiscendum  prope  necessarias. 

257  Nam  et  subitae  ad  propositas  causas  exercitationes,  et 
accuratae,  et  meditatae  commentationes,  ac  stylus  ille 
tuus,  quem  tu  vere  dixisti  perfectorem  dicendi  esse  ac 
magistrum,  multi  sudoris  est ;  et  illa  orationis  suae 
cum  scriptis  alienis  comparatio,  et  de  alieno  scripto 
subita,  vel  laudandi,  vel  vituperandi,  vel  comprobandi, 
vel  refellendi  causa,  disputatio,  non  mediocris  conten- 
tionis  est,  vel  ad  memoriam,  vel  ad  imitandum. 

258  LXI.  IUud  vero  fuit  horribile,  quod  mehercule 
vereor,  ne  maiorem  vim  ad  deterrendum  habuerit, 
quam  ad  cohortandum.     Voluisti  enim  in  suo  genere 


^  scita  Reid,  memoriam  Koch. 
*  Roth ;  Longo  (Longino  edd.). 


188 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ix.  255— Ixi.  258 

not  only  do  not  think  the  prop  of  old  age  is  to  be 
found  in  the  multitude  of  those  who  come  to  seek 
its  counsel,  but  I  look  for  that  loneliness  which  you 
dread,  as  I  might  for  a  haven.  For  I  hold  that  the 
finest  prop  of  old  age  is  its  leisure. 

256  "  But  the  remaining  acquirements, — useful  as  they  Generai 
are, — I  am  speaking  of  history,  and  a  knowledge  of  gJJ^^gn^ 
public  law,  and  the  ways  of  the  ancients,  and  a  store 

of  precedents, — I  shall  borrow,  if  ever  I  need  them, 
from  my  friend  Congus,  an  excellent  man  who  is 
thoroughly  versed  in  these  things.  And  I  shall  not 
object  to  these  young  men  reading  and  hstening 
to  everything,  and  busying  themselves  with  every 
fitting  pursuit  and  with  general  culture — as  you 
advised  just  now — :  but,  I  vow,  they  do  not  seem  to 
me  to  have  so  very  much  time  to  spare,  provided 
that  they  hope  to  accomplish  and  follow  out  all  your 
bidding,  Crassus  ;  for  I  thought  that  the  conditions 
you  imposed  were  rather  too  rigorous  for  their  time 
of  life,  though  possibly  necessary  for  the  attainment 

257  of  the  end  of  their  desire.  Indeed  the  impromptu 
exercises  on  problems  set,  the  elaborate  and  con- 
sidered  reflections,  and  your  practice  of  Avritten 
composition,  which  you  justly  called  the  finishing 
schoolmaster  of  eloquence,  all  demand  much  toil ; 
and  that  comparison  of  the  student's  own  disserta- 
tion  with  the  writings  of  others,  and  the  unprepared 
estimate  of  another's  work,  by  way  of  praise  or 
disparagement,  approval  or  refutation,  involve  excep- 
tional  efForts  of  memory  and  of  the  imitative  faculty 
as  well. 

258  LXI.  "  Then  that  further  claim  of  yours  was  terri- 
fying,  and  upon  my  word  I  am  afraid  that  its  effect 
will  be  to  deter  rather  than  encourage.     For  you 

189 


CICERO 

unumquemque  nostrum  quasi  quemdam  esse  Ro- 
scium ;  dixistique,  non  tam  ea,  quae  recta  essent, 
probari,  quam  quae  prava  sunt  fastidiis  adhaerescere : 
quod  ego  non  tam  fastidiose  in  nobis,  quam  in  hi- 

269  strionibus,  spectari  puto.  Itaque  nos  raucos  saepe 
attentissime  audiri  video  :  tenet  enim  res  ipsa  atque 
causa  :  at  Aesopum,  si  paulum  irrauserit,  explodi.  A 
quibus  enim  nihil  praeter  voluptatem  aurium  quae- 
ritur,  in  eis  ofFenditur,  simul  atque  imminuitur  aliquid 
de  voluptate.  In  eloquentia  autem  multa  sunt,  quae 
teneant ;  quae  si  omnia  summa  non  sunt — et  pleraque 
tamen  magna  sunt — necesse  est,  ea  ipsa  quae  sunt, 
mirabilia  videri. 

260  Ergo,  ut  ad  primum  illud  revertar,  sit  orator  nobis 
is,  qui,  ut  Crassus  descripsit,  accommodate  ad  per- 
suadendum  possit  dicere.  Is  autem  concludatur  in 
ea,  quae  sunt  in  usu  civitatum  vulgari  ac  forensi ; 
remotisque  ceteris  studiis,  quamvis  ea  sint  ampla 
atque  praeclara,  in  hoc  uno  opere,  ut  ita  dicam,  noctes 
et  dies  urgeatur  ;  imiteturque  illum,  cui  sine  dubio 
summa  vis  dicendi  conceditur,  Atheniensem  Demo- 
sthenem,  in  quo  tantum  studium  fuisse,  tantusque 
labor  dicitur,  ut  primum  impedimenta  naturae  dih- 
gentia  industriaque  superaret :  cumque  ita  balbus 
esset,  ut  eius  ipsius  artis,  cui  studeret,  primam  lit- 
teram  non  posset  dicere,  perfecit  meditando,  ut  nemo 

"  For  the  great  orator's  ways  of  conquering  his  natural 
handicaps  see  Schaefer's  Demosthenea,  vol.  i.  pp.  299-301 ; 
Cicero,  De  Finibus  v.  2.  S ;  PIutarch's  Li/e  of  Demosthenes 
(c  11);  and  Quintilian  x.  3.  30. 

*  Rhetorica. 

190 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ixi.  258-260 

would  have  every  man  of  us  be  a  kind  of  Roscius  in 
his  own  line  ;  and  you  said  that  the  approbation 
accorded  to  the  good  points  of  a  speech  is  short- 
Uved  in  comparison  with  the  enduring  aversion 
inspired  by  its  shortcomings,  whereas  I  hold  that 
the  criticism  of  our  oratory  is  less  squeamish  than 

259  that  directed  upon  actors.  This  explains  why  I  see 
that,  even  when  hoarse,  we  are  often  listened  to 
with  rapt  attention,  since  the  very  fact  of  our  hoarse- 
ness  and  our  case  grip  the  audience  :  while  Aesopus, 
should  he  be  a  little  husky,  is  hissed  off  the  stage. 
For,  in  those  arts  of  which  nothing  is  expected  save 
the  gratification  of  the  ear,  offence  is  given  directly 
that  gratification  is  at  all  weakened.  But  of  oratory 
the  fascinating  features  are  many,  and  even  if  all 
are  not  there  in  perfection — still,  most  of  them  are 
highly  developed — ,  such  as  are  actually  present  must 
needs  be  thought  marvellous. 

260  "  And  so,  to  retum  to  our  starting-point,  let  us  take  The  import. 
the  orator  to  be,  as  Crassus  defined  him,  a  man  who  p^^^f  ^ 
can  speak  in  a  way  calculated  to  convince.     But  let 

him  be  shut  up  within  the  sphere  of  the  daily  inter- 
course  and  pubUc  Ufe  of  bodies  poUtic  ;  and  forsaking 
all  other  pursuits,  be  they  as  noble  and  glorious  as 
you  please,  let  him  press  forward  night  and  day 
(so  to  speak)  in  this  single  vocation,  and  do  as 
the  famous  Athenian  Demosthenes  ^  did,  whose  pre- 
eminence  in  oratory  is  unhesitatingly  admitted,  and 
whose  zeal  and  exertions  are  said  to  have  been  such 
that  at  the  very  outset  he  surmounted  natural 
drawbacks  by  diUgent  perseverance  :  and  though  at 
first  stuttering  so  badly  as  to  be  unable  to  pro- 
nounce  the  initial  R.  of  the  name  of  the  art  of  his 
devotion,**  by  practice  he  made  himself  accounted  as 

191 


CICERO 

261  planius  eo  locutus  putaretur ;  deinde,  cum  spiritus 
eius  esset  angustior,  tantum  continenda  anima  in 
dicendo  est  assecutus,  ut  una  continuatione  verborum 
— ^id  quod  eius  scripta  declarant — binae  ei  conten- 
tiones  vocis  et  remissiones  continerentur  ;  qui  etiam 
— ^ut  memoriae  proditum  est — ,  coniectis  in  os  calculis, 
summa  voce  versus  multos  uno  spiritu  pronuntiare 
consuescebat ;  neque  is  consistens  in  loco,  sed  in- 
ambulans,  atque  ascensu  ingrediens  arduo. 

262  Hisce  ego  cohortationibus,  Crasse,  ad  studium  et 
ad  laborem  incitandos  iuvenes  vehementer  assentior  : 
cetera,  quae  coUegisti  ex  variis  et  diversis  studiis  et 
artibus,  tametsi  ipse  es  omnia  consecutus,  tamen  ab 
oratoris  proprio  officio  atque  munere  seiuncta  esse 
arbitror. 

LXII.  Haec  cum  Antonius  dixisset,  sane  dubitare 
visus  est  Sulpicius,  et  Cotta,  utrius  oratio  propius  ad 

263  veritatem  videretur  accedere.  Tum  Crassus :  Opera- 
rium  nobis  quemdam,  Antoni,  oratorem  facis  ;  atque 
haud  scio,  an  aliter  sentias,  et  utare  tua  illa  mirifica 
ad  refellendum  consuetudine,  qua  tibi  nemo  unquam 
praestitit ;  cuius  quidem  ipsius  facultatis  exercitatio 
oratorum  propria  est,  sed  iam  in  philosophorum  con- 
suetudine  versatur,  maximeque  eorum,  qui  de  omni 
re  proposita  in  utramque  partem  solent  copiosissime 

264  dicere.  Verum  ego  non  solum  arbitrabar,  his  prae- 
sertim  audientibus,  a  me  informari  oportere,  quaUs 
esse  posset  is,  qui  habitaret  in  subselhis,  neque  quid- 

192 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ixi.  261— Ixii.  264 

261  distinct  a  speaker  as  anyone  ;  later  on,  though  his 
breath  was  rather  short,  he  succeeded  so  far  in 
making  his  breath  hold  during  a  speech,  that  a  single 
oratorical  period — as  his  writings  prove — covered  two 
risings  and  two  fallings  of  tone ;  moreover — as  the  tale 
goes — ^it  was  his  habit  to  sHp  pebbles  into  his  mouth, 
and  then  declaim  a  number  of  verses  at  the  top  of 
his  voice  and  without  drawing  breath,  and  this  not 
only  as  he  stood  still,  but  while  walking  about,  or 
going  up  a  steep  slope. 

262  "  By  encouragements  of  this  sort,  Crassus,  I 
thoroughly  agree  with  you  that  the  young  should  be 
spurred  on  to  severe  application  :  all  else  that  you 
have  brought  together  from  various  and  dissimilar 
pursuits  and  arts,  though  you  yourself  have  attained 
everything,  I  nevertheless  regard  as  lying  outside 
the  strict  business  and  function  of  an  orator." 

LXII.  At  the  conclusion  of  these  observations  of  Adjoum- 
Antonius,  Sulpicius,  and  Cotta  too,  appeared  to  be  ^bate^*** 
in  grave  doubt  as  to  which  of  the  two  speakers' 
discourses  bore  the  closer  resemblance  to  the  truth. 

263  Presently  Crassus  replied :  "  Antonius,  you  are 
making  our  orator  something  of  a  mechanic  ;  and  I 
rather  suspect  you  are  really  of  a  difFerent  opinion, 
and  are  gratifying  that  singular  Uking  of  yours  for 
contradiction,  in  which  no  one  has  ever  outdone  you  ; 
the  exercise  of  this  power  belongs  pecuharly  to 
orators,  though  nowadays  it  is  in  regular  use  among 
philosophers,  and  chiefly  those  who  make  a  practice 
of  arguing  at  extreme  length  either  for  or  against 

264  any  proposition  whatever  laid  before  them.  Now 
I  did  not  think  it  my  duty,  especially  before  my 
present  audience,  to  dehneate  only  the  possible 
quality  of  such  a  speaker  as  would  live  in  Court,  and 

193 


CICERO 

quam  amplius  afferret,  quam  quod  causarum  neces- 
sitas  postularet ;  sed  maius  quiddam  videbam,  ciun 
censebam,  oratorem,  praesertim  in  nostra  republica, 
nullius  ornamenti  expertem  esse  oportere.  Tu  autem, 
quoniam  exiguis  quibusdam  finibus  totum  oratoris 
munus  circumdedisti,  hoc  facilius  nobis  expones  ea, 
quae  abs  te  de  officiis  praeceptisque  oratoris  quaesita 
sunt :  sed,  opinor,  secundum  hunc  diem.  Satis  enim 
266  multa  a  nobis  hodie  dicta  sunt.  Nunc  et  Scaevola, 
quoniam  in  Tusculanum  ire  constituit,  paulum  re- 
quiescet,  dum  se  calor  frangat ;  et  nos  ipsi,  quoniam 
id  temporis  est,  valetudini  demus  operam. 

Placuit  sic  omnibus.  Tum  Scaevola  :  Sane,  inquit, 
vellem  non  constituissem,  in  Tusculanum  me  hodie 
venturum  esse,  Laelio  ;  libenter  audirem  Antonium. 
Et,  cum  exsurgeret,  simul  arridens  :  Neque  enim, 
inquit,  tam  mihi  molestus  fuit,  quod  ius  nostrum  civile 
pervellit,  quam  iucundus,  quod  se  id  nescire  con- 
fessus  est. 


194 


DE  ORATORE,  I.  Ixii.  264-265 

bring  thither  nothing  more  than  the  needs  of  his 
cases  demanded  ;  but  I  was  envisaging  a  loftier  ideal 
when  I  stated  my  view  that  the  orator,  especially 
in  our  own  community,  ought  to  lack  nothing  in 
the  way  of  equipment.  You  on  the  other  hand, 
having  enclosed  within  certain  narrow  confines  the 
whole  function  of  an  orator,  will  the  more  easily 
expound  to  us  the  result  of  your  investigations  into 
his  duties  and  rules  :  but  that,  I  think,  must  be 
another  time.  For  our  talk  to-day  has  been  long 
265  enough.  Now  too  Scaevola,  as  he  has  arranged  to 
go  to  his  Tusculan  villa,  vdll  rest  awhile,  until  the 
heat  has  abated  ;  and  let  us  ourselves,  considering 
the  time  of  day,  take  care  of  our  health." 

This  suggestion  pleased  everybody.  Then  Scae- 
vola  observed  :  "  I  devoutly  wish  that  I  had  not 
arranged  with  LaeUus  to  arrive  at  my  Tusculan 
villa  to-day ;  I  should  Hke  to  hear  Antonius." 
And,  as  he  got  up,  he  added  with  a  smile  :  "  For  I 
was  not  so  much  vexed  by  his  tearing  our  common 
law  to  tatters,  as  deHghted  by  his  admission  that 
he  knew  nothing  about  it." 


195 


DE  ORATORE 

DIALOGUS  SEU  LIBER  SECUNDUS 

1  I.  Magna  nobis  pueris,  Quinte  frater,  si  memoria 
tenes,  opinio  friit,  L.  Crassum  non  plus  attigisse  doc- 
trinae,  quam  quantum  prima  illa  puerili  institutione 
potuisset ;  M.  autem  Antonium  omnino  omnis  erudi- 
tionis  expertem  atque  ignarum  friisse.  Erantque 
multi  qui,  quanquam  non  ita  sese  rem  habere  arbi- 
trarentur,  tamen,  quo  facilius  nos  incensos  studio 
dicendi  a  doctrina  deterrerent,  libenter  id  quod  dixi, 
de  illis  oratoribus  praedicarent,  ut,  si  homines  non 
eruditi  summam  essent  prudentiam  atque  incredi- 
bilem  eloquentiam  consecuti,  inanis  omnis  noster  esse 
labor,  et  stultum  in  nobis  erudiendis,  patris  nostri, 

2  optimi  ac  prudentissimi  viri,  studium  videretur.  Quos 
tum,  ut  pueri,  refutare  domesticis  testibus  patre  et 
C.  Aculeone  propinquo  nostro  et  L.  Cicerone  patruo 
solebamus,  quod  de  Crasso  pater,  et  Aculeo  (quocum 
erat  nostra  matertera),  quem  Crassus  dilexit  ex 
196 


THE  MAKING  OF  AN  ORATOR 

BOOK  THE  SECOND  -^ 

1  I.  When  we  were  boys,  brother  Quintus,  there  was,  introduc- 
if  you  remember,  a  widespread  behef  that  Lucius  qu^nce  of 
Crassus  had  dabbled  no  further  in  learning  than  the  Crassus  and 
early  training  of  a  lad  of  his  day  allowed,  and  that  based  on 
Marcus  Antonius  was  absolutely  without  any  educa-  ^^JJ^j^"' 
tion  and  ignorant.     And  there  were  many  who,  while 

they  did  not  hold  this  to  be  the  truth  of  the  matter, 
none  the  less  hoped  the  more  readily  to  deter  us 
eager  students   in   search   of  eloquence   from    the     ^^ 
pursuit  of  learning,  and  so  they  did  not  scruple  to    <u/^ 
make  such  statements  about  those  eminent  orators  ;  ,,    %  ^^ 
to  the  intent  that  we  ourselves,  on  seeing  that  men    '"4^-,'%   , 
who  were  no  scholars  had  attained  the  highest  degree  / 

of  practical  wisdom,  and  a  standard  of  eloquence    %_,  -^ 
passing  belief,  might  come  to  look  upon  all  our  own  'ij^ 
labour  as  being  but  in  vain,  and  to  think  mere  folly       ^ 
the  care  bestowed  upon  our  education  by  a  man  so 
excellent   and   widely  experienced   as   our   father. 

2  Such  sophists  we  used  at  that  time  to  confound,  in 
boyish  fashion,  by  calling  witnesses  from  home, 
namely  our  father,  our  near  kinsman  Gaius  Aculeo, 
and  our  paternal  uncle  Lucius  Cicero,  inasmuch  as 
our  father,  and  Aculeo,  who  married  our  mother's 
sister,  and  was  esteemed  by  Crassus  above  all  other 

197 


<c 


CICERO 

omnibus  plurimum,  et  patruus,  qui  cum  Antonio  in 
Ciliciam  profectus  una  decesserat,  multa  nobis  de 
eius  studio  doctrinaque  saepe  narravit.  Cumque  nos 
cum  consobrinis  nostris,  Aculeonis  filiis,  et  ea  disce- 
remus,  quae  Crasso  placerent,  et  ab  his  doctoribus, 
quibus  ille  uteretur,  erudiremur,  etiam  illud  saepe 
intelleximus  cum  essemus  eius  domi,^  quod  vel  pueri 
sentire  poteramus,  illum  et  Graece  sic  loqui,  nullam 
ut  nosse  aliam  linguam  videretur,  et  doctoribus  nos- 
tris  ea  ponere  in  percontando,  eaque  ipsum  omni  in 
sermone  tractare,  ut  nihil  esse  ei  novum,  nihil  inau- 

3  ditum  videretur.  De  Antonio  vero,  quanquam  saepe 
ex  humanissimo  homine,  patruo  nostro,  acceperamus, 
quemadmodum  ille  vel  Athenis  vel  Rhodi  se  doctis- 
simorum  hominum  sermonibus  dedisset,  tamen  ipse 
adolescentulus,  quantum  illius  ineuntis  aetatis  meae 
patiebatur  pudor,  multa  ex  eo  saepe  quaesivi.  Non 
erit  profecto  tibi,  quod  scribo,  hoc  novum  nam  iam 
tum  ex  me  audiebas,  mihi  illum,  ex  multis  variisque 
sermonibus,  nulUus  rei,  quae  quidem  esset  in  his 
artibus,  de  quibus  aliquid  existimare  possem,  rudem 
aut  ignarum  esse  visum. 

4  Sed  fuit  hoc  in  utroque  eorum,  ut  Crassus  non  tam 
existimari  vellet  non  didicisse,  quam  illa  despicere, 

*  eius  domi.    The  eorrection  o/  Piderit  and  Soro/for  th§ 
inde/enaibU  eius  modi  o/  tht  Msa. 

198 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  i.  2-4 

men,  and  our  paternal  uncle,  who  went  out  to  Cilicia 
with  Antonius,  and  was  with  him  when  he  left  his 
province  for  home,  all  severally  and  often  related  to 
us  a  great  deal  about  Crassus,  his  application  to 
study,  and  his  intellectual  attainments.  And  since, 
in  the  company  of  our  cousins,  the  sons  of  Aculeo 
and  our  mother's  sister,  we  were  not  only  studying 
such  subjects  as  attracted  Crassus,  but  were  also 
being  instructed  by  those  very  teachers  whom  he 
made  his  friends,  we,  being  as  we  were  at  his 
home,  often  perceived, — as  even  we  boys  could  per- 
ceive, — that,  besides  speaking  Greek  so  perfectly  as 
to  suggest  that  it  was  the  only  tongue  he  knew, 
he  propounded  such  topics  to  our  masters  in  the 
way  of  inquiry  and  himself  so  handled  matters  in 
his  discourse,  that  nothing  seemed  strange  to  him, 

3  nothing  beyond  his  range  of  knowledge.  But  as  for 
Antonius,  although  we  had  frequently  understood 
from  our  highly  accomplished  paternal  uncle  how,  at 
Athens  and  at  Rhodes  alike,  that  orator  had  devoted 

"^himself  to  conversation  with  the  most  learned  men, 
]  yet  I  myself,  in  early  Ufe,  went  as  far  as  the  modesty 
natural  to  my  youth  permitted,  in  questioning  him 
time  and  again  on  many  subjects.  What  I  am  writ- 
ing  will  assuredly  be  no  news  to  you,  for  I  used  to  tell 
you  even  then  that  the  result  of  many  conversa- 
tions  with  him  on  various  subjects  was  to  convey  to 
me  the  impression  that  there  was  nothing — at  least  in 
any  studies  about  which  I  could  form  an  opinion — 
about  which  he  was  inexperienced  or  ignorant. 

4  There  was  nevertheless  this  point  of  difference 
between  the  two  men,  that  Crassus  did  not  so  much 
wish  to  be  thought  to  have  learned  nothing,  as  to 
have  the  reputation  of  looking  down  upon  learning, 

199 


CICERO 

et  nostrorum  hominum  in  omni  genere  prudentiam 
Graecis  anteferre  ;  Antonius  autem  probabiliorem 
hoc  populo  orationem  fore  censebat  suam,  si  omnino 
didicisse  nunquam  putaretur.  Atque  ita  se  uterque 
graviorem  fore,  si  alter  contemnere,  alter  ne  nosse 
6  quidem  Graecos  videretur.  Quorum  consilium  quale 
fuerit,  nihil  sane  ad  hoc  tempus ;  illud  autem  est 
huius  institutae  scriptionis  ac  temporis,  neminem 
eloquentia,  non  modo  sine  dicendi  doctrina,  sed  ne 
sine  omni  quidem  sapientia,  florere  unquam  et  prae- 
stare  potuisse. 

II.  Etenim  ceterae  fere  artes  se  ipsae  per  se  tuen- 
tur  singulae  ;  bene  dicere  autem,  quod  est  scienter, 
et  perite,  et  ornate  dicere,  non  habet  definitam 
aliquam  regionem,  cuius  terminis  septa  teneatur. 
Omnia,  quaecumque  in  hominum  disceptationem  ca- 
dere  possunt,  bene  sunt  ei  dicenda,  qui  hoc  se  posse 
profitetur,   aut    eloquentiae    nomen    relinquendum 

6  est.  Quare  equidem  et  in  nostra  civitate,  et  in  ipsa 
Graecia,  quae  semper  haec  summa  duxit,  multos  et 
ingeniis,  et  magna  laude  dicendi  sine  summa  rerum 
omnium  scientia  fuisse  fateor ;  talem  vero  exsistere 
eloquentiam,  quahs  fuerit  in  Crasso  et  Antonio,  non 
cognitis  rebus  omnibus,  quae  ad  tantam  prudentiam 
pertinerent,  tantamque  dicendi  copiam,  quanta  in  iUis 

7  fuit,  non  potuisse  confirmo.  Quo  etiam  feci  liben- 
tius,  ut  eum  sermonem,  quem  illi  quondam  inter  se 
200 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  i.  4— ii.  7 

and  of  placing  the  wisdom  of  our  own  fellow-country- 

men  above  that  of  the  Greeks  in  all  departments ; 

while  Antonius  held  that  his  speeches  would  be  the 

more  acceptable  to  a  nation  Hke  ours,  if  it  were 

thought  that  he  had  never  engaged  in  study  at  all. 

<^Thus  the  one  expected  to  grow  in  influence  by  being 

j  thought  to  hold  a  poor  opinion  of  the  Greeks,  and  the 

I  other  by  seeming  never  even  to  have  heard  of  them. 

5  What  the  value  of  these  opinions  was,  would  clearly 
not  matter  now,  but  it  does  belong  to  this  treatise 
which  I  have  in  hand,  and  to  this  occasion,  to  insist 
that  noman  has  ever  succeeded  inachieving  splendour 
and  excellence  in  oratory,  I  will  not  say  merely 

//  without  training^  speaking,  but  withoutjaking  all 

ll    knowTedgelror^sprovince  as  well. 

II.  For,  while  nearly  all  the  other  arts  can  look  Oiatory 
after  themselves,  the  art  of  speaking  well,  that  is  to  ™Jcked% 
say,  of  speaking  with  knowledge,  skill  and  elegance,  leaming. 
has  no  dehmited  territory,  within  whose  borders  it  is 
enclosed  and  confined.     All  things  whatsoever,  that 
can  fall  under  the  discussion  of  human  beings,  must 
be  aptly  dealt  with  by  him  who  professes  to  have  this 
power,  or  he  must  abandon  the  name  of  eloquent. 

6  And  so  on  my  own  part,  I  admit  that,  both  in  our 
own  country  and  in  Greece  itself,  which  has  ever 
held  these  pursuits  in  the  highest  esteem,  there 
have  appeared  many  men  of  natural  parts  and  great 
reputation  in  oratory,  without  the  futlest  universal 
knowledge ;  yet  I  maintain  that  such  eloquence  as 
Crassus  and  Antonius  attained  could  never  have 
been  realized  without  a  knowledge  of  every  matter  '";^ 
Ithat  went  to  produce  that  wisdom  and  that  power  of   '^y^ 

7  oratory  which  were  manifest  in  those  two.     And  so       ^''^ 
I  was  the  readier  to  commit  to  writing  a  conversation  7«. 

H  201 


CICERO 

de  his  rebus  habuissent,  mandarem  litteris,  vel  ut  illa 
opinio,  quae  semper  fuisset,  toUeretur,  alterum  non 
doctissimum,  alterum  plane  indoctum  fuisse  ;  vel  ut 
ea,  quae  existimarem  a  summis  oratoribus  de  elo- 
quentia  divinitus  esse  dicta,  custodirem  litteris,  si 
uUo  modo  assequi  complectique  potuissem ;  vel  me- 
hercule  etiam,  ut  laudem  eorum,  iam  prope  senescen- 
tem,  quantum  ego  possem,  ab  oblivione  hominum 

8  atque  a  silentio  vindicarem.  Nam  si  ex  scriptis 
cognosci  ipsi  suis  potuissent,  minus  hoc  fortasse  mihi 
esse  putassem  laborandum  :  sed  cum  alter  non 
multum  quod  quidem  exstaret,  et  id  ipsum  adole- 
scens,  alter  nihil  admodum  scripti  rehquisset,  deberi 
hoc  a  me  tantis  hominimi  ingeniis  putavi,  ut,  cum 
etiam  nunc  vivam  illoriun  memoriam  teneremus,  hanc 

g  immortalem  redderem,  si  possem.  Quod  hoc  etiam 
spe  aggredior  maiore  ad  probandum,  quia  non  de  Ser. 
Galbae,  aut  C.  Carbonis  eloquentia  scribo  ahquid,  in 
quo  hceat  mihi  fingere,  si  quid  veHm,  nullius  memoria 
iam  me  refellente  :  sed  edo  haec  eis  cognoscenda,  qui 
eos  ipsos,  de  quibus  loquor,  saepe  audierunt ;  ut  duos 
summos  viros  eis,  qui  neutrum  illorum  viderint, 
eonmi,  quibus  ambo  ilU  oratores  cogniti  sint,  vivo- 
rum  et  praesentium  memoria  teste,  oommendemus. 

S03 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  ii.  7-9 

they  once  had  on  the  subject,  my  purpose  being,  in 
the  first  place,  to  dispel  that  notion,  which  had 
always  prevailed,  that  one  of  them  had  no  great 
learning  and  the  other  none  at  all ;  secondly,  to 
preserve  in  literary  form  the  sentiments  concerning 
eloquence  which  to  my  thinking  were  expressed  to 
perfection  by  those  consummate  orators,  if  in  any 
way  I  should  have  succeeded  in  recapturing  and 
representing  their  pronouncements ;  and  lastly,  I 
protest,  to  rescue,  as  far  as  possible,  from  disuse  and 
from  silence,  the  reputation  of  these  men  which  was 

8  already  beginning  to  wane.  For  could  their  own 
writings  have  made  those  orators  known,  perhaps  I 
should  have  seen  smaller  need  for  this  work  that 
I  have  undertaken,  but  as  one  of  them  had  written 
httle  (at  all  events  Httle  that  survived),  and  had 
written  that  little  in  early  Hfe,  while  the  other  had 
left  nothing  whatever  in  writing,  I  thought  that  it 
was  a  tribute  due  from  me  to  those  great  intellects, 
that  while  all  still  held  them  in  Uving  memory  I 
should  render  that  memory  immortal,  if  I   could. 

9  And  my  hope  is  so  much  the  greater  that  I  shall 
establish  the  case  which  I  am  approaching,  because  I 
am  not  treating  of  the  eloquence  of  Servius  Galba  or 
Gaius  Carbo,  in  which  case  I  should  be  able  to  invent 
at  ple^sure,  no  one  now  surviving  to  contradict  me 
with  his  reminiscences,  but  I  am  publishing  what  will 
be  criticized  by  those  who  have  often  actually  listened 
to  the  men  of  whom  I  am  speaking,  in  order  that  I 
may  recommend  an  illustrious  pair  to  those  who  have 
never  seen  either  of  them,  on  the  testimony  of  the 
recollections  of  men  to  whom  both  those  famous 
orators  were  personally  known,  and  who  themselves 
are  living  and  still  among  us. 

SOS 


CICERO 

10  III.  Nec  vero  te,  carissime  frater  atque  optime, 
rhetoricis  nunc  quibusdam  libris,  quos  tu  agrestes 
putas,  insequor  ut  erudiam  :  quid  enim  tua  potest 
oratione  aut  subtilius,  aut  ornatius  esse  ?  Sed,  sive 
iudicio,  ut  soles  dicere,  sive,  ut  ille  pater  eloquentiae 
de  se  Isocrates  scripsit  ipse,  pudore  a  dicendo  et 
timiditate  ingenua  quadam  refugisti,  sive,  ut  ipse 
iocari  soleo,  unum  putasti  satis  esse  non  modo  in  una 
familia  rhetorem,  sed  paene  in  tota  civitate,  non 
tamen  arbitror  tibi  hos  Hbros  in  eo  fore  genere,  quod 
merito,  propter  eorum,  qui  de  dicendi  ratione  dis- 
putarunt,  ieiunitatem  bonarum  artium,  possit  illudi. 

11  Nihil  enim  mihi  quidem  videtur  in  Crassi  et  Antonii 
sermone  esse  praeteritum,  quod  quisquam  summis 
ingeniis,  acerrimis  studiis,  optima  doctrina,  maximo 
usu  cognosci  ac  percipi  potuisse  arbitraretur,  quod 
tu  faciUime  poteris  iudicare,  qui  prudentiam  ratio- 
nemque  dicendi  per  te  ipsum,  usum  autem  per  nos 
percipere  voluisti.  Sed,  quo  citius  hoc,  quod  susce- 
pimus,  non  mediocre  munus  conficere  possimus,  omis- 
sa  nostra  adhortatione,  ad  eorum,  quos  proposuimus, 
sermonem  disputationemque  veniamus. 

12  Postero  igitur  die,  quam  illa  erant  acta,  hora  fere 
secunda,  cum  etiam  tum  in  lecto  Crassus  esset  et 
apud  eum  Sulpicius  sederet,  Antonius  autem  in- 
ambularet  cum  Cotta  in  porticu,  repente  eo  Q. 
204 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  iii.  10-12 

10  III.  But    you   are    the   last  man,  my  dear   and  The  topic 
excellent  brother,  that  I  should  try  to  instruct  by  commended. 
means  of  a  lot  of  Ijooks  which  you  think  only  crude  ; 

for  what  can  be  more  exact  or  graceful  than  your 
own  diction  ?  But  whether  it  be  on  principle,  as  you 
generally  affirm,  or  from  modesty  and  what  I  may 
call  the  diffidence  of  the  well-bred,  that  you  have 
shrunk  from  pubHc  speaking  (as  that  eminent  father 
of  eloquence,  Isocrates,  has  declared  to  have  been 
the  case  with  himself),  or  whether,  as  I  myself  am 
wont  to  say  in  jesting  mood,  you  thought  one 
declaimer  enough  in  a  family,  and  wellnigh  enough 
in  an  entire  community,  still  I  think  that  you  will  not 
place  this  essay  among  that  class  of  writings  which 
may  be  a  fitting  object  of  ridicule,  because  of  the 
sheer  want   of  good  learning  in  those  who  have 

1 1  therein  discussed  the  art  of  speaking.  For  to  my  mind 
nothing  has  been  passed  over,  in  the  dialogue  be- 
tween  Crassus  and  Antonius,  that  anyone  would  have 
thought  possible  to  be  known  and  understood  by  men 
of  the  highest  abiUty,  the  most  eager  appUcation,  the 
profoundest  learning,  and  the  most  complete  experi- 
ence, — a  point  which  you  will  have  no  trouble  in  de- 
ciding,  since  you  have  chosen  to  master  the  lore  and 
principles  of  oratory  by  your  own  study,  its  practice 
by  my  assistance.  But  in  order  the  sooner  to  dis- 
charge  this  important  duty  that  we  have  undertaken, 
let  us  proceed,  without  any  preamble  of  mine,  to  the 

'<  discourse  and  arguments  of  those  orators  whom  we 
\  have  set  before  us. 

12  On  the  morrow,  then,  of  that  former  debate,  atxhesecond 
about  eight  in  the  morning,  while  Crassus  was  still  in  ^ay^s 
bed  and  Sulpicius  sitting  by  his  side,  and  Antonius  Arrivai  of 
strolUng  with  Cotta  in  the  colonnade,  Quintus  Catulus  and^caesar. 

205 


CICERO 

Catulus  senex  cum  C.  lulio  fratre  venit.  Quod  ubi 
audivit,  commotus  Crassus  surrexit  omnesque  ad- 
mirati  maiorem  aliquam  esse  causam  eorum  adven- 

13  tus  suspicati  sunt.  Qui  cum  inter  se,  ut  ipsorum 
usus  ferebat,  amicissime  consalutassent :  Quid  vos 
tandem  ?  Crassus,  num  quidnam,  inquit,  novi  ?  Nihil 
sane,  inquit  Catulus :  etenim  vides  esse  ludos. 
Sed  (vel  tu  nos  ineptos  licet,  inquit,  vel  moles- 
tos  putes)  cum  ad  me  in  Tusculanum  heri  vesperi 
venisset  Caesar  de  Tusculano  suo,  dixit  mihi,  a  se 
Scaevolam  hinc  euntem  esse  conventum,  ex  quo 
mira  quaedam  se  audisse  dicebat ;  te,  quem  ego, 
toties  omni  ratione  tentans,  ad  disputandum  ehcere 
non  potuissem,  permulta  de  eloquentia  cum  Antonio 
disseruisse,  et  tanquam  in  schola,  prope  ad  Grae- 

14  corum  consuetudinem,  disputasse.  Ita  me  frater  ex- 
oravit,  ne  ipsum  quidem  a  studio  audiendi  nimis  ab- 
horrentem,  sed  mehercule  verentem,  ne  molesti  vobis 
interveniremus,  ut  huc  secum  venirem ;  Scaevolam 
etenim  ita  dicere  aiebat,  bonam  partem  sermonis  in 
hunc  diem  esse  dilatam.  Hoc  si  tu  cupidius  factum 
existimas,  Caesari  attribues  ;  si  familiarius,  utrique 
nostrum :  nos  quidem,  nisi  forte  molesti  intervenimus, 
venisse  delectat. 

15  IV.  Tum  Crassus  :  Equidem,  quaecumque  causa 
vos  huc  attulisset,  laetarer,  cum  apud  me  viderem 
206 


DE  ORATORE,  II,  iii.  12— iv.  15 

the  elder  suddenly  arrived  at  the  house,  accompanied 
by  his  brother  Gaius  Juhus.  On  being  informed  of 
this,  Crassus  rose  in  a  state  of  excitement,  and  general 
astonishment  prevailed,  everyone  surmising  that  the 
reason  for  this  visit  must  be  something  out  of  the 

13  ordinary.  After  exchanging  very  cordial  greetings 
with  one  another,  as  their  practice  was,  Crassus 
inquired,  "  What  in  the  world  brings  you  here  ? 
Have  you  any  news  ?  "  "  None  whatever,"  replied 
Catulus  ;  "  you  see  the  Games  are  on.  Think  us 
impertinent  or  troublesome,  as  you  please,  but  the 
fact  is,  that  on  arriving  yesterday  evening  at  my 
Tusculan  villa  from  his  own,  Caesar  told  me  that  he 
had  met  Scaevola,  who  was  on  his  way  from  this 
place,  and  who  related  to  him  a  marvellous  tale,  the 
purport  of  which  was  that  you,  whom  all  my  induce- 
ments,  so  often  employed,  could  never  draw  into  a 
discussion,  had  been  stating  your  views  on  oratory  at 
large,  in  debate  with  Antonius,  and  reasoning  as  if 
in  the  schools,  and  very  much  in  the  Greek  mode. 

14  And  this  was  how  my  brother's  entreaties  prevailed 
upon  me  to  accompany  him  hither, — not  indeed  that 
I  have  any  particular  aversion  to  playing  the  part  of 
a  hstener,  but  I  vow  I  was  afraid  that  our  pushing 
in  might  be  troublesome  to  you — ;  for  he  explained 
that,  according  to  Scaevola,  a  good  part  of  the 
discourse  stood  adjourned  until  to-day.  If  you  think 
this  action  of  ours  impertinent  curiosity,  you  will 
blame  Caesar,  if  it  seems  an  abuse  of  friendship,  you 
will  blame  the  pair  of  us  ;  for  our  part  we  are  charmed 
to  be  here,  provided  always  that  our  coming  in  does 
not  happen  to  be  a  nuisance." 

16      IV.  To  which  Crassus  made  answer,  "  Whatever  Generai 
occasion  had  brought  you  here,  I  should  be  deUghted  tum[^'^' 

207 


CICERO 

homines  mihi  carissimos  et  amicissimos  ;  sed  tamen, 
vere  dicam,  quaevis  mallem  fuisset,  quam  ista,  quam 
dicis.  Ego  enim  ut,  quemadmodum  sentiam,  loquar, 
nunquam  mihi  minus,  quam  hesterno  die,  placui ; 
magis  adeo  id  facihtate,  quam  aha  ulla  culpa  mea 
contigit,  qui,  dum  obsequor  adolescentibus,  me  senem 
esse  sum  obHtus,  fecique  id,  quod  ne  adolescens  qui- 
dem  feceram,  ut  eis  de  rebus,  quae  doctrina  ahqua 
continerentur,  disputarem.  Sed  hoc  tamen  cecidit 
mihi  peropportune,  quod,  transactis  iam  meis  parti- 
bus,  ad  Antonium  audiendum  venistis. 

16  Tum  Caesar  :  Equidem,  inquit,  Crasse,  ita  sum 
cupidus  te  in  illa  longiore  ac  perpetua  disputatione 
audiendi,  ut,  si  id  mihi  minus  contingat,  vel  hoc  sim 
quotidiano  tuo  sermone  contentus.  Itaque  experiar 
equidem  illud,  ut  ne  Sulpicius,  familiaris  meus,  aut 
Cotta,  plus  quam  ego  apud  te  valere  videantur  ;  et 
te  exorabo  profecto,  ut  mihi  quoque  et  Catulo  tuae 
suavitatis  ahquid  impertias.  Sin  tibi  id  minus  Ubebit, 
non  te  urgebo,  neque  committam,  ut,  dum  vereare,  tu 
ne  sis  ineptus,  me  esse  iudices. 

17  Tum  ille  :  Ego  mehercule,  inquit,  Caesar,  ex 
omnibus  Latinis  verbis  huius  verbi  vim  vel  maximam 
semper  putavi.  Quem  enim  nos  '  ineptum  '  vocamus, 
is  mihi  videtur  ab  hoc  nomen  habere  ductum,  quod 
non  sit  aptus  ;  idque  in  sermonis  nostri  consuetudine 
perlate  patet ;   nam  qui  aut,  tempus  quid  postulet, 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  iv.  15-17 

to  see  at  my  home  men  who  are  among  my  dearest 
and  best  friends  ;  yet,  to  tell  the  truth,  I  had  rather 
it  had  been  any  other  object  than  the  one  you  men- 
tion.  For,  to  speak  my  mind,  I  personally  have  never 
been  so  dissatisfied  with  myself  as  I  was  yesterday  ; 
indeed  it  was  just  good-nature  rather  than  any  fault 
of  mine  when,  in  humouring  the  young,  I  forgot  that 
I  was  old,  and  did  a  thing  which  even  as  a  youth  I 
had  never  done,  in  discussing  subjects  that  involved 
a  certain  degree  of  learning.  One  circumstance 
however  has  turned  out  most  happily  for  me,  in  that 
my  part  is  already  played  out,  so  Antonius  is  the 
one  you  have  come  to  hear." 

16  "  For  my  part,  Crassus,"  returned  Caesar,  "  while 
I  am  longing  to  hear  you  in  that  fuller  and  uninter- 
rupted  style  of  debate,  yet,  if  that  is  not  to  be  had, 
I  could  even  make  shift  with  your  everyday  talk. 
One  thing  therefore  I  shall  certainly  attempt,  which 
is  to  prevent  people  from  supposing  that  either  my 
friend  Sulpicius  or  Cotta  has  more  influence  with 
you  than  I  have,  and  assuredly  I  shall  implore  you 
to  spare  a  Httle  of  your  amiability  even  for  Catulus 
and  myself.  If  however  that  suggestion  does  not 
commend  itself  to  you,  I  shall  not  press  you,  nor  give 
you  occasion  to  deem  me  tactless,  while  dreading 
any  tactlessness  on  your  own  part." 

17  "  Truly,  Caesar,"  rejoined  the  other,  "  I  have  al- 
ways  thought  that,  of  all  the  words  in  the  Latin  lan 
guage,  none  has  so  wide  a  signification  as  this  word 
that  you  have  just  used.  Of  course  the  man  whom  we 
call  '  tactless  '  seems  to  me  to  bear  a  title  derived 
from  his  want  of  tact,  and  this  is  most  amply  illus- 
trated  in  our  ordinary  conversation,  inasmuch  as 
whosoever  fails  to  realize  the  demands  of  the  occa- 

209 


CICERO 

non  videt,  aut  plura  loquitur,  aut  se  ostentat,  aut 
eorum,  quibuscum  est,  vel  dignitatis,  vel  commodi 
rationem  non  habet,  aut  denique  in  aliquo  genere  aut 

18  inconcinnus,  aut  multus  est,  is  ineptus  dicitur.  Hoc 
vitio  cumulata  est  eruditissima  illa  Graecorum  natio  : 
itaque  quod  vim  huius  mali  Graeci  non  vident,  ne 
nomen  quidem  ei  vitio  imposuerunt ;  ut  enim  quae- 
ras  omnia,  quomodo  Graeci  ineptum  appellent,  non 
reperies.  Omnium  autem  ineptiarum,  quae  sunt 
innumerabiles,  haud  scio,  an  nuUa  sit  maior,  quam, 
ut  illi  solent,  quocumque  in  loco,  quoscumque  inter 
homines  visum  est,  de  rebus  aut  difficillimis,  aut  non 
necessariis,  argutissime  disputare.  Hoc  nos  ab  istis 
adolescentibus  facere  inviti  et  recusantes  heri  coacti 
sumus. 

19  V.  Tum  Catulus  :  Ne  Graeci  quidem,  inquit, 
Crasse,  qui  in  civitatibus  suis  clari  et  magni  fuerunt, 
sicuti  tu  es,  nosque  omnes  in  nostra  republica  volu- 
mus  esse,  horum  Graecorum,  qui  se  inculcant  auri- 
bus  nostris,  similes  fuerunt,  nec  in  otio  sermones 

20  huiusmodi,  disputationesque  fugiebant.  Ac  si  tibi 
videntur,  qui  temporis,  qui  loci,  qui  hominum  ra- 
tionem  non  habent,  inepti,  sicut  debent  videri,  num 
tandem  aut  locus  hic  non  idoneus  videtur,  in  quo 
porticus  haec  ipsa,  ubi  ambulamus,  et  palaestra,  et 
tot  locis  sessiones,  gymnasiorum,  et  Graecorum  dis- 
putationum  memoriam  quodam  modo  commovent  ? 
Aut  num  importunum  tempus  in  tanto  otio,  quod  et 

"  Originally  designed  for  ph^^sical  exercise,  the  gymnatia 
had  become  the  scene  of  lectures  on  philosophy, 

210 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  iv.  17— v.  20 

sion,  or  talks  too  much,  or  advertises  himself,  or 
ignores  the  prestige  or  convenience  of  those  with 
whom  he  has  to  deal,  or,  in  short,  is  in  any  way  awk- 

18  ward  or  tedious,  is  described  as  '  tactless.'  The 
Greek  nation,  with  all  its  learning,  abounds  in  this 
fault,  and  so,  as  the  Greeks  do  not  perceive  the 
significance  of  this  plague,  they  have  not  even 
bestowed  a  name  upon  the  fault  in  question,  for, 
search  where  you  may,  you  will  not  find  out  how  the 
Greeks  designate  the  '  tactless  '  man.  But,  of  all  the 
countless  forms  assumed  by  want  of  tact,  I  rather 
think  that  the  grossest  is  the  Greeks'  habit,  in  any 
place  and  any  company  they  like,  of  plunging  into  the 
most  subtle  dialectic  concerning  subjects  that  present 
extreme  difficulty,  or  at  any  rate  do  not  call  for 
discussion.  This  is  what  we  were  obhged  to  do 
yesterday  by  our  young  friends  here,  albeit  we 
yielded  but  reluctantly  and  under  protest." 

19  V.  Thereupon  Catulus  observed, "  But  even  among  phUo- 
the  Greeks,  Crassus,  those  who  were  famous  and  sopiiicai 

.       1     .  .  .  .  .  discussion 

great  men  m  their  respective  commumties,  as  in  our  and  the 
own  republic  you  are,  and  we  all  hope  to  be,  were  onei8ur&'^' 
whoUy  unlike  these  Greeks,  who  obtrude  themselves 
upon  our  hearing ;  and  yet  in  their  hours  of  ease  they 
were  not  averse  to  discussion  and  debate  of  this  kind. 

20  And,  although  you  are  justified  in  deeming  those 
people  tactless,  who  take  no  heed  of  seasons,  places 
orpersons,yet  do  you  really  think  this  scene  ill-fitting, 
where  this  very  colonnade,  in  which  we  are  now  walk- 
ing,  this  exercise-ground,  and  these  benches  placed 
at  so  many  points,  in  some  degree  awaken  memories 
of  the  gymnastic  schools  "  and  the  discussions  of  the 
Greeks  ?  Or  can  it  be  the  season  that  is  ill-chosen, 
occurring  as  it  does  during  a  holiday  of  a  length  such 

211 


CICERO 

raro  datur,  et  nunc  peroptato  nobis  datum  est  ? 
Aut  homines  ab  hoc  genere  disputationis  aheni,  qui 
omnes  ei  sumus,  ut  sine  his  studiis  vitam  nuUam 
esse  ducamus  ? 

21  Omnia  ista,  inquit  Crassus,  ego  alio  modo  inter- 
pretor,  qui  primum  palaestram,  et  sedes,  et  porticus 
etiam  ipsos,  Catule,  Graecos  exercitationis  et  de- 
lectationis  causa  non  disputationis  invenisse  arbi- 
tror.  Nam  et  saeculis  multis  ante  gymnasia  inventa 
sunt,  quam  in  eis  philosophi  garrire  coeperunt,  et 
hoc  ipso  tempore,  cum  omnia  gymnasia  philosophi 
teneant,  tamen  eorum  auditores  discum  audire  quam 
philosophum  malunt :  qui  simul  ut  increpuit,  in 
media  oratione  de  maximis  rebus  et  gravissimis  dis- 
putantem  philosophum  omnes  unctionis  causa  reHn- 
quunt :  ita  levissimam  delectationem  gravissimae,  ut 

22  ipsi  ferunt,  utilitati  anteponunt.  Otium  autem  quod 
dicis  esse,  assentior  ;  verum  otii  fructus  est,  non 
contentio  animi,  sed  relaxatio. 

VI.  Saepe  ex  socero  meo  audivi,  cum  is  diceret 
socerum  suum  LaeHum  semper  fere  cum  Scipione 
soHtum  rusticari  eosque  incredibiHter  repuerascere 
esse  soHtos,  cum  rus  ex  urbe,  tanquam  e  vincuHs, 
evolavissent.  Non  audeo  dicere  de  taHbus  viris,  sed 
tamen  ita  solet  narrare  Scaevola,  conchas  eos  et 
umbiHcos  ad  Caietam  et  ad  Laurentum  legere  con- 
suesse,  et  ad  omnem  animi  remissionem  ludumque 

"  Vitam  nullam  corresponds  to  the  Platonic  piov  oi  ^uxnov 
(Apol.  38  a). 

*  Unctionis  causa  refers  to  the  wrestler's  use  of  suppling- 
oil  in  preparation  for  the  palaestra. 

212 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  v.  20— vi.  22 

as  we  seldom  enjoy  and  find  especially  welcome  at  the 
present  time  ?  Or  are  we  new  to  debate  of  this  kind, 
we  being  all  of  us  men  of  such  sort  as  to  hold  that 
Hfe  "  without  these  exercises  is  worth  nothing  ?  " 

21  "  Everything  that  you  urge,"  said  Crassus,  "  I  look 
at  in  a  different  hght,  since  in  the  first  place,  Catulus, 
it  is  my  behef  that  even  the  Greeks  themselves 
devised  their  exercise-ground,  benches  and  colon- 
nades,  for  purposes  of  physical  training  and  enjoy- 
ment,  not  for  dialectic.  For  not  only  were  their 
gymnastic  schools  introduced  ages  before  the  philo- 
sophers  began  to  chatter  therein,  but  even  in  the 
present  day,  although  the  sages  may  be  in  occupation 
of  all  the  gymnastic  schools,  yet  their  audiences 
would  rather  hsten  to  the  discus  than  to  the  Master, 
and  the  moment  its  chnk  is  heard,  they  all  desert  the 
lecturer,  in  the  middle  of  an  oration  upon  the  most 
subhme  and  weighty  topics,  in  order  to  anoint  ^  them- 
selves  for  athletic  exercise  ;  so  definitely  do  they 
place  the  most  trifling  amusement  before  that  which 
the  philosophers  describe  as  the  most  sohd  advantage. 

22  And,  as  to  your  saying  that  it  is  a  hohday,  I  agree 
with  you  ;  but  the  enjoyment  of  a  hohday  is  not 
mental  effort,  but  relaxation. 

VI.  "  Often  have  I  heard  my  father-in-law  say  that 
his  own  father-in-law  Laehus  almost  invariably  had 
Scipio  with  him  upon  his  country  excursions,  and  that 
the  pair  of  them  used  to  become  boys  again,  in  an 
astonishing  degree,  as  soon  as  ever  they  had  flitted 
from  the  prison  of  town  to  rural  scenes.  I  am 
afraid  to  say  it  of  personages  so  august,  but  Scaevola 
is  fond  of  relating  how  at  Caieta  and  Laurentum  it 
was  their  wont  to  collect  mussels  and  top-shells,  and 
to  condescend  to  every  form  of  mental  recreation  and 

213 


CICERO 

23  descendere.  Sic  enim  se  res  habet :  ut,  quemad- 
modum  volucres  videmus,  procreationis  atque  utili- 
tatis  suae  causa,  fingere  et  construere  nidos,  easdem 
autem,  cum  aliquid  efFecerint,  levandi  laboris  sui 
causa,  passim  ac  libere,  solutas  opere,  volitare  ;  sic 
nostri  animi,  forensibus  negotiis  atque  urbano  opere 
defessi,  gestiant  ac  volitare  cupiant,  vacui  cura  ac 

24  labore.  Itaque  illud,  quod  ego  in  causa  Curiana 
Scaevolae  dixi,  non  dixi  secus  ac  sentiebam, '  Nam  si,' 
inquam,  '  Scaevola,  nuUum  erit  testamentum  recte 
factum,  nisi  quod  tu  scripseris,  omnes  ad  te  cives 
cum  tabulis  veniemus,  omnium  testamenta  tu  scribes 
unus  :  quid  igitur  ?  '  inquam  :  '  quando  ages  negotium 
publicum  ?  quando  amicorum  ?  quando  tuum  ?  quan- 
do  denique  nihil  ages  ?  '  Tum  illud  addidi :  '  Mihi 
enim  liber  esse  non  videtur,  qui  non  aliquando  nihil 
agit.'  In  qua  permaneo,  Catule,  sententia ;  meque, 
cum  huc  veni,  hoc  ipsum  nihil  agere  et  plane  cessare 
delectat. 

26  Nam  quod  addidisti  tertium,  vos  eos  esse,  qui  vitam 
insuavem  sine  his  studiis  putaretis,  id  me  non  modo 
non  hortatur  ad  disputandum,  sed  etiam  deterret. 
Nam  ut  C.  Lucilius,  homo  doctus  et  perurbanus, 
dicere  solebat  ea  quae  scriberet  neque  ab  indoctis- 
simis  se,  neque  a  doctissimis  legi  velle  ;  quod  alteri 
nihil  intellegerent,  alteri  plus  fortasse,  quam  ipse; 
S14 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  vi.  23-25 

23  pastime.  For  nature  is  so  ordered,  that  even  as  we 
see  the  birds  fashioning  and  building  their  nests,  with 
a  view  to  raising  famiUes  and  to  their  own  comfort, 
but  yet,  as  soon  as  any  part  of  their  task  is  done,  seek- 
ing  some  relief  from  their  toil  by  flying  about  at 
random  in  full  freedom  from  work,  so  in  Hke  manner 
our  human  minds,  when  worn  out  by  the  business  of 
the  Courts  and  the  work  of  the  City,  grow  restless  and 
yearn  to  go  a-roving,  in  freedom  from  worry  and 

24  exertion.  And  so,  in  those  observations  that  I  ad- 
dressed  to  Scaevola,  in  the  course  of  my  defence  of 
Curius,  I  said  no  more  than  I  thought,  when  I  de- 
clared, '  Well,  Scaevola,  if  no  will  is  to  be  duly  made, 
unless  it  be  of  your  drafting,  all  we  citizens  will  come 
to  you  with  our  tablets,  and  you  alone  shall  draw  the 
wills  of  us  all,  but  in  that  event,'  I  went  on, 
'  when  will  you  conduct  afFairs  of  State  ?  when  those 
of  your  friends  ?  when  your  own  ?  when,  in  one 
word,  will  you  do  nothing  ?  '  And  I  added  also  the 
proposition,  *  For  to  my  mind  he  is  no  free  man,  who 
is  not  sometimes  doing  nothing.'  To  that  view, 
Catulus,  I  still  adhere,  and  it  is  just  this  inaction  and 
utter  idleness  that  charm  me  on  my  comings  to  this 
place. 

25  "  As  for  the  third  argument,  which  you  threw  in, 
that  you  are  men  so  constituted  that  you  would  find 
hfe  insipid  without  these  pursuits,  this  consideration, 
so  far  from  encouraging  me  to  debate,  positively 
frightens  me  away  from  it.  For  just  as  Gaius  Lucilius, 
himself  a  learned  and  highly  accomphshed  man,  was 
wont  to  say  that  he  wished  his  writings  to  be  read 
neither  by  the  most  ignorant  nor  the  most  learned, 
since  the  former  class  understood  nothing,  and  the 
latter  possibly  more  than  he  himself  did,  in  which 

215 


CICERO 

de  quo  etiam  scripsit,  '  Persium  non  curo  legere  ' 
(hic  enim  fuit,  ut  noramus,  omnium  fere  nostrorum 
hominum  doctissimus),  '  Laelium  Decumum  volo  ' 
(quem  cognovimus  virum  bonum,  et  non  illiteratum, 
sed  nihil  ad  Persium) :  sic  ego,  si  iam  mihi  dispu- 
tandum  sit  de  his  nostris  studiis,  nolim  equidem  apud 
rusticos,  sed  multo  minus  apud  vos  ;  malo  enim  non 
intellegi  orationem  meam,  quam  reprehendi. 

26  VII.  Tum  Caesar:  Equidem,  inquit,  Catule,  iam 
mihi  videor  navasse  operam,  quod  huc  venerim,  nam 
haec  ipsa  recusatio  disputationis  disputatio  quaedam 
fuit  mihi  quidem  periucunda.  Sed  cur  impedimus 
Antonium,  cuius  audio  esse  partes,  ut  de  tota  elo- 
quentia  disserat,  quemque  iamdudum  Cotta  et  Sul- 

27  picius  exspectant  ?  Ego  vero,  inquit  Crassus,  neque 
Antonium  verbum  facere  patiar,  et  ipse  obmutescam, 
nisi  prius  a  vobis  impetraro  —  Quidnam  ?  inquit 
Catulus.  Ut  hic  sitis  hodie.  Tum,  cmn  ille  dubi- 
taret,  quod  ad  fratrem  promiserat,  Ego,  inquit  luUus, 
pro  utroque  respondeo.  Sic  faciemus ;  atque  ista 
quidem  conditione,  vel  ut  verbum  nuUum  faceres, 
me  teneres. 

28  Hic  Catulus  arrisit ;  et  simul :  Praecisa,  inquit,  mihi 
quidem  dubitatio  est,  quoniam  neque  domi  impera- 
ram,  et  hic,  apud  quem  eram  futurus,  sine  mea 
sententia  tam  facile  promisit.     Tum  omnes  oculos 


»  Remains  o/  Old  Latin  (L.C.L.),  iii.  pp.  202-203. 
S16 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  vi.  25— vii.  28 

connexion  he  also  wrote  ** : — '  I  don't  want  Persius  to 
read  me  '  (Persius,  as  we  knew  him,  being  about  the 
most  erudite  of  all  our  fellow-citizens),  and  he  con- 
tinued : — *  Laelius  Decumus  for  me  '  (which  Laelius 
we  also  knew  for  an  excellent  man  of  some  learning, 
but  nothing  to  Persius)  :  so  too  I,  if  I  should  now 
have  to  discuss  these  pursuits  of  ours,  should  of 
course  be  sorry  to  speak  before  an  audience  of 
clowns,  but  far  more  reluctant  to  do  so  in  this  present 
company,  for  I  had  rather  have  my  discourse  mis- 
understood  than  disapproved." 

26  VII.  **  Truly,  Catulus,"  answered  Caesar,  "  I  think  Resumption 
already  that  I  have  bestowed  my  pains  to  advantage  dly-g^dls^ 
in  coming  hither,  for  to  myself  at  any  rate  this  very  cussion. 
protest  against  discussion  has  been  in  itself  a  discus-  staterhis 
sion  of  a  most  agreeable  character.     But  why  are  we  °^'? 
delaying  Antonius,  whose  function,  I  hear,  is  to  treat 

of  eloquence  at  large,  and  for  whom  Cotta  has  been 

27  a  long  time  waiting,  and  so  has  Sulpicius  ?  "  "  Nay," 
interposed  Crassus,  "  I  will  not  have  Antonius  utter 
a  syllable,  and  I  will  myself  be  dumb,  until  I  have 
first  obtained  a  boon  from  you."  "  Name  it,"  said 
Catulus.  "  That  you  spend  the  day  here."  Then, 
as  the  other  hesitated,  because  he  had  promised  to  go 
to  his  brother's,  Julius  observed,  "  I  answer  for  both 
of  us.  We  will  do  as  you  ask,  and  on  the  terms  you 
ofFer,  you  would  keep  me  here,  even  though  you 
should  not  contribute  a  word  to  the  debate." 

28  Here  Catulus  smiled  on  him  and  said,  "  There's  an 
end  of  my  hesitation  anyhow,  since  I  had  given  no 
orders  at  home,  and  my  brother  here,  at  whose 
house  I  was  to  have  been,  has  so  readily  engaged 
me,  without  my  having  any  say  in  the  matter." 
At  this  point  all  eyes  were  turned  on  Antonius, 

217 


CICERO 

in  Antonium  coniecerunt ;  et  ille :  Audite  vero, 
audite,  inquit.  Hominem  enim  audietis  de  schola, 
atque  a  magistro  et  Graecis  litteris  eruditum  ;  et  eo 
quidem  loquar  confidentius,  quod  Catulus  auditor 
accessit,  cui  non  solum  nos  Latini  sermonis,  sed  etiam 
Graeci  ipsi  solent  suae  linguae  subtilitatem  elegan- 

29  tiamque  concedere.  Sed  quia  tamen  hoc  totum, 
quidquid  est,  sive  artificium,  sive  studium  dicendi, 
nisi  accessit  os,  nullum  potest  esse,  docebo  vos,  dis- 
cipuli,  quod  ipse  non  didici,  quid  de  omni  genere 
dicendi  sentiam. 

30  Hic  posteaquam  arriserunt,  Res  mihi  videtur  esse, 
inquit,  facultate  praeclara,  arte  mediocris.  Ars  enim 
earmn  rerum  est,  quae  sciuntur  ;  oratoris  autem 
omnis  actio  opinionibus,  non  scientia  continetur. 
Nam  et  apud  eos  dicimus,  qui  nesciunt,  et  ea  dicimus, 
quae  nescimus  ipsi :  itaque  et  illi  alias  aliud  eisdem  de 
rebus  et  sentiunt  et  iudicant  et  nos  contrarias  saepe 
causas  dicimus,  non  modo  ut  Crassus  contra  me  dicat 
aliquando,  aut  ego  contra  Crassum,  cum  alterutri 
necesse  sit  falsum  dicere,  sed  etiam  ut  uterque  nos- 
trum  eadem  de  re  alias  aliud  defendat,  cum  plus  uno 
verum  esse  non  possit.  Ut  igitur  in  eiusmodi  re, 
quae  mendacio  nixa  sit,  quae  ad  scientiam  non  saepe 
perveniat,  quae  opiniones  hominum,  et  saepe  errores 


■  Facultate.    Similarly  Aristotle  describes  rhetoric  as  a 
BA/afus,  not  a  t^x*^  {Rhet.  I.  ii.  1). 

218 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  vii.  28-30 

who  exclaimed,  "  Attention,  pray  !  Attention  !  For 
you  will  be  listening  to  a  man  from  the  schools, 
polished  by  professorial  instruction  and  the  study  of 
Greek  literature  ;  and  I  shall  speak  with  all  the  fuUer 
assurance,  in  that  Catulus  has  joined  my  audience,  he 
whose  possession  of  accuracy  and  taste  in  the  Greek 
language  is  ever  acknowledged,  not  only  by  us  men 
of  Latin  speech,  but  by  the  Greeks  themselves  as 

29  well.  Seeing  however  that  all  this  art  or  vocation  of 
speaking,  whichever  it  may  be,  can  avail  nothing 
without  the  addition  of  *  cheek,'  I  Mdll  teach  you, 
my  disciples,  something  that  I  have  not  learned 
myself,  to  wit,  my  theory  of  oratory  in  all  its 
branches." 

30  When  their  laughter  had  subsided,  he  continued,  Oratory  not 
"  Oratory,  it  seems  to  me,  derives  distinction  from  *^°*®'**'*J 
abiUty,**  but  owes  Httle  to  art.     For,  while  art  is  con- 
cerned  with  the  things  that  are  known,  the  activity 

of  the  orator  has  to  do  with  opinion,  not  knowledge. 
For  we  both  address  ourselves  to  the  ignorant,  and 
speak  of  matters  unknown  to  ourselves,  with  the 
result,  that  while  our  hearers  form  different  concep- 
tions  and  judgements  at  different  times,  concerning 
the  selfsame  subjects,  we  on  our  part  often  take 
opposite  sides,  not  merely  in  the  sense  that  Crassus 
sometimes  argues  against  me,  or  I  against  him,  when 
one  or  the  other  of  us  must  of  necessity  be  urging 
what  is  false,  but  also  because  we  both  maintain 
different  opinions  at  different  times  on  an  identical 
issue,  in  which  case  only  one  of  such  opinions  can 
possibly  be  right.  I  shall  therefore  speak  as  one  who 
is  deahng  with  a  subject  which  is  founded  upon  false- 
hood,  which  seldom  attains  to  demonstration,  which 
sets  its  snares  to  entrap  the  fancies  and  often  the 

219 


CICERO 

aucupetur,  ita  dicam,  si  causam  putatis  esse,  cur 
audiatis. 

31  VIII.  Nos  vero  et  valde  quidem,  Catulus  inquit, 
putamus,  atque  eo  magis,  quod  nuUa  mihi  ostenta- 
tione  videris  esse  usurus.  Exorsus  es  enim  non 
gloriose  ;  magis  a  veritate,  ut  tu  putas,  quam  a  nescio 

32  qua  dignitate.  Ut  igitur  de  ipso  genere  sum  con- 
fessus,  inquit  Antonius,  artem  esse  non  maximam,  sic 
illud  affirmo,  praecepta  posse  quaedam  dari  peracuta 
ad  pertractandos  animos  hominum  et  ad  excipiendas 
eorum  voluntates.  Huius  rei  scientiam  si  quis  volet 
magnam  quamdam  artem  esse  dicere,  non  repug- 
nabo.  Etenim  cum  plerique  temere  ac  nuUa  ratione 
causas  in  foro  dicant,  nonnuUi  autem  propter  exer- 
citationem,  aut  propter  consuetudinem  aliquam,  cal- 
lidius  id  faciant,  non  est  dubium  quin,  si  quis 
animadverterit,  quid  sit,  quare  alii  melius  quam  alii 

33  dicant,  id  possit  notare.  Ergo  id  qui  toto  in  genere 
fecerit,  is  si  non  plane  artem,  at  quasi  artem  quamdam 
invenerit. 

Atque  utinam,  ut  mihi  illa  videre  videor  in  foro 
atque  in  causis,  item  nunc,  quemadmodum  ea  reperi- 
rentur,  possem  vobis  exquirere  !  Sed  de  me  videro : 
mmc  hoc  propono,  quod  mihi  persuasi,  quamvis  ars 

S20 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  vii.  30— viii.  33 

delusions  of  mankind,  provided  of  course  that  you 
think  there  is  any  reason  for  listening  to  me." 

31  VIII.  "  Assuredly  we  think  so  most  decidedly,"  but  ruies 
said  Catulus,  "  and  all  the  more  in  that  you  do  not  gpelkfng '"' 
seem  to  me  to  intend  the  use  of  any  self-advertise-  may  be 
ment.     For  you  have  opened  in  no  vaunting  fashion,  experiencM 
starting,  as  you  think,  from  the  actual  facts  of  the 

case,  rather  than  from  any  supposed  grandeur  of 

32  your  theme."  "  Well  then,"  resumed  Antonius, 
"  while  I  have  admitted,  on  the  general  question, 
that  oratory  is  not  the  highest  form  of  art,  I  yet  make 
this  assertion — that  some  very  clever  rules  may  be 

( laid  down  for  playing  upon  men's  feelings  and  making 
iprize  of  their  goodwill.  If  anyone  is  for  claiming 
that  the  knowledge  of  such  devices  is  an  art  of  real 
significance,  I  am  not  going  to  quarrel  with  him. 
For,  inasmuch  as  very  many  advocates  argue  their 
cases  in  Court  carelessly  and  without  method,  while 
some  others,  thanks  to  training  or  to  a  certain  amount 
of  experience,  do  such  work  more  skilfulty,  it  is  indis- 
putable  that  any  man  who  appUes  his  mind  to  finding 
out  the  reason  why  some  speak  better  than  others, 

33  may  succeed  in  discerning  it.  Whence  it  foUows, 
that  he  who  extends  his  survey  over  the  whole 
province  of  rhetoric,  will  discover  that  which,  though 
not  absolutely  an  art,  yet  wears  the  hkeness  of 
an  art. 

"  And  I  would  that,  even  as  I  think  I  see,  with  the 
mind's  eye,  the  course  of  proceedings  in  the  Courts, 
and  at  the  hearing  of  aetions,  so  I  could  now  go 
on  to  bring  these  before  you  as  they  really  are  ! 
But  of  myself  hereafter  :  for  the  time  being  I  enun- 
ciate  this  proposition,  which  I  have  proved  to  my 
own  satisfaction, — that,  although  oratory  may  not  be 

221 


CICERO 

non  sit,  tamen  nihil  esse  perfecto  oratore  praeclarius. 
Nam,  ut  usum  dicendi  omittam,  qui  in  omni  pacata  et 
libera  civitate  dominatur,  tanta  oblectatio  est  in  ipsa 
facultate  dicendi,  ut  nihil  hominum  aut  auribus,  aut 

34  mentibus  iucundius  percipi  possit.  Qui  enim  cantus 
moderata  oratione  dulcior  inveniri  potest  ?  Quod 
carmen  artificiosa  verborum  conclusione  aptius  ?  Qui 
actor  imitanda,  quam  orator  suscipienda  veritate 
iucundior  ?  Quid  autem  subtiUus,  quam  acutae  cre- 
braeque  sententiae  ?  Quid  admirabilius,  quam  res 
splendore  illustrata  verborum  ?  quid  plenius,  quam 
omni  rerum  genere  cumulata  oratio  ?  Neque  uUa 
non  propria  oratoris  est  res,  quae  quidem  omate  dici 
graviterque  debet. 

36  IX.  Huius  est  in  dando  consilio  de  maximis  re- 
bus  cum  dignitate  explicata  sententia  ;  eiusdem  et 
languentis  populi  incitatio,  et  effrenati  moderatio. 
Eadem  facultate  et  fraus  hominum  ad  perniciem,  et 
integritas  ad  salutem  vocatur.  Quis  cohortari  ad 
virtutem  ardentius,  quis  a  vitiis  acrius  revocare  ?  Quis 
vituperare  improbos  asperius,  quis  laudare  bonos 
ornatius  ?  Quis  cupiditatem  vehementius  frangere 
accusando  potest  ?  Quis  maerorem  levare  mitius 
consolando  ? 

9ZZ 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  viii.  33— ix.  35 

one  of  the  arts,  still  there  is  nothing  more  splendid 
than  a  eomplete  orator.  For  to  pass  over  the 
actual  practice  of  eloquence — that  governing  force 
in  every  tranquil  and  free  community — ,  there  is 
such  a  charm  about  the  mere  power  to  dehver  a  set 
speech,  that  no  impression  more  dehghtful  than  this 
can  be  received  by  the  ear  or  the  intelUgence  of  man. 

34  Can  any  music  be  composed  that  is  sweeter  than  a 
well-balanced  speech  ?     Is  any  poem  better  rounded 

^  than  an  artistic  period  in  prose  ?  What  actor  gives 
^Mkeener  pleasure  by  his  imitation  of  real  Hfe  than 
)  your  orator  affords  in  his  conduct  of  some  real  case  ? 
Does  anything  display  more  exact  precision  than  a 
rapid  succession  of  pointed  reflections  ?  Is  there 
aught  more  wonderful  than  the  hghting-up  of  a  topic 
by  verbal  brilhance,  or  aught  richer  than  a  discourse 
fumished  forth  with  material  of  every  sort  ?  And 
there  is  not  a  subject  that  is  not  the  orator's  own, 
provided  only  that  it  is  one  which  deserves  elegant 
and  impressive  treatment. 

35  IX.  "  It  is  the  part  of  the  orator,  when  advising  on  importance 
afFairs  of  supreme  importance,  to  unfold  his  opinion  as  au°ubjects 
a  man  having  authority  :  his  duty  too  it  is  to  arouse  require 

a  hstless  nation,  and  to  curb  its  unbridled  impetuosity.  ^^^° 
By  one  and  the  same  power  of  eloquence  the  deceit- 
ful  among  mankind  are  brought  to  destruction,  and 
the  righteous  to  dehverance.     Who  more  passionately    /  '^ 
than  the  orator  can  encourage  to  virtuous  conduct,  or    (^4, 
more  zealously  than  he  reclaim  from  vici6us"courses  ?    %, 

^  Who  can  more  austerely  censurej^e^^icked,  orjnore   ^S^^c 
gracefuUy  praise  men  of  worth  ?     Whose  iiivective     'h^ 

'  can  more  forcibly  subdue  the  power  of  lawless  desire  ?  "^^^-^/ 
Whose   comfortable   words   can   soothe   grief  more 
tenderly  ? 

223 


CICERO 

36  Historia  vero  testis  temporum,  lux  veritatis,  vita 
memoriae,  magistra  vitae,  nuntia  vetustatis,  qua  voce 
alia,  nisi  oratoris,  immortalitati  commendatur  ?  Nam 
si  qua  est  ars  alia,  quae  verborum  aut  faciendorum 
aut  legendorum  scientiam  profiteatur  ;  aut  si  quis- 
quam  dicitur  nisi  orator  formare  orationem  eamque 
variare  et  distinguere  quasi  quibusdam  verborum 
sententiariunque  insignibus  ;  aut  si  via  uUa,  nisi  ab 
hac  una  arte,  traditur,  aut  argumentorum,  aut  sen- 
tentiarum,  aut  denique  discriptionis  atque  ordinis, 
fateamur  aut  hoc,  quod  haec  ars  profiteatur,  ahenum 

37  esse  aut  cum  aliqua  alia  arte  esse  commune.  Sed  si 
in  hac  una  est  ea  ratio  atque  doctrina,  non,  si  qui 
aliarum  artium  bene  locuti  sunt,  eo  minus  id  est 
huius  unius  proprium ;  sed,  ut  orator  de  eis  rebus, 
quae  ceterarum  artium  sunt,  si  modo  eas  cognovit 
(ut  heri  Crassus  dicebat),  optime  potest  dicere,  sic 
ceterarum  artium  homines  ornatius  illa  sua  dicunt,  si 

38  quid  ab  hac  arte  didicerunt.  Neque  enim  si  de  rusticis 
rebus  agricola  quispiam,  aut  etiam,  id  quod  multi, 
medicus  de  morbis,  aut  de  pingendo  pictor  ahquis 
diserte  dixerit  aut  scripserit,  idcirco  ilHus  artis  pu- 
tanda  est  eloquentia  :   in  qua  quia  vis  magna  est  in 

"  Intignia  are  the  '  purple  patches '  of  Horace,  A.P.  15-16. 
224 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  ix.  36-38 

36  "  And  as  History ,  which  bears  witness  to  the  passing 
of  the  ages,  sheds  hght  upon  reahty,  gives  hfe  to 
recoUection  and  guidance  to  human  existence,  and 
brings  tidings  of  ancient  days,  whose  voice,  but  the 
orator's,  can  entrust  her  to  immortahty  ?  For  if 
there  be  any  other  art,  which  pretends  to  skill  in  the 
coinage  and  choice  of  language,  or  if  it  be  claimed 
for  anyone  but  the  orator  that  he  gives  shape  and 
variety  to  a  speech,  and  marks  it  out  with*  high 
hghts  of  thought  and  phrase,  or  if  any  method  be 
taught,  except  by  this  single  art,  for  producing  proofs 
or  reflections,  or  even  in  the  distribution  and  arrange- 
ment  of  subject-matter,  then  let  us  admit  that  the 
skill  professed  by  this  art  of  ours  either  belongs  really 
to  some  other  art,  or  is  shared  in  common  with  some 

37  other.  Whereas,  if  all  reasoning  and  all  teaching 
really  belong  to  this  one  art  alone,  then,  even  though 
professors  of  other  arts  have  expressed  themselves 
with  success,  it  does  not  therefore  follow  that  such 
instruction  is  not  the  monopoly  of  this  single  art; 
but  (as  Crassus  was  saying  yesterday)  just  as  the 
orator  is  best  quahfied  to  discuss  the  subjects  per- 
taining  to  the  other  arts,  assuming  always  that  he 
has  acquainted  himself  with  them,  so  the  masters 
of  the  other  arts  expound  their  own  topics  with 
the  better  grace,  if  they  have  learned  something 

38  from  the  art  with  which  we  are  deahng.  For  even 
though  some  farmer  may  have  written  or  spoken 
with  address  upon  country  matters  or  perhaps  a 
medical  man  upon  pathology,  as  many  have  done, 
or  a  painter  upon  painting,  it  does  not  therefore 
follow  that  eloquence  belongs  to  the  particular 
art,  the  truth  being  that  in  the  art  of  speaking,  by 
reason  of  the  vast  energy  inherent  in  human  intelli- 

225 


CICERO 

hominum  ingeniis,  eo  multi  etiam  sine  doctrina  ali- 
quid  omnium  generum  atque  artium  consequuntur. 
Sed,  quid  cuiusque  sit  proprium,  etsi  ex  eo  iudicari 
potest,  cum  videris,  quid  quaeque  doceat,  tamen  hoc 
certius  nihil  esse  potest,  quam  quod  omnes  artes  aliae 
sine  eloquentia  suum  munus  praestare  possunt,  orator 
sine  ea  nomen  obtinere  suiun  non  potest :  ut  ceteri, 
si  diserti  sint,  aliquid  ab  hoc  habeant,  hic  nisi  domes- 
ticis  se  instruxerit  copiis,  aliunde  dicendi  copiam 
petere  non  possit. 

39  X.  Tum  Catulus  :  Etsi,  inquit,  Antoni,  minime 
impediendus  est  interpellatione  iste  cursus  orationis 
tuae,  patiere  tamen,  mihique  ignosces.  *  Non  enim 
possum  quin  exclamem,'  ut  ait  ille  in  Trinummo  :  ita 
mihi  vim  oratoris  cum  exprimere  subtiHter  visus  es, 
tum  laudare  copiosissime.  Quod  quidem  eloquentem 
vel  optime  facere  oportet,  ut  eloquentiam  laudet ; 
debet  enim  ad  eam  laudandam  ipsam  illam  adhibere, 
quam  laudat.  Sed  perge  porro  :  tibi  enim  assentior, 
vestrum  esse  hoc  totum,  diserte  dicere,  idque  si  quis 
in  alia  arte  faciat,  eum  assumpto  ahunde  uti  bono, 

40  non  proprio,  nec  suo.  Et  Crassus  :  Nox  te,  inquit, 
nobis,  Antoni,  expohvit,  hominemque  reddidit :  nam 
hesterno  sermone,  unius  cuiusdam  operis,  ut  ait  Cae- 
cihus,  remigem  aliquem,  aut  baiulum,  nobis  oratorem 

•  Plautus,  Trinummus  iii.  2.  79. 
226 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  ix.  38— x.  40 

gence,  many  a  man,  whatever  his  class  or  his  calling, 
\  1  attains  some  degree  of  proliciehcy  even  witKout  any 
I  I  regular  training.  But,  although  the  peciiliar  property 
oF^Ch  art  may  be  determined  by  noting  what  it  is 
which  each  teaches,  there  can  be  nothing  more 
certain  than  this,  that  while  all  other  arts  are  able 
to  discharge  their  functions  unaided  by  eloquence, 
the  orator  cannot  even  earn  his  distinctive  title 
without  being  eloquent ;  so  that  the  rest  of  the 
world,  if  they  be  fluent  speakers,  gain  something 
from  him,  while  he,  unless  he  has  equipped  himself 
from  his  own  private  store,  cannot  seek  his  supplies 
as  a  speaker  from  any  other  source." 

39  X.  At  this  point  Catulus  interposed,  saying, 
"  Antonius,  although  that  flowing  discourse  of  yours 
should  never  be  checked  by  interruption,  still  you  will 
bear  with  me  and  forgive  me.  For,  as  the  man  says 
in  Tke  Threepenny  Piece,  'I  cannot  help  applauding'**: 
so  exquisitely,  as  I  think,  have  you  described  the 
power  of  the  orator,  and  with  such  wealth  of  diction 
have  you  extolled  it.  And  yet,  to  be  sure,  a  man  of 
eloquence  must  needs  sing  the  praises  of  eloquence 
better  than  all  others,  since  he  is  bound  to  bring,  to 
the  performance  of  his  task,  that  very  gift  which  he 
is  praising.  But  pray  proceed,  for  I  agree  with 
you  that  you  have  this  skill  in  speaking  wholly  for 
your  own,  and  that  any  man  discoursing  with  ability 
upon  any  other  art  does  but  use  an  accomplishment 
borrowed  from  elsewhere,  and  one  that  is  not  pecu- 

40  har  to  himself,  or  even  his  own. "  And  Crassus  added, 
"  A  night's  rest  has  smoothed  and  humanized  you, 
Antonius,  from  our  point  of  view,  for  in  the  course  of 

.  yesterday's  discussion  you  sketched  the  orator  as  a 
one-talent  man,  '  Just  a  galley-slave  or  porter,'  to 

227 


CICERO 

descripseras,  inopem   quemdam   humanitatis   atque 
inurbanum. 

Tum  Antonius  :  Heri  enim,  inquit,  hoc  mihi  pro- 
posueram,  ut,  si  te  refellissem,  hos  a  te  discipulos 
abducerem  :  nunc,  Catulo  audiente  et  Caesare,  videor 
debere  non  tam  pugnare  tecum,  quam,  quid  ipse 

41  sentiam,  dicere.  Sequitur  igitur,  quoniam  nobis  est 
hic,  de  quo  loquimur,  in  foro  atque  in  oculis  civium 
constituendus,  ut  videamus,  quid  ei  negotii  demus, 
cuique  eum  muneri  velimus  esse  praepositum.  Nam 
Crassus  heri,  cum  vos,  Catule  et  Caesar,  non  ades- 
setis,  posuit  breviter  in  artis  distributione  idem,  quod 
Graeci  plerique  posuerunt,  neque  sane  quid  ipse 
sentiret,  sed  quid  ab  illis  diceretur,  ostendit :  duo 
prima  genera  quaestionum  esse,  in  quibus  eloquentia 

42  versaretur,  unum  infinitum,  alterum  certum.  In- 
finitum  mihi  videbatur  id  dicere,  in  quo  aliquid 
generatim  quaereretur,  hoc  modo  :  '  Expetendane 
esset  eloquentia,  expetendine  honores  ?  '  Certum 
autem,  in  quo  quid  in  personis,  et  in  constituta  re  et 
definita  quaereretur  :  cuius  modi  sunt,  quae  in  foro 
atque  in  civium  causis  disceptationibusque  versantur. 

43  Ea  mihi  videntur  aut  in  Ute  oranda,  aut  in  consilio 
dando  esse  posita,  nam  illud  tertium,  quod  et  a  Crasso 
tactum  est,  et,  ut  audio,  ille  ipse  Aristoteles,  qui  haec 


Remains  of  Old  Latin  (L.C.L.),  i.  pp.  558-559. 
*  Rhet.  I.  iii.  1. 


S28 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  x.  40-43 

quote  Caecilius " ;    in  faet  as  a  fellow  destitute  of 
breeding  and  a  mere  boor." 

"  I  did,"  returned  Antonius,  "  for  yesterday  it  was 
my  design,  if  I  should  have  succeeded  in  refuting 
your  arguments,  to  steal  these  pupils  from  you  ;  but 
to-day,  with  Catulus  and  Caesar  among  my  hearers, 
I  think  it  my  duty  not  so  much  to  fight  with  you  as 

41  to  enunciate  mv  own  personal  views.     And  so,  now  Tte  proper 

1  1  1  •  ,  1  j .  sphere  oi 

that  we  are  to  have  this  orator,  whom  we  are  discuss-  rhetoric 
ing,brought  into  Courtand  exposed  to  publicscrutiny, 
our  next  task  is  to  consider  what  business  we  shall 
assign  to  him,  and  what  function  we  would  suggest 
that  he  has  been  appointed  to  discharge.  For 
yesterday,  Catulus  and  Caesar,  when  you  were  not 
here,  Crassus  made  in  concise  terms,  with  regard  to 
the  classification  of  this  art,  the  identical  statement 
that  most  of  the  Greeks  have  made,  and  of  course 
expressed  no  opinion  of  his  own,  but  just  their  affirma- 
tions  :  his  proposition  being  that  there  are  two  main 
divisions  of  the  questions  wherewith  eloquence  is  con- 

42  cerned,  the  one  abstract,  the  other  concrete.  By 
abstract  problems  I  thought  he  meant  those  wherein 
questions  are  propounded  in  general  terms,  as  for 
instance,  *  Is  eloquence  to  be  desired  ?  '  '  Should 
public  office  be  sought  ?  *  The  concrete  class,  by 
contrast,  was  composed  of  such  as  raise  investigations 
deahng  with  individual  persons  and  settled  and 
defined  points,  to  which  kind  belong  the  issues  dis- 
cussed  in  Court,  and  in  the  judicial  proceedings  and 

43  the  disputes  between  private  citizens.  The  sphere 
of  such  oratory  is  Hmited,  in  my  view,  to  the  conduct 
of  litigation  and  to  advising,  for  that  third  category, 
just  barely  noticed  by  Crassus,  and  included,  as  I  am 
told,  by  Aristotle  ^  himself,  who  has  elucidated  these 

229 


CICERO 

maxime  illustravit,  adiunxit,  etiamsi  opus  est,  tamen 
minus  est  necessarium.  Quidnam  ?  inquit  Catulus  ; 
an  laudationes  ?  id  enim  video  poni  genus  tertium. 

44  XI.  Ita,  inquit  Antonius,  et  in  eo  quidem  genere 
scio  et  me,  et  omnes  qui  adfuerunt,  delectatos  esse 
vehementer,  cum  abs  te  est  Popilia,  mater  vestra, 
laudata,  cui  primum  mulieri  hunc  honorem  in  nostra 
civitate  tributum  puto.  Sed  non  omnia,  quaecumque 
loquimur,  mihi  videntur  ad  artem  et  ad  praecepta 

46  esse  revocanda.  Ex  eis  enim  fontibus,  unde  omnia 
praecepta  dicendi  sumuntur,  licebit  etiam  lauda- 
tionem  ornare,  neque  illa  elementa  desiderare,  quae 
ut  nemo  tradat,  quis  est,  qui  nesciat,  quae  sint  in 
homine  laudanda  ?  Positis  enim  eis  rebus,  quas 
Crassus  in  illius  orationis  suae,  quam  contra  collegam 
censor  habuit,  principio  dixit,  '  Quae  natura  aut 
fortuna  darentur  hominibus,  in  eis  rebus  se  vinci  posse 
animo  aequo  pati ;  quae  ipsi  sibi  homines  parare 
possent,  in  eis  rebus  se  pati  non  posse  vinci '  :  qui 
laudabit  quempiam,  intelleget,  exponenda  sibi  esse 

46  fortunae  bona.  Ea  sunt,  generis,  pecuniae,  propin- 
quorum,  amicorum,  opum,  valetudinis,formae,  virium, 
ingenii,  ceterarumque  rerum,  quae  sunt  aut  corporis, 
aut  extraneae  :  si  habuerit,  bene  rebus  eis  usum  ;  si 

•  Laudatio  here  has  its  wider  sense  of  any  encomiastic 
speech  delivered  in  public,  not  necessarily  a  funeral  oration. 

sao 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  x.  43— xi.  46 

matters  as  clearly  as  possible,  is  serviceable  enough, 
but  not  essential  in  the  same  degree. ' '  '  *  What  kind  is 
that  ?  "  said  Catulus.  "  Do  you  refer  to  panegyrics  ?  "■ 
for  I  notice  that  these  are  set  down  as  a  third  variety." 

44  XI.  "  Precisely  so,"  replied  Antonius,  "  and,  with  Panegyrio 
regard  to  this  type  of  oratory,  I  know  that  I  myself,  n^^^no 
and  all  who  were  present,  were  highly  delighted  speciai, 
when   your   mother   Popiha   was   eulogized  in   this         ' 
fashion  by  yourself;    she  being,  I  think,  the  first 
woman  to  whom  such  honour  was  ever  rendered  in 

our  own  community .  But  to  my  mind  not  everything 
that  we  say  need  be  reduced  to  theory  and  rule. 

45  For  from  those  same  sources,  whence  the  rules  of 
speaking  are  all  derived,  we  shall  also  be  able  to  set 
off  a  funeral  oration  without  feeUng  the  want  of  those 
scholastic  rudiments,  since,  even  though  no  one  were 
to  teach  these,  is  there  a  man  who  would  not  know 
the  good  points  of  a  human  being  ?  In  fact,  if  he 
has  laid  down  those  axioms  enunciated  by  Crassus  in 
the  opening  of  that  famous  speech  of  his,  which  he 
delivered  when  censor  in  opposition  to  his  colleague 
in  office,  when  he  declared,  that  while  he  could  cheer- 
fully  endure  inferiority  in  respect  of  the  gifts  be- 
stowed  on  mankind  by  nature  or  by  chance,  he  could 
not  consent  to  be  surpassed  in  such  credit  as  men 
may  win  for  themselves,  he  who  proposes  to  be  the 
panegyrist  of  anyone  will  understand  that  he  has  in 
the  first  place  to  deal  fully  with  the  favours  of  fortune. 

46  These  are  the  advantages  of  race,  wealth,  connexions, 
friendships,  power,  good  health,  beauty,  vigour, 
talent,  and  the  rest  of  the  attributes  that  are  either 
physical  or  externally  imposed  :  it  must  be  explained 
that  the  person  commended  made  a  right  use  of  these 
benefits  if  he  possessed  them,   managed  sensibly 

231 


CICERO 

non  habuerit,  sapienter  caruisse  ;  si  amiserit,  mode- 
rate  tulisse ;  deinde,  quid  sapienter  is,  quem  laudet, 
quid  liberaliter,  quid  fortiter,  quid  iuste,  quid  magni- 
fice,  quid  pie,  quid  grate,  quid  humaniter,  quid 
denique  cum  ahqua  virtute  aut  fecerit,  aut  tulerit. 
Haec,  et  quae  sunt  eius  generis,  facile  videbit,  qui 
volet  laudare  ;  et  qui  vituperare,  contraria. 

47  Cur  igitur  dubitas,  inquit  Catulus,  facere  hoc 
tertium  genus,  quoniam  est  in  ratione  rerum  ?  Non 
enim,  si  est  facilius,  eo  de  numero  quoque  est  excer- 
pendum.  Quia  nolo,  inquit,  omnia,  quae  cadunt 
aliquando  in  oratorem,  quamvis  exigua  sint,  ea  sic 
tractare,  quasi  nihil  possit  dici  sine  praeceptis  suis. 

48  Nam  et  testimonium  saepe  dicendum  est,  ac  non- 
nunquam  etiam  accuratius,  ut  mihi  etiam  necesse  fuit 
in  Sex.  Titium,  seditiosum  civem  et  turbulentum. 
Explicavi  in  eo  testimonio  dicendo,  omnia  consiUa 
consulatus  mei,  quibus  ilU  tribuno  plebis  pro  repu- 
bhca  restitissem,  quaeque  ab  eo  contra  rempubhcam 
facta  arbitrarer,  exposui.  Diu  retentus  sum,  multa 
audivi,  multa  respondi.  Num  igitur  placet,  cum  de 
eloquentia  praecipias,  aUquid  etiam  de  testimoniis 

232 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xi.  46-48 

without  them,  if  they  were  denied  to  him,  and  bore 
the  loss  with  resignation,  if  they  were  taken  away 
from  him ;  and  after  that  the  speaker  will  marshal 
instances  of  conduct,  either  active  or  passive,  on  the 
part  of  the  subject  of  his  praises  ;  whereby  he  mani- 
fested  wisdom,  generosity,  valour,  righteousness, 
greatness  of  soul,  sense  of  duty,  gratitude,  kindUness 
or,  in  short,  any  moral  excellence  you  please.  These 
and  similar  indications  of  character  the  would-be 
panegyrist  will  readily  discern,  and  he  who  seeks  to 
disparage  will  as  readily  find  evidence  in  rebuttal." 

47  "  Why  then  hesitate,"  interposed  Catulus,  "  to 
regard  this  as  a  third  kind,  since  its  existence  is 
inherent  in  the  nature  of  the  case  ?  For  the  fact  of 
its  being  easier  of  accomplishment  is  no  reason  for 
ehminating  it  from  the  classification."  "  My  reason," 
replied  the  other,  "  is  that  I  do  not  wish  to  handle  all 
matters,  however  petty,  that  at  one  time  or  another 
fall  under  oratorical  treatment,  upon  the  footing  that 
nothing  can  be  mentioned  without  reference  to  its 

48  own  special  rules.  For  instance,  evidence  has  often 
to  be  given,  and,  upon  occasions,  with  precision  even 
closer  than  usual,  as  I  myself  was  compelled  to  give 
it  against  Sextus  Titius,  a  factious  and  troublesome 
member  of  the  community.  In  the  course  of  such 
evidence  I  revealed  all  the  measures  whereby,  in 
defence  of  the  State,  I  as  consul  had  withstood  him  in 
his  character  of  tribune  of  the  commons,  and  I  laid 
bare  every  proceeding  of  his  that  I  considered  inimical 
to  the  public  benefit.  I  was  long  obstructed,  had  to 
listen  to  a  great  deal,  and  rephed  to  many  objections. 
But  do  you  on  that  account  think  it  fitting,  when 
laying  down  rules  of  rhetoric,  to  add  any  teaching  on 
how  to  give  evidence,  as  though  this  came  within  the 

I  233 


CICERO 

dicendis,  quasi  in  arte  tradere  ?  Nihil  sane,  inquit 
Catulus,  necesse  est. 

49  XII.  Quid  ?  si  quod  saepe  summis  viris  accidit 
mandata  sint  exponenda,  aut  in  senatu  ab  impera- 
tore,  aut  ad  imperatorem,  aut  ad  regem,  aut  ad 
populum  aliquem  a  senatu,  num  quia  genere  ora- 
tionis  in  eiusmodi  causis  accuratiore  est  utendum, 
idcirco  pars  etiam  haec  causarum  numeranda  videtur, 
aut  propriis  praeceptis  instruenda  ?  Minime  vero, 
inquit  Catulus  :  non  enim  deerit  homini  diserto  in 
eiusmodi  rebus  facultas,  ex  ceteris  rebus  et  causis 
comparata. 

60  Ergo  item,  inquit,  illa,  quae  saepe  diserte  agenda 
sunt,  et  quae  ego  paulo  ante  cum  eloquentiam 
laudarem  dixi  oratoris  esse,  neque  habent  suum 
locum  ullum  in  divisione  partium,  neque  certum 
praeceptorum  genus,  et  agenda  sunt  non  minus 
diserte,  quam  quae  in  lite  dicuntur,  obiurgatio,  co- 
hortatio,  consolatio  :  quorum  nihil  est,  quod  non 
summa  dicendi  ornamenta  desideret ;  sed  ex  artificio 
res  istae  praecepta  non  quaerunt.  Plane,  inquit 
Catulus,  assentior. 

51  Age  vero,  inquit  Antonius,  qualis  oratoris,  et 
quanti  hominis  in  dicendo,  putas  esse,  historiam 
scribere  ?  Si,  ut  Graeci  scripserunt,  summi,  inquit 
Catulus  ;  si,  ut  nostri,  nihil  opus  est  oratore  :  satis 
S34 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xi.  48— xii.  51 

sphere  of  the  art  ?  "     Catulus  answered,  "  There  is 
no  need  whatever  to  do  so." 

XII.  "  And  what  if  (as  often  happens  to  the  most  nordo 
exalted  personages)  messages  have  to  be  communi-  dispatehes, 
cated  from  a  general  at  a  meeting  of  the  Senate,  or 
conveyed  from  the  Senate  to  a  general  or  to  any 
prince  or  nation  ?  Because,  on  occasions  of  this  sort, 
a  style  of  diction  more  elaborate  than  the  ordinary 
has  to  be  employed,  does  it  therefore  seem  to  follow 
that  this  type  of  speaking  should  be  accounted  a 
distinct  department  of  oratorical  activity,  or  should 
be  fitted  out  with  its  own  peculiar  rules  ?  "  "  Why 
of  course  not,"  returned  Catulus,  "  since  the  ability 
acquired  by  a  ready  speaker,  from  the  treatment 
of  his  other  subjects  and  topics,  will  not  fail  him 
in  situations  of  that  description." 

"And  so,"  continued  Antonius,  "  those  matters 
which  often  demand  fluent  expression,  and  which  just 
now,  in  my  praise  of  eloquence,  I  asserted  to  be 
within  the  part  of  the  orator,  have  no  special  place  in 
the  formal  classification  of  the  branches  of  rhetoric, 
nor  any  particular  code  of  rules,  and  yet  they  must 
be  handled  quite  as  skilfully  as  arguments  at  the 
Bar :  I  am  speaking  of  rebuke,  encouragement,  and 
the  giving  of  comfort,  each  of  which  topics  calls  for 
the  finest  graces  of  diction,  while  such  subjects  ask 
no  directions  from  theory."  "  I  am  in  complete 
agreement  with  you,"  said  Catulus. 

"  Now  further,"  proceeded  Antonius,  "  what  class  norhistory. 
of  orator,  and  how  great  a  master  of  language  is 
qualified,  in  your  opinion,  to  write  history  ?  "  "  If 
he  is  to  write  as  the  Greeks  have  written,"  answered 
Catulus,  "  a  man  of  supreme  ability  is  required  :  if 
the  standard  is  to  be  that  of  our  own  fellow-country- 

235 


CICERO 

est,  non    esse   mendacem.    Atqui,  ne   nostros    con- 
temnas,   inquit  Antonius,   Graeci  quoque   sic  initio 

52  scriptitarunt,  ut  noster  Cato,  ut  Pictor,  ut  Piso.  Erat 
enim  historia  nihil  ahud  nisi  annahum  confectio,  cuius 
rei,  memoriaeque  pubhcae  retinendae  causa,  ab 
initio  rerum  Romanarum  usque  ad  P.  Mucium  ponti- 
ficem  maximum,  res  omnes  singulorum  annorum 
mandabat  htteris  pontifex  maximus,  referebatque  in 
album,  et  proponebat  tabulam  domi,  potestas  ut 
esset  populo  cognoscendi,  hique  etiam  nunc  Annales 

63  Maximi  nominantur.  Hanc  simihtudinem  scribendi 
multi  secuti  sunt,  qui  sine  uUis  ornamentis  monu- 
menta  solum  temporum,  hominum,  locorum  ges- 
tarumque  rerum  rehquerunt.  Itaque  quahs  apud 
Graecos  Pherecydes,  Hellanicus,  Acusilas  fuit,  ahique 
permulti,  tahs  noster  Cato,  et  Pictor,  et  Piso,  qui 
neque  tenent,  quibus  rebus  ornetur  oratio — modo 
enim  huc  ista  sunt  importata, — et,  dum  intehegatur, 
quid    dicant,    unam    dicendi    laudem    putant    esse 

54  brevitatem.  Paulum  se  erexit,  et  addidit  historiae 
maiorem  sonum  vocis  vir  optimus,  Crassi  famiharis, 
Antipater :  ceteri  non  exornatores  rerum,  sed 
tantummodo  narratores  fuerunt. 

XIII.  Est,  inquit  Catulus,  ut  dicis.  Sed  iste  ipse 
Coehus  neque  distinxit  historiam  varietate  locorum, 
neque  verborum  coUocatione  et  tractu  orationis  leni 

236 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xii.  51— xiii.  54 

men,  no  orator  at  all  is  needed  ;  it  is  enough  that 
the  man  should  not  be  a  Uar."  "  But  nevertheless," 
rejoined  Antonius,  "  (and  I  say  this,  that  you  may 
not  think  lightly  of  our  own  folk)  the  Greeks  them- 
selves  also  used  to  write,  in  the  beginning,  just  hke 
62  our  Cato,  Pictor  and  Piso.  For  history  began  as  a 
mere  compilation  of  annals,  on  whieh  account,  and 
in  order  to  preserve  the  general  traditions,  from  the 
earhest  period  of  the  City  down  to  the  pontificate  of 
Publius  Mucius,  each  High  Priest  used  to  commit  to 
writing  all  the  events  of  his  year  of  office,  and  record 
them  on  a  white  surface,  and  post  up  the  tablet  at  his 
house,  that  all  men  might  have  hberty  to  acquaint 
themselves  therewith,  and  to  this  day  those  records 

53  are  known  as  the  Pontifical  Chronicles.  A  similar 
style  of  writing  has  been  adopted  by  many  who,  with- 
out  any  rhetorical  ornament,  have  left  behind  them 
bare  records  of  dates,  personaUties,  places  and  events. 
In  this  sense  Pherecydes,  Hellanicus,  Acusilas,  and 
very  many  others  among  the  Greeks,  correspond  to 
our  own  Cato,  Pictor  and  Piso,  who  do  not  understand 
the  adornment  of  composition — since  it  is  only  of 
late  that  decoration  of  that  sort  has  been  brought 
into  this  country — and,  so  long  as  their  narrative  is 
understood,   regard   conciseness    as   the   historian's 

54  single  merit.  Antipater,  an  admirable  man  and  a 
close  friend  of  Crassus,  raised  his  crest  a  Uttle  higher, 
and  imparted  to  history  a  richer  tone  :  the  rest  did 
not  embelUsh  their  facts,  but  were  chroniclers  and 
nothing  more." 

XIII.  "  It  is  as  you  say,"  rejoined  Catulus.  "  But 
even  your  friend  CoeUus  did  not  set  off  his  narrative 
with  any  diversity  of  reflections,  or  give  finish  to  his 
famous  work  by  his  marshalUng  of  words   and  a 

237 


CICERO 

et  aequabili  perpolivit  illud  opus  ;  sed  ut  homo  neque 
doctus,  neque  maxime  aptus  ad  dicendum,  sicut 
potuit,  dolavit :  vicit  tamen,  ut  dicis,  superiores. 

65  Minime  mirum,  inquit  Antonius,  si  ista  res  ad- 
huc  nostra  lingua  illustrata  non  est.  Nemo  enim 
studet  eloquentiae  nostrorum  hominum,  nisi  ut  in 
causis  atque  in  foro  eluceat ;  apud  Graecos  autem 
eloquentissimi  homines,  remoti  a  causis  forensibus, 
cum  ad  ceteras  res  illustres,  tum  ad  scribendam 
historiam  maxime  se  applicaverunt.  Namque  et 
Herodotum  illum,  qui  princeps  genus  hoc  ornavit,  in 
causis  nihil  omnino  versatum  esse  accepimus  :  atqui 
tanta  est  eloquentia,  ut  me  quidem,  quantum  ego 
Graece  scripta  intellegere  possum,  magnopere  de- 

66  lectet.  Et  post  illum  Thucydides  omnes  dicendi 
artificio,  mea  sententia,  facile  vicit  :  qui  ita  creber 
est  rerum  frequentia,  ut  verborum  prope  numerum 
sententiarum  numero  consequatur,  ita  porro  verbis 
est  aptus  et  pressus,  ut  nescias,  utrum  res  oratione, 
an  verba  sententiis  illustrentur.  Atqui  ne  hunc  qui- 
dem,  quanquam  est  in  republica  versatus,  ex  numero 
accepimus  eorum,  qui  causas  dictitarunt :  et  hos 
ipsos  Ubros  tum  scripsisse  dicitur,  cum  a  repubhca 
remotus,  atque,  id  quod  optimo  cuique  Athenis  ac- 

57  cidere  solitum  est,  in  exsiUum  pulsus  esset.  Hunc 
consecutus  est  Syracusius  Phihstus,  qui,  cum 
Dionysii  tyranni  famiUarissimus  esset,  otium  suum 
consumpsit  in  historia  scribenda,  maximeque  Thucy- 

238 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xiii.  54-57 

smooth  and  unvarying  flow  of  style,  but  he  rough- 
hewed  it  as  best  he  could,  Uke  a  man  who  was  no 
scholar  and  had  no  special  turn  for  rhetoric  :  never- 
theless,  as  you  observe,  he  excelled  his  forerunners." 
56  "  No  wonder,"  returned  Antonius,  "  if  this  subject  Thegreat 
has  never  yet  been  brilhantly  treated  in  our  language.  hiXrians 
For  not  one  of  our  own  folk  seeks  after  eloquence,  reviewed. 
save  with  an  eye  to  its  display  at  the  Bar  and  in 
pubhc  speaking,  whereas  in  Greece  the  most  eloquent 
were  strangers  to  forensic  advocacy,  and  applied 
theraselves  chiefly  to  reputable  studies  in  general, 
and  particularly  to  writing  history.  Indeed  even  of 
renowned  Herodotus,  who  first  imparted  distinction 
to  such  work,  we  have  heard  that  he  was  in  no  way 
concerned  with  lawsuits,  and  yet  his  eloquence  is 
of  such  quality  as  to  afFord  intense  pleasure,  to 
myself  at  any  rate,  so  far  as  I  can  comprehend  what 

56  is  written  in  Greek.  After  his  day  Thucydides,  in 
my  judgement,  easily  surpassed  all  others  in  dexterity 
of  composition  :  so  abounding  is  he  in  fullness  of 
material  that  in  the  number  of  his  ideas  he  well- 
nigh  equals  the  number  of  his  words,  and  further- 
more  he  is  so  exact  and  clear  in  expression  that  you 
cannot  tell  whether  it  be  the  narrative  that  gains 
illumination  from  the  style,  or  the  diction  from  the 
thought.  Yet  even  of  him,  though  a  man  of  pubHc 
afFairs,  we  are  not  told  that  he  was  numbered  among 
forensic  speakers  ;  and  it  is  related  that  when  writing 
the  volumes  in  question,  he  was  far  away  from  civic 
life,  having  in  fact  been  driven  into  exile,  as  generally 

57  happened  at  Athens  to  anyone  of  excellence.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Philistus  of  Syracuse,  who,  living 
in  the  closest  intimacy  with  the  tyrant  Dionysius, 
spent   his   leisure   in   writing   history   and,   to   my 

239 


CICERO 

didem  est,  sicut  mihi  videtur,  imitatus.  Postea  vero, 
rhetorum  ex  clarissima  quasi  officina,  duo  praestantes 
ingenio,  Theopompus  et  Ephorus,  ab  Isocrate  magis- 
tro  impulsi,  se  ad  historiam  contulerunt ;  causas 
omnino  nunquam  attigerunt. 

58  XIV.  Denique  etiam  a  philosophia  profectus  prin- 
ceps  Xenophon,  Socraticus  ille,  post  ab  Aristotele 
Calhsthenes,  comes  Alexandri,  scripsit  historiam,  et 
is  quidem  rhetorico  paene  more  ;  ille  autem  superior 
leniore  quodam  sono  est  usus,  et  qui  illum  impetum 
oratoris  non  habeat,  vehemens  fortasse  minus,  sed 
aliquanto  tamen  est,  ut  mihi  quidem  videtur,  dulcior. 
Minimus  natu  horum  omnium  Timaeus,  quantum 
autem  iudicare  possum,  longe  eruditissimus,  et  rerum 
copia  et  sententiarum  varietate  abundantissimus,  et 
ipsa  compositione  verborum  non  impohtus,  magnam 
eloquentiam  ad  scribendum  attulit,  sed  nullum  usum 
forensem. 

69  Haec  cum  ille  dixisset  :  Quid  est,  inquit,  Catule  ? 
Caesar ;  ubi  sunt,  qui  Antonium  Graece  negant 
scire  ?  Quot  historicos  nominavit !  Quam  scienter  ! 
quam  proprie  de  unoquoque  dixit !  Id  mehercule, 
inquit  Catulus,  admirans,  illud  iam  mirari  desino, 
quod  multo  magis  ante  mirabar,  hunc,  cum  haec 
nesciret,  in  dicendo  posse  tantum.  Atqui,  Catule, 
inquit  Antonius,  non  ego  utilitatem  ahquam  ad  di- 

•  ue.  Greece. 
fl40 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xiu.  57— xiv.  59 

thinking,  was  above  all  else  an  imitator  of  Thucy- 
dides.  Afterwards,  however,  from  what  I  may  call 
that  most  famous  factory  of  rhetoricians,**  there  issued 
a  pair  of  outstanding  talent  in  Theopompus  and 
Ephorus,  who  betook  themselves  to  history  at  the 
instance  of  their  teacher  Isocrates  :  lawsuits  they 
never  handled  at  all. 

68  XIV.  "  And  at  length  historians  appeared  who  had 
begun  as  philosophers,  first  Xenophon,  that  notable 
follower  of  Socrates,  afterwards  Callisthenes,  Aris- 
totle's  disciple  and  Alexander's  famihar  friend;  the 
latter  approaching  the  rhetorical  in  method,  while 
his  predecessor  adopted  a  gentler  kind  of  tone, 
lacking  the  characteristic  vigour  of  oratory  and 
possibly  less  animated  but,  in  my  view  at  any  rate, 
somewhat  more  pleasing.  Timaeus,  the  latest-born 
of  all  these,  but  as  well  as  I  can  judge,  by  far  the 
best  informed,  the  most  amply  endowed  in  wealth 
of  material  and  range  of  thought,  and  a  man  whose 
very  style  had  some  polish,  brought  to  authorship 
abounding  eloquence  but  no  experience  of  public 
speaking." 

59  When  Antonius  had  finished  Caesar  exclaimed, 
"  What  now,  Catulus  ?  Where  are  those  who  say 
Antonius  does  not  know  the  Greek  tongue  ?  What  a 
number  of  historians  he  has  mentioned  !  With  what 
insight  and  discrimination  he  has  described  every 
one  !  "  "  Upon  my  word,"  returned  Catulus,  "  in 
my  astonishment  at  this  I  marvel  no  longer  at 
something  which  hitherto  surprised  me  far  more, 
I  mean  that  our  friend  here,  being  all  unversed  in 
these  matters,  could  speak  so  effectively."  "  And 
yet,  Catulus,"  rejoined  Antonius,"  it  is  not  because 
I  am  on  the  look-out  for  aids  to  oratory,  but  just  for 

24.1 


CICERO 

cendum  aucupans,  horum  libros  et  nonnullos  alios, 
sed  delectationis  causa,  cum  est  otium,  legere  soleo. 

60  Quid  ergo  ?  Est,  fatebor,  aliquid  tamen  :  ut,  cum  in 
sole  ambulem,  etiamsi  aliam  ob  causam  ambulem, 
fieri  natura  tamen,  ut  colorer  :  sic,  cum  istos  libros 
ad  Misenum  (nam  Romae  vix  licet)  studiosius  le- 
gerim,  sentio  illorum  tactu  orationem  meam  quasi 
colorari.  Sed  ne  latius  hoc  vobis  patere  videatur, 
haec  duntaxat  in  Graecis  intellego,  quae  ipsi,  qui 

61  scripserunt,  voluerunt  vulgo  intellegi.  In  philosophos 
vestros  si  quando  incidi,  deceptus  indicibus  hbrorum, 
quod  sunt  fere  inscripti  de  rebus  notis  et  illustribus, 
de  virtute,  de  iustitia,  de  honestate,  de  voluptate, 
verbum  prorsus  nullum  intellego  :  ita  sunt  angustis  et 
concisis  disputationibus  illigati.  Poetas  omnino,  quasi 
alia  quadam  Hngua  locutos,  non  conor  attingere  :  cum 
his  me  (ut  dixi)  oblecto,  qui  res  gestas,  aut  qui  ora- 
tiones  scripserunt  suas,  aut  qui  ita  loquuntur,  ut 
videantur  voluisse  nobis,  qui  non  sumus  eruditissimi, 
esse  famiUares.     Sed  illuc  redeo. 

82  XV.  Videtisne,  quantum  munus  sit  oratoris  his- 
toria .''  Haud  scio,  an  flumine  orationis  et  varietate 
maximum.  Neque  tamen  eam  reperio  usquam  se- 
paratim  instructam  rhetorum  praeceptis  :  sita  sunt 
enim  ante  oculos.  Nam  quis  nescit,  primam  esse 
242 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xiv.  59— xv.  62 

pleasure,  that  I  make  a  habit,  when  I  have  time,  of 
reading  the  works  of  these  authors  and  a  few  more. 

60  To  what  purpose  then  .''  Well,  I  will  own  to  some 
benefit :  just  as,  when  walking  in  the  sunshine, 
though  perhaps  taking  the  stroU  for  a  diflFerent 
reason,  the  natural  result  is  that  I  get  sunburnt, 
even  so,  after  perusing  those  books  rather  closely 
at  Misenum  (having  Httle  chance  in  Rome),  I  find 
that  under  their  influence  my  discourse  takes  on 
what  I  may  call  a  new  complexion.  However, — not 
to  let  you  think  this  claim  too  extravagant — I  under- 
stand  no  more  of  Greek  hterature  than  its  authors 
themselves  intended  to  be  understood  by  the  multi- 

61  tude.  Whenever  I  light  upon  your  philosophers, 
cheated  by  the  titles  of  their  books,  which  commonly 
bear  headings  descriptive  of  well-known  and  obvious 
subjects,  such  as  virtue,  justice,  integrity  or  pleasure, 
I  do  not  comprehend  a  single  word,  so  inextricably 
are  they  entangled  in  closely  reasoned  and  con- 
densed  dialectic.  Your  poets,  speaking  as  they  do 
an  altogether  difFerent  tongue,  I  do  not  attempt  to 
handle  at  all :  I  divert  myself  (as  I  said)  in  the 
company  of  those  who  have  written  the  story  of 
events,  or  speeches  deUvered  by  themselves,  or 
whose  style  suggests  their  wish  to  be  accessible  to 
us  men  of  no  very  profound  leaming.  But  I  return 
to  my  argument. 

62  XV.  "  Do  you  see  how  great  a  responsibihty  the  iTie  systems 
orator  has  in  historical  writing  ?     I  rather  think  that  contain  no 
for  fluency  and  diversity  of  diction  it  comes  first,    Yet  ™'jg  °^^ 
nowhere  do  I  find  this  art  supplied  with  any  in-  iiistory, 
dependent  directions  from  the  rhetoricians  ;   indeed 

its  rules  He  open  to  the  view.     For  who  does  not 
know  history's  first  law  to  be  that  an  author  must 

243 


CICERO 

historiae  legem,  ne  quid  falsi  dicere  audeat  ?  Deinde 
ne  quid  veri  non  audeat  ?    Ne  qua  suspicio  gratiae 

63  sit  in  scribendo  ?  Ne  qua  simultatis  ?  Haec  scilicet 
fundamenta  nota  sunt  omnibus  ;  ipsa  autem  exaedi- 
ficatio  posita  est  in  rebus  et  verbis.  Rerum  ratio 
ordinem  temporum  desiderat,  regionum  descrip- 
tionem  ;  vult  etiam,  quoniam  in  rebus  magnis  me- 
moriaque  dignis  consilia  primum,  deinde  acta,  postea 
eventus  expectentur,  et  de  consiliis  significari  quid 
scriptor  probet,  et  in  rebus  gestis  declarari,  non  solum 
quid  actum  aut  dictum  sit,  sed  etiam  quomodo  ;  et 
cum  de  eventu  dicatur,  ut  causae  explicentur  omnes, 
vel  casus,  vel  sapientiae,  vel  temeritatis,  hominumque 
ipsorum  non  solum  res  gestae,  sed  etiam,  qui  fama 
ac  nomine  excellant,  de  cuiusque  vita  atque  natura. 

64  Verborum  autem  ratio  et  genus  orationis  fusum  atque 
tractum,  et  cum  lenitate  quadam  aequabili  profluens, 
sine  hac  iudiciah  asperitate,  et  sine  sententiarum 
forensium  aculeis  persequendum  est.  Harum  tot 
tantarumque  rerum  videtisne  ulla  esse  praecepta, 
quae  in  artibus  rhetorum  reperiantur  ? 

In  eodem  silentio  multa  alia  oratorum  ofl^cia  iacue- 
runt,  cohortationes,  consolationes,  praecepta,  ad- 
monita  :  quae  tractanda  sunt  omnia  disertissime  ; 
sed  locum  suum  in  his  artibus,  quae  traditae  sunt, 

65  habent  nuUum.  Atque  in  hoc  genere  illa  quoque  est 
24>4> 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xv.  62-65 

not  dare  to  tell  anything  but  the  truth  ?  And  its 
second  that  he  must  make  bold  to  tell  the  whole 
truth  ?  That  there  must  be  no  suggestion  of  par- 
tiahty  anywhere  in  his  writings  ?     Nor  of  mahce  ? 

63  This  groundwork  of  course  is  famiUar  to  every  one  ; 
the  completed  structure  however  rests  upon  the 
story  and  the  diction.  The  nature  of  the  subject 
needs  chronological  arrangement  and  geographical 
representation  :  and  since,  in  reading  of  important 
affairs  worth  recording,  the  plans  of  campaign,  the 
executive  actions  and  the  results  are  successively 
looked  for,  it  calls  also,  as  regards  such  plans,  for 
some  intimation  of  what  the  writer  approves,  and, 
in  the  narrative  of  achievement,  not  only  for  a  state- 
ment  of  what  was  done  or  said,  but  also  of  the  manner 
of  doing  or  saying  it ;  and,  in  the  estimate  of  conse- 
quences,  for  an  exposition  of  all  contributory  causes, 
whether  originating  in  accident,  discretion  or  fool- 
hardiness ;  and,  as  for  the  individual  actors,  besides 
an  account  of  their  exploits,  it  demands  particulars  of 
the  hves  and  characters  of  such  as  are  outstanding 

64  in  renown  and  dignity.  Then  again  the  kind  of  lan- 
guage  and  type  of  style  to  be  followed  are  the  easy 
and  the  flowing,  which  run  their  course  with  unvary- 
ing  current  and  a  certain  placidity,  avoiding  ahke 
the  rough  speech  we  use  in  Court  and  the  advocate's 
stinging  epigrams.  Upon  all  these  numerous  and 
important  points,  do  you  observe  that  any  directions 
are  to  be  found  in  the  rhetoricians'  systems  ? 

"  In  a  hke  silence   have   languished  many  other  nor  for 
duties  of  the  orator,  those  of  encouraging,  comforting,  abstoact 
teaching  and  warning,  all  worthy  of  most  eloquent  topics. 
treatment,  yet  having  no  place  of  their  own  in  those 

65  systems  hitherto  propounded.     In  this  region  also 

245 


CICERO 

infinita  silva,  quod  oratori  plerique,  ut  etiam  Crassus 
ostendit,  duo  genera  ad  dicendum  dederunt :  unum, 
de  certa  definitaque  causa,  quales  sunt,  quae  in 
litibus,  quae  in  deliberationibus  versantur,  addat,  si 
quis  volet,  etiam  laudationes  :  alterum,  quod  appel- 
lant  omnes  fere  scriptores,  explicat  nemo,  infinitam 
generis,  sine  tempore,  et  sine  persona,  quaestionem. 

66  Hoc  quid  et  quantum  sit,  cum  dicunt,  intellegere 
mihi  non  videntur.  Si  enim  est  oratoris,  quaecumque 
res  infinite  posita  sit,  de  ea  posse  dicere,  dicendum 
erit  ei,  quanta  sit  solis  magnitudo,  quae  forma  terrae  : 
de  mathematicis,  de  musicis  rebus  non  poterit,  quin 
dicat,  hoc  onere  suscepto,  recusare.  Denique  ei,  qui 
profitetur  esse  suum,  non  solum  de  eis  controversiis, 
quae  temporibus  et  personis  notatae  sunt,  hoc  est,  de 
omnibus  forensibus,  sed  etiam  de  generum  infinitis 
quaestionibus  dicere,  nullum  potest  esse  genus 
orationis,  quod  sit  exceptum. 

67  XVI.  Sed  si  illam  quoque  partem  quaestionum 
oratori  volumus  adiungere  vagam,  et  Uberam,  et 
late  patentem,  ut  de  rebus  bonis  aut  malis,  expeten- 
dis  aut  fugiendis,  honestis  aut  turpibus,  utilibus  aut 
inutihbus,  de  virtute,  de  iustitia,  de  continentia,  de 
prudentia,  de  magnitudine  animi,  de  hberalitate,  de 
pietate,  de  amicitia,  de  fide,  de  oflicio,  de  ceteris 
virtutibus  contrariisque  vitiis,  dicendum  oratori  pute- 
mus  ;  itemque  de  repubUca,  de  imperio,  de  re  miU- 
tari,  de  discipUna  civitatis,  de  hominum  moribus  : 
assumamus  eam  quoque  partem,  sed  ita,  ut  sit  cir- 

246 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xv.  65— xvi.  67 

there  lies  a  boundless  forest  of  topics  :  because  (as 
Crassus  too  has  shown)  most  writers  have  assigned 
to  the  orator  two  kinds  of  subject  to  talk  upon,  the 
one  concerned  with  what  is  specific  and  determinate, 
such  as  the  matters  handled  in  lawsuits  and  consulta- 
tions, — to  which  he  who  will  may  add  panegyrics — ; 
the  other  spoken  of  by  nearly  every  writer, — though 
explained  by  none — ,  as  the  abstract  sort  of  inquiry, 

66  unrelated  to  times  or  persons.  When  discussing  this 
kind  they  do  not  seem  to  me  to  grasp  its  nature  and 
range.  For  if  it  be  an  orator's  part  to  be  able  to 
speak  on  any  subject  whatever  that  is  laid  before  him 
in  general  terms,  he  will  have  to  discuss  the  size  of  the 
sun  and  the  contour  of  the  earth  ;  and  after  under- 
taking  this  duty  he  will  not  be  able  to  refuse  to 
handle  mathematics  or  the  cult  of  the  Muses.  In  a 
word,  for  the  man  who  claims  the  right  to  speak,  not 
only  on  problems  identified  with  specific  times  and 
persons  (that  is,  on  all  judicial  issues),  but  also  on 
propositions  of  an  abstract  character,  there  can  be  no 
sort  of  debate  which  he  can  decUne. 

67  XVI.  "  But  if  we  would  connect  with  the  orator  Treatment 
that  indeterminate,  unrestricted  and  far-extending  be^ieft  to*" 
sort  of  investigation,  and  so  think  it  his  duty  to  discuss  tact. 
good  and  evil,  things  to  be  preferred  and  things  to 

be  shunned,  fair  repute  and  infamy,  the  useful  and 
the  unuseful,  besides  moral  perfection,  righteous- 
ness,  self-control,  discretion,  greatness  of  soul, 
generosity,  loyalty,  friendship,  good  faith,  sense  of 
duty  and  the  rest  of  the  virtues  and  their  corre- 
sponding  vices,  as  well  as  the  State,  sovereignty, 
warUke  operations,  poUtical  science  and  the  ways  of 
mankind — then  let  us  take  up  that  kind  of  inquiry 
also,  but  only  on  condition  that  it  be  confined  within 

247 


CICERO 

68  cumscripta  modicis  regionibus.  Equidem  omnia, 
quae  pertinent  ad  usum  civium,  morem  hominum, 
quae  versantur  in  consuetudine  vitae,  in  ratione 
reipublicae,  in  hac  societate  civili,  in  sensu  hominum 
communi,  in  natura,  in  moribus,  comprehendenda 
esse  oratori  puto  ;  si  minus,  ut  separatim  de  his  rebus 
philosophorum  more  respondeat,  at  certe,  ut  in  causa 
prudenter  possit  intexere  :  hisce  autem  ipsis  de  rebus 
ut  ita  loquatur,  ut  ei,  qui  iura,  qui  leges,  qui  civitates 
constituerunt,  locuti  sunt,  simphciter  et  splendide, 
sine  ulla  serie  disputationum,  et  sine  ieiuna  con- 
certatione  verborum. 

69  Hoc  loco,  ne  qua  sit  admiratio,  si  tot  tantarumque 
rerum  nulla  a  me  praecepta  ponentur,  sic  statuo  :  Ut 
in  ceteris  artibus,  cum  tradita  sint  cuiusque  artis 
difficiUima,  rehqua,  quia  aut  faciUora,  aut  simiha  sint, 
tradi  non  necesse  esse  ;  ut  in  pictura,  qui  hominis 
speciem  pingere  perdidicerit,  posse  eum  cuiusvis  vel 
formae,  vel  aetatis,  etiamsi  non  didicerit,  pingere 
neque  esse  periculum,  qui  leonem  aut  taurum  pingat 
egregie,  ne  idem  in  multis  aliis  quadrupedibus  facere 
non  possit  (neque  est  omnino  ars  ulla,  in  qua  omnia, 
quae  illa  arte  effici  possunt,  a  doctore  tradantur,  sed 
qui  primarum  et  certarum  rerum  genera  ipsa  di- 
dicerunt,    reUqua    non    incommode    per    se    asse- 

70  quuntur)  :  similiter  arbitror  in  hac  sive  ratione,  sive 
exercitatione  dicendi,  qui  illam  vim  adeptus  sit,  ut 
eorum  mentes,  qui  aut  de  repubUca,  aut  de   ipsis 

&4A 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xvi.  68-70 

68  reasonable  limits.  Of  course  I  hold  that  all  things 
relating  to  the  intercourse  of  fellow-citizens  and  the 
ways  of  mankind,  or  concerned  with  everyday  life, 
the  pohtical  system,  our  own  corporate  society,  the 
common  sentiments  of  humanity,  natural  inchnations 
and  morals  must  be  mastered  by  the  orator ;  if  not  in 
the  sense  that  he  is  to  advise  on  these  matters  one  by 
one,  as  the  philosophers  do,  yet  so  far  at  least  as  to 
enable  him  to  weave  them  skilfully  into  his  discourse, 
and  moreover  to  speak  of  these  very  things  in  the 
same  way  as  the  founders  of  rules  of  law,  statutes 
and  civil  communities  spoke,  frankly  and  lucidly, 
with  no  formal  train  of  argument  or  barren  verbal 
controversy, 

69  "  And  here,  to  prevent  any  surprise  at  my  omitting 
to  lay  down  any  regulations  on  so  many  highly 
important  subjects,  I  make  this  declaration  :  '  Just 
as  in  the  other  arts,  when  the  hardest  portions  of  each 
have  been  taught,  the  rest,  through  being  either 
easier  or  just  hke  the  former,  call  for  no  teaching  ; 
as  in  painting,  for  instance,  he  who  has  thoroughly 
learned  how  to  paint  the  semblance  of  a  man,  can 
without  further  lessons  paint  one  of  any  figure  or 
time  of  hfe,  nor  is  there  any  danger  that  he,  who 
would  paint  to  admiration  a  hon  or  bull,  will  be 
unable  to  do  the  hke  with  many  other  four-footed 
animals  (there  being  no  art  whatever  wherein  all  its 
possibihties  require  professorial  teaching,  since  those 
who  have  rightly  learned  the  general  principles  of 
fundamental  and  estabhshed  things  attain  the  rest 

70  without  difficulty  and  unaided)  ;  even  so  I  hold  that 
in  this  oratory,  be  it  an  art  or  the  outcome  of 
practice,  he  who  has  acquired  such  power  as  to  be 
abie  to  sway  at  his  pleasure  the  minds  of  hearers 

249 


CICERO 

rebus,  aut  de  eis,  contra  quos  aut  pro  quibus  dicat, 
cum  aliqua  statuendi  potestate  audiant,  ad  suum 
arbitrium  movere  possit,  illum  de  toto  illo  genere 
reliquarum  orationum  non  plus  quaesiturum  esse, 
quid  dicat,  quam  Polyclitum  illum  cum  Herculem 
fingebat,  quemadmodum  pellem  aut  hydram  fingeret, 
etiamsi  haec  nunquam  separatim  facere  didicisset. 

71  XVII.  Tum  Catulus  :  Praeclare  mihi  videris, 
Antoni,  posuisse,  inquit,  ante  oculos,  quid  discere 
oporteret  eum,  qui  orator  esset  futurus,  quid  etiam, 
si  non  didicisset,  ex  eo,  quod  didicisset,  assumeret : 
deduxisti  enim  totum  hominem  in  duo  genera  solum 
causarum ;  cetera  innumerabilia  exercitationi  et 
simihtudini  reHquisti.  Sed  videto,  ne  in  istis  duobus 
generibus  hydra  tibi  sit  et  pelHs,  Hercules  autem,  et 
aHa  opera  maiora,  in  ilHs  rebus,  quas  praetermittis, 
reHnquantur.  Non  enim  mihi  minus  operis  videtur 
de  universis  generibus  rerum,  quam  de  singulorum 
causis,  ac  multo  etiam  maius  de  natura  deorum,  quam 

72  de  hominum  Htibus  dicere.  Non  est  ita,  inquit 
Antonius.  Dicam  enim  tibi,  Catule,  non  tam  doctus, 
quam,  id  quod  est  maius,  expertus.  Omnium  cetera- 
rum  rerum  oratio,  mihi  crede,  ludus  est  homini  non 
hebeti,  neque  inexercitato,  neque  communium  Ht- 
terarum  et  poHtioris  humanitatis  experti.  In  causa- 
rum  contentionibus  magnum  est  quoddam  opus, 
atque  haud  sciam,  an  de  humanis  operibus  longe 
maximum :   in  quibus  vis  oratoris  plerumque  ab  im- 

'  i.e.  concrete  and  abstract  problems. 
«60 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xvi.  70— xvii.  72 

invested  with  authority  to  determine  some  issue 
concerning  the  State,  or  questions  of  fact,  or  the 
parties  vi^hom  he  may  be  attacking  or  defending,  will 
on  any  other  oratorical  topic  whatever  be  no  more 
at  a  loss  for  words  than  famous  PolycHtus,  when 
modelUng  his  "  Hercules,"  was  at  a  loss  how  to  model 
the  wild  beast's  skin  or  the  water-serpent,  even 
though  he  had  never  been  taught  to  fashion  these 
subjects  in  isolation.* " 

71  XVII.  Here   Catulus   interposed  :    "  Antonius,   I  Forensic 
think  you  have  admirably  set  before  us  what  the  ^^^^^  *® 
would-be  orator  ought  to  learn,  as  well  as  what  he  difficuit 
would  absorb  from  his  learning  even  without  inde- 
pendent  study  :    for  you  have  restricted  the  whole 

man  to  just  two  kinds  of  subject,"  leaving  the  count- 
less  other  matters  to  practice  and  analogy.  But 
please  see  that  you  do  not  include  the  water-serpent 
and  wild  beast's  skin  in  your  two  kinds,  and  leave  the 
*  Hercules  '  and  other  more  important  work  among 
the  things  you  pass  over.  For  it  seems  to  me  just  as 
difficult  to  discuss  the  abstract  types  of  things  as  the 
concerns  of  individuals,  and  even  far  more  difficult  to 
discuss  the  nature  of  the  gods  than  the  legal  squabbles 

72  of  men."  "  Not  so,"  answered  Antonius.  "  For  to 
you,  Catulus,  I  will  speak  as  one  having  less  learning 
than  experience,  which  is  the  bigger  thing.  To  dis- 
course  on  any  other  topic,  take  my  word  for  it,  is 
but  pastime  to  a  man  who  is  no  dullard  and  has  had 
some  training  and  is  not  unacquainted  with  general 
literature  and  a  tolerably  polite  education.  But  the 
battles  of  the  law-courts  involve  really  great  difficulty 
and,  I  rather  think,  by  far  the  most  arduous  of 
human  enterprises  ;  for  here  ignorant  people  com- 
monlj  judge  an  orator's  power  by  the  test  of  a 

251 


CICERO 

peritis  exitu  et  victoria  iudicatur ;  ubi  adest  arma- 
tus  adversarius,  qui  sit  et  feriendus  et  repellendus ; 
ubi  saepe  is,  qui  rei  dominus  futurus  est,  alienus  atque 
iratus,  aut  etiam  amicus  adversario  et  inimicus  tibi 
est ;  cum  aut  docendus  is  est,  aut  dedocendus,  aut 
reprimendus,  aut  incitandus,  aut  omni  ratione  ad 
tempus,  ad  causam  oratione  moderandus;  in  quo  saepe 
benevolentia  ad  odium,  odium  autem  ad  benevolen- 
tiam  deducendum  est ;  aut  tanquam  machinatione 
aliqua,  tum  ad  severitatem,  tum  ad  remissionem 
animi,  tum  ad  tristitiam,  tum  ad  laetitiam  est  contor- 
quendus.     Omnium  sententiarum  gravitate,  omnium 

73  verborum  ponderibus  est  utendum.  Accedat  oportet 
actio  varia,  vehemens,  plena  animi,  plena  spiritus, 
plena  doloris,  plena  veritatis.  In  his  operibus  si  quis 
illam  artem  comprehenderit,  ut  tanquam  Phidias 
Minervae  signum  efficere  possit,  non  sane,  quemad- 
modum  ut  in  chpeo  idem  artifex  minora  illa  opera 
facere  discat,  laborabit. 

74  XVIII.  Tum  Catulus  :  Quo  ista  maiora  ac  mira- 
bihora  fecisti,  eo  me  maior  exspectatio  tenet  qui- 
busnam  rationibus  quibusque  praeceptis  ea  tanta  vis 
comparetur :  non  quo  mea  quidem  iam  intersit — neque 
enim  aetas  id  mea  desiderat  et  ahud  quoddam  genus 
dicendi  nos  secuti  sumus,  qui  nunquam  sententias  de 
manibus  iudicum  vi  quadam  orationis  extorsimus,  ac 
potius  placatis  eorum  animis,  tantum,  quantum  ipsi 
patiebantur,  accepimus — ,  sed  tamen  ista  tua  nuUum 

252 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xvii.  72— xviii.  74 

triumphant  result,  and  a  panoplied  antagonist  con- 
fronts  you  who  must  be  smitten  as  well  as  countered, 
and  often  he  who  is  to  adjudge  the  victory  is  ill- 
disposed  and  angry  or  even  friendly  to  the  other  side 
while  hostile  to  yourself,  when  he  has  to  be  convinced 
or  undeceived,  or  reined  back  or  spurred  on,  or 
managed  by  eloquent  suggestion  of  every  considera- 
tion  befitting  the  occasion  or  the  circumstances  (in 
which  process  goodwill  has  often  to  be  transmuted 
into  hatred  and  hatred  into  goodwill),  or  he  must 
be  alternately  swung  round,  as  though  by  some 
machinery,  to  hardness  and  to  gentleness  of  heart,  to 
melancholy  and  to  gaiety.     Every  impressive  reflec- 

73  tion,  every  weighty  word  must  be  employed.  There 
must  be  added  a  dehvery  that  is  free  from  monotony 
and  forceful  and  rich  in  energy,  animation,  pathos 
and  reality.  In  such  labours,  if  any  man  shall  have 
so  firmly  grasped  this  art  as  to  be  able  to  produce 
a  statue  of  Minerva,  in  the  manner  of  Phidias, 
assuredly  he  will  have  no  trouble  in  learning  how  to 
carry  out  the  lesser  details,  as  that  same  Master  did, 
upon  the  shield." 

74  XVIII.  To  this  Catulus  rejoined  :    "  The  greater  Theoiy  not 
and  more  marvellous  you  make  out  these  achieve-  experience 
ments  to  be,  the  greater  longing  possesses  me  to  know  uniess  in 
the  methods  or  instructions  whereby  so  mighty  a  ^^°  '"^®' 
power  is  to  be  acquired  :   not  indeed  that  I  am  now 
personally  afFected, — for  a  man  of  my  years   is  in 

no  want  of  it,  and  my  generation  pursued  a  rather 
difFerent  style  of  oratory ,  in  that  we  never  wrested  our 
verdicts  from  the  grasp  of  the  tribunals  by  any  special 
force  of  eloquence,  but  rather  had  them  presented 
to  us,  after  concihating  the  feeUngs  of  the  members 
j  ust  so  far  as  they  themselves  would  permit, — but  none 

253 


CICERO 

ad  usum  meum,  tantum  cognoscendi  studio  adductus, 

75  requiro.  Nec  mihi  opus  est  Graeco  aliquo  doctore,  qui 
mihi  pervulgata  praecepta  decantet,  cum  ipse  nun- 
quam  forum,  nunquam  ullum  iudicium  aspexerit : 
ut  Peripateticus  ille  dicitur  Phormio,  cum  Hannibal 
Carthagine  expulsus  Ephesum  ad  Antiochum  venisset 
exsul,  proque  eo,  quod  eius  nomen  erat  magna  apud 
omnes  gloria,  invitatus  esset  ab  hospitibus  suis,  ut  eum, 
quem  dixi,  si  vellet,  audiret ;  cumque  is  se  non  nolle 
dixisset,  locutus  esse  dicitur  homo  copiosus  aliquot 
horas  de  imperatoris  officio,  et  de  omni  re  mihtari. 
Tum,  cum  ceteri,  qui  illum  audierant,  vehementer 
essent  delectati,  quaerebant  ab  Hannibale,  quidnam 
ipse  de  illo  philosopho  iudicaret ;  hic  Poenus  non 
optime  Graece,  sed  tamen  Hbere  respondisse  fertur, 
multos  se  deliros  senes  saepe  vidisse,  sed  qui  magis 

76  quam  Phormio  deliraret,  vidisse  neminem.  Neque 
mehercule  iniuria  ;  quid  enim  aut  arrogantius,  aut 
loquacius  fieri  potuit,  quam  Hannibali,  qui  tot  annis 
de  imperio  cum  populo  Romano,  omnium  gentium 
victore,  certasset,  Graecum  hominem,  qui  nunquam 
hostem,  nunquam  castra  vidisset,  nunquam  denique 
minimam  partem  ullius  pubHci  muneris  attigisset, 
praecepta  de  re  militari  dare  ?  Hoc  mihi  facere 
omnes  isti,  qui  de  arte  dicendi  praecipiunt,  viden- 
tur :  quod  enim  ipsi  experti  non  sunt,  id  docent  ce- 
teros.  Sed  hoc  minus  fortasse  errant,  quod  non 
te,  ut  Hannibalem,  sed  pueros,  aut  adolescentulos 
docere  conantur. 

254. 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xviii.  74-76 

the  less  I  am  asking  for  these  secrets  of  yours,  not  for 
my  own  use  but  prompted  solely  by  love  of  knowledge. 

75  Nor  do  I  need  any  Greek  professor  to  chant  at  me 
a  series  of  hackneyed  axioms,  when  he  himself  never 
had  a  glimpse  of  a  law-court  or  judicial  proceeding, 
as  the  tale  goes  of  Phormio  the  well-known  Peri- 
patetic ;  for  when  Hannibal,  banished  from  Carthage, 
had  come  in  exile  to  Antiochus  at  Ephesus  and,  inas- 
much  as  his  name  was  highly  honoured  all  the  world 
over,  had  been  invited  by  his  hosts  to  hear  the 
philosopher  in  question,  if  he  so  pleased,  and  he  had 
intimated  his  wilhngness  to  do  so,  that  wordy  in- 
dividual  is  said  to  have  held  forth  for  several  hours 
upon  the  functions  of  a  commander-in-chief  and 
mihtary  matters  in  general.  Then,  when  the  other 
hsteners,  vastly  dehghted,  asked  Hannibal  for  his 
opinion  of  the  eminent  teacher,  the  Carthaginian  is 
reported  to  have  thereupon  rephed,  in  no  very  good 
Greek,  but  at  any  rate  candidly,  that  time  and  again 
he  had  seen  many  old  madmen  but  never  one  madder 

76  than  Phormio.  And  upon  my  word  he  was  right,  for 
what  better  example  of  prating  insolence  could  there 
be  than  for  a  Greek,  who  had  never  seen  a  foeman  or 
a  camp,  or  even  had  the  shghtest  connexion  with  any 
pubhc  employment,  to  lecture  on  mihtary  matters  to 
Hannibal,  who  all  those  years  had  been  disputing 
empire  with  the  Roman  people,  the  conquerors  of  the 
world  ?     Just  so  do  all  those  seem  to  me  to  behave 

\who  lay  down  rulesf^Jhe  art  of  speaking,  for  they 
)are  for  teaching  others  a  thlngwrEK"  which  they 
themselves  are  unacquainted.  But  possibly  their 
blunder  is  the  less  serious,  in  that  they  do  not  try  to 
instruct  yourself,  as  Phormio  did  Hannibal,  but  only 
boys  or  very  young  men." 

255 


CICERO 

7?  XIX.  Erras,  Catule,  inquit  Antonius  :  nam  egomet 
in  multos  iam  Phormiones  incidi.  Quis  enim  est 
istorum  Graecorum,  qui  quemquam  nostrum  quid- 
quam  intellegere  arbitretur  ?  Ac  mihi  quidem  non 
ita  molesti  sunt ;  facile  omnes  perpetior  et  perfero. 
Nam  aut  aliquid  afFerunt,  quod  mihi  non  displiceat, 
aut  efficiunt,  ut  me  non  didicisse  minus  poeniteat. 
Dimitto  autem  eos  non  tam  contumeUose  quam 
philosophum  illum  Hannibal,  et  eo  fortasse  plus 
habeo  etiam  negotii  ;  sed  tamen  est  eorum  doctrina, 

78  quantum  ego  iudicare  possum,  perridicula.  Dividunt 
enim  totam  rem  in  duas  partes,  in  causae  contro- 
versiam,  et  in  quaestionis.  Causam  appellant,  rem 
positam  in  disceptatione  reorum  et  controversia ; 
quaestionem  autem,  rem  positam  in  infinita  dubita- 
tione.     De  causa  praecepta  dant ;  de  altera  parte 

79  dicendi  mirum  silentium  est.  Denique  quinque 
faciunt  quasi  membra  eloquentiae,  invenire  quid 
dicas,  inventa  disponere,  deinde  ornare  verbis,  post 
memoriae  mandare,  tum  ad  extremum  agere  ac  pro- 
nuntiare  :  rem  sane  non  reconditam.  Quis  enim  hoc 
non  sua  sponte  viderit,  neminem  posse  dicere,  nisi  et 
quid  diceret,  et  quibus  verbis,  et  quo  ordine  diceret, 
haberet,  et  ea  meminisset  ?  Atque  haec  ego  non 
reprehendo,  sed  ante  oculos  posita  esse  dico,  ut  eas 
item  quatuor,  quinque,  sexve  partes,  vel  etiam  sep- 
tem,  quoniam  aliter  ab  aliis  digeruntur,  in  quas  est 

80  ab  his  omnis  oratio  distributa.  lubent  enim  exordiri 
ita,  ut  eum,  qui  audiat,  benevolum  nobis  faciamus,  et 

256 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xix.  77-80 
77      XIX.  "  You    are    mistaken,    Catulus,' 


1/A 


ntonius,  "  for  I  myself  ere  now  have  fallen  in  witH  of  rhetoric 


-—'  T,T_  .  T      1  •     />  1  1  superfluous/ 

many  a  rnormio.  Is  tnere  in  tact  a  man  among  those\  or  misiead-i 
Greeks  who  would  credit  one  of  us  with  understanding  "°^" 
anything  ?  Not  that  they  worry  me  so  much  ;  I 
gladly  sufFer  and  bear  with  them  all.  For  they  either 
contribute  to  my  amusement,  or  contrive  to  soften 
my  regret  at  not  having  been  a  student.  And  I 
send  them  on  their  ways  less  contemptuously  than 
Hannibal  sent  his  philosopher,  and  for  that  reason 
perhaps  I  have  even  more  trouble  with  them  ;  their 
(y)/  theory^jiowever,  so  farasjMcai^judgeiis^uU 

78  luHicrous^^T^OT^^fliey^Hrvid^^^  into 

two  "IBranches — the   discussion  of  concrete    and   of 
abstract  problems.     By  the  concrete  they  mean  a    >^- 
question  in  debate  and  dispute  between  htigants,!'^  4-    , 
by   the    abstract   something   involved   in  boundlessi     %?> 
uncertainty.     For   the    treatment    of  the   concretel      y, 
they  lay   down  rules  ;    as  to  the  other  branch  of 

vgiloratory  their  silence  is  remarkable.     After  that  they 
set  forth  a  sort  of  fivefold  division  of  rhetoric,  to  ,, 
choose  what  to  say,  to  marshal  the  chosen  material,  5-j^ 
next  to  express  it  elegantly,  then  to  commit  it  to     ' 
memory,   and  in  the   end  actually  to   deUver   it — 
assuredly  no  mysterious  progress.    For  who  would  not 
instinctively  realize  that  no  one  can  make  a  speech 
Without  having  settled  what  to  say,  and  in  what 
)  terms  andsequence,andwithout  remembering all  this? 
And  without  complaining  of  this  classification  I  say 
it  is  one  that  is  obvious,  as  also  are  those  four,  five, 
six  or  even  seven  subdivisions  (for  different  authorities 
adopt   difFerent   analyses)  into  which   these   people 

3Q  distribute  every  speech.     For  theybid_us_open^  in    d 
such  a  way  as  to  win  the  goodwilVOTtnelistSaeTand     ^, 
"  '  "^         257      "^^ 


CICERO 

docilem  et  attentum,  deinde  rem  narrare  et  ita,  ut 
verisimilis  narratio  sit,  ut  aperta,  ut  brevis  ;  post 
autem  dividere  causam,  aut  proponere  ;  nostra  con- 
firmare  argumentis  ac  rationibus  ;  deinde  contraria 
refutare  :  tum  autem  alii  conclusionem  orationis,  et 
quasi  perorationem  collocant,  alii  iubent,  antequara 
peroretur,  ornandi  aut  augendi  causa,  digredi  deinde 

81  concludere  ac  perorare.  Ne  haec  quidem  repre- 
hendo  :  sunt  enim  concinne  distributa  ;  sed  tamen, 
id  quod  necesse  fuit  hominibus  expertibus  veritatis, 
non  perite.  Quae  enim  praecepta  principiorum  et 
narrationum  esse  voluerunt,  ea  in  totis  orationibus 

82  sunt  conservanda.  Nam  ego  mihi  benevolum  iudicem 
faciUus  facere  possum  cum  sum  in  cursu  orationis,  quam 
cum  omnia  sunt  inaudita  ;  docilem  autem,  non  cum 
polliceor  me  demonstraturum,  sed  tum,  cum  doceo 
et  explano :  attentum  vero,  tota  actione, non  prima  de- 

83  nuntiatione  efficere  possumus.  lam  vero  narrationem 
quod  iubent  verisimilem  esse  et  apertam,  et  brevem, 
recte  nos  admonent;  quod  haec  narrationis  magis 
putant  esse  propria  quam  totius  orationis,  valde  mihi 
videntur  errare :  omninoque  in  hoc  omnis  est  error, 
quod  existimant,  artificium  esse  hoc  quoddam  non 
dissimile  ceterorum,  cuiusmodi  de  ipso  iure  civili 
hestemo  die  Crassus  componi  posse  dicebat  :  ut 
genera  rerum  primum  exponerentur,  in  quo  vitiura 
est,  si  genus  ullura  praeterraittatur  ;  deinde  singu- 
lorum  partes  generura,  in  quo  et  deesse  aUquam 

258 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xix.  80-83 

make  him  receptive  and  attentive  ;   then  in  stating 

the  case  t^TlnaKemir  statemenrplausible,  lucid  and 

brief ;   after  that  to  dissect  or  define  the  matter  in 

hand,  estabhshing  our  own  propositions  by  evidence 

and  reasonings  before  disproving  those  of  the  other 

side  :  some  masters  place  next  the  summing-up  of 

the  address  and  the  so-called  peroration,  while  others 

,    require,  before  such  peroration,  a  digression  for  the  \  / 

i'  sake  of  effect  or  amplification,  to  be  followed  by       '«• 

gl  the   summing-up   and   the   close.     I    find   no   fault 

with  even  this  distribution,  for  it  is  neat,  though   -^ 
^  unscientific,  as  was  sure  to  happen  with  teachers  ^"^ 
unversed  in  practical  advocacy.    For  the  rules  which  ■ .  't\^ 
Ithey  have^^gaagKf^to^lrestrrct  to  the  openings  and  \^,?i;J" 
Ithe  statements  of  cases  ought  to  be  observed  in  all        J*^ 
^2' speeches.    Thus  I  can  more  readily  win  an  arbi-        \%^ 
^      trator's  goodwill  as  my  address  proceeds  than  before  \'<- 

%/,  a  word  of  it  has  been  heard,  and  I  make  him  recep- 
^ir^  tive,  not   when  I  am  promising  proof,  but  when  I 
-ir/am  instructing  him  and  making  all  plain  ;  moreover 

we  can  secure  his  attention  by  qur  argument  as  a/  "> 
83  whole,  not_by^our  ppenin^  allegations.    Tfieiragain,  S.^^^ 
in  requiring  theTtateinenf  oF  the^ase  to  be  plausible,       -^^  *« 
lucid  and  brief,  they  advise  us  well ;  but,  in  deeming     v      «i^ 
these  qualities  more  appropriate  to  such  statement       ^*l 
\    j  than  to  the  address  as  a  whole,  I  think  they  are    ■5  "^ 
V  I  greatly  mistaken ;   and  undoubtedly  their  blunder     ^\ 
arises  solely  from  their  idea  that  this  oratory  is  a[|  '\/ 

kind  of  art,  just  like  the  other  arts,  suclT^^tllrassus  '^.  ,        t 


r 


said  yesterday  could  be  constructed  on  the  model  of        y 
the  common  law  itself,  so  that  the  general  kinds  of  '^ 

subject-matter  must  first  be  set  out,  the  omission  of 
any  kind  being  an  error,  next  the  particular  species 
of  each  kind,  wherein  too  Uttle  or  too  much  of  any 

259 


■i 


CICERO 

partem,  et  superare,  mendosum  est ;  tum  verborum 
omnium  definitiones,  in  quibus  neque  abesse  quid- 
quam  decet  neque  redundare. 

84  XX.  Sed  hoc  si  in  iure  civili,  si  etiam  in  parvis  aut 
mediocribus  rebus  doctiores  assequi  possunt,  non 
idem  sentio  tanta  hac  in  re,  tamque  immensa,  posse 
fieri.  Sin  autem  qvii  arbitrantur,  deducendi  sunt  ad 
eos,  qui  haec  docent ;  omnia  iam  exphcata  et  per- 
polita  assequentur :  sunt  enim  innumerabiles  de 
his  rebus  libri,  neque  abditi  neque  obscuri.  Sed 
videant,  quid  velint :  ad  ludendumne,  an  ad  pugnan- 
dum  arma  sint  sumpturi ;  aliud  enim  pugna  et  acies, 
ahud  ludus  campusque  noster  desiderat.  Attamen 
ars  ipsa  ludicra  armorum  et  gladiatori  et  miUti  prodest 
aliquid  ;  sed  animus  acer,  et  praesens,  et  acutus  idem 
atque  versutus,  invictos  viros  efficit  [non  difficilius 
arte  coniuncta].^ 

85  Quare  ego  tibi  oratorem  sic  iam  instituam,  si 
potuero,  ut,  quid  efficere  possit,  ante  perspiciam.  Sit 
enim  mihi  tinctus  Utteris  ;  audierit  aUquid,  legerit, 
ista  ipsa  praecepta  acceperit  :  tentabo  quid  deceat, 
quid  voce,  quid  viribus,  quid  spiritu,  quid  Ungua 
efficere  possit.  Si  inteUegam  posse  ad  summos  per- 
venire,  non  solum  hortabor,  ut  elaboret,  sed  etiam, 
si  vir  quoque  bonus  mihi  videbitur  esse,  obsecrabo  : 

^  Ellendt,  Soro/and  others  reject  the  words  in  brackets  a$ 
a  copyisCs  addition, 

260 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xix.  83— xx.  85 

species  is  a  fault,  and  finally  the  definitions  of  all 
terms,  in  which  nothing  ought  to  be  missing  and 
nothing  redundant. 

g4  XX.  "  But,  granting  that  the  more  learned  can  itisnatural 
attain  such  orderliness  in  common  law  and  also  in  tUat^'*'^ 
matters  of  slight  or  no  great  importance,  I  do  not  matters. 
think  the  same  is  possible  in  this  subject,  with  its 
vast  significance  and  range.  If  however  some  hold 
otherwise,  they  must  be  brought  to  the  teachers  of 
these  studies  ;  they  will  find  everything  already  dis- 
played  and  highly  finished  ;  for  there  are  countless 
books  on  these  topics,  neither  recondite  nor  hard 
to  understand.  But  let  them  consider  what  they 
want ;  whether  it  be  for  sport  or  warfare  that  they 
mean  to  arm ;  for  the  requirements  of  a  pitched 
battle  are  not  those  of  a  sham  fight  or  our  own 
training-ground.  For  all  that,  the  management  of 
arms  in  mere  sport  has  its  value  for  gladiator  and 
soldier  aUke,  though  it  is  the  keen  and  ready  in- 
telhgence,  endowed  with  sharpness  and  resource- 
fulness,  that  secures  men  against  defeat,  and  no  less 
easily  when  alHed  with  art. 

85      "  And  so  I  shall  now  begin  making  an  orator  for  r- 
you,  if  I  can,  by  first  discovering  the  extent  of  his  J^^ 
capacity.     I  would  have  him  be   a  man  of  some    /%  , 
S  learning,   who   has   done   some   hstening   and  some  ^.    •l/' 
I  reading,  and  received  those  very  teachings  we  have     >t  V' 
mentioned  ;   I  will  make  trial  of  what  suits  him,  and    o^^/ 
/  of  his  powers  of  intonation,  physique,  energy  and       >* .  \ 
fluency.     If  I   find   him   capable   of  reacEing   the  %^ 

higEest  class,  I  will  not  merely  encourage  him  to 
work  out  his  purpose  but  will  positively  implore  him 
so  to  do,  provided  that  I  also  think  his  character 
sound — so  much  glory  to  the  whole  community  do 

261 


CICERO 

•  tantum  ego  in  excellenti  oratore,  et  eodem  viro 
bono,  pono  esse  ornamenti  universae  civitati.  Sin 
videbitur,  cum  omnia  summa  fecerit,  tamen  ad 
mediocres  oratores  esse  venturus,  permittam  ipsi, 
quid  velit ;  molestus  magnopere  non  ero  ;  sin  plane 
abhorrebit,  et  erit  absurdus,  ut  se  contineat,  aut  ad 

86  aliud  studium  transferat,  admonebo.  Nam  neque  is, 
qui  optime  potest,  deserendus  ullo  modo  est  a  co- 
hortatione  nostra,  neque  is,  qui  aliquid  potest,  deter- 
rendus  :  quod  alterum  divinitatis  mihi  cuiusdam 
videtur,  alterum,  vel  non  facere,  quod  non  optime 
possis,  vel  facere,  quod  non  pessime  facias,  humani- 
tatis.  Tertium  vero  illud,  clamare  contra  quam  de- 
ceat,  et  quam  possit,  hominis  est,  ut  tu,  Catule,  de 
quodam    clamatore    dixisti,    stultitiae    suae    quam 

87  plurimos  testes  domestico  praeconio  coUigentis.  De 
hoc  igitur,  qui  erit  talis,  ut  cohortandus  adiuvandus- 
que  sit,  ita  loquamur,  ut  ei  tradamus  ea  duntaxat, 
quae  nos  usus  docuit,  ut  nobis  ducibus  veniat  eo,  quo 
sine  duce  ipsi  pervenimus,  quoniam  mehora  docere 
non  possumus, 

88  XXI.  Atque,  ut  a  famiUari  nostro  exordiar,  hunc 
ego,  Catule,  Sulpicium,  primum  in  causa  parvula 
adolescentulum  audivl :  voce  et  forma,  et  motu  cor- 
poris,  et  rehquis  rebus  aptis  ad  hoc  munus,  de  quo 
quaerimus  ;  oratione  autem  celeri  et  concitata,  quod 
erat  ingenii,  et  verbis  efFervescentibus,  et  paulo 
nimiiun  redundantibus,  quod  erat  aetatis.     Non  sum 

262 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xx.  85— xxi.  88 

I  see  in  an  outstanding  orator  who  is  also  a  man  of 
worth.  But  if  he  seems  likely,  after  doing  his  utmost 
in  every  way,  to  attain  only  the  level  of  the  ordinary 
speaker,  I  will  leave  him  to  his  own  choice  and  not 
worry  him  much,  w^hile,  if  he  prove  wholly  un- 
suitable  and  out  of  his  element,  I  will  recommend 
either   self-repression    or    recourse    to    some    other 

86  vocation.  For  by  no  means  must  a  man  of  the 
highest  capacity  be  left  without  our  encouragement, 
or  one  of  any  abihty  scared  away,  since  to  my  mind 
the  state  of  the  former  partakes  in  a  sense  of  the 
godUke,  while  the  other  course,  that  of  refraining 
from  doing  what  you  cannot  do  perfectly,  or  doing 
what  you  can  do  without  complete  discredit,  is 
natural  to  a  gentleman.  But  that  third  alternative 
of  bawling,  in  defiance  of  propriety  and  of  the 
speaker's  own  Hmitations,  marks  the  man  who,  as 
you,  Catulus,  observed  of  a  certain  bawler,  assembles 
as  many  witnesses  of  his  folly  as  he  can,  by  acting  as 

87  his  own  crier.  Of  him  then,  who  shall  be  found 
deserving  of  our  encouragement  and  help,  let  us  so 
speak  as  to  impart  to  him  merely  what  practice  has 

ytaught  us,  so  that   under  our  leadership  he  may/j^ 
1  reach  that  stage  at  which  we  ourselves  have  arrived  ^^ 

without  a  leader,  since  better  teaching  we  cannot    n^ 

give. 

88  XXI.  "  And  so,  Catulus,  to  begin  with  our  friend  instance  of 
here,  I  first  heard  Sulpicius,  when  he  was  almost  a  appropri- 
boy,  in  a  petty  case  :   as  to  intonation,  presence,  ateiy 
bearing  and  the  other  essentials  he  was  well  fitted  *^''  '^*  ^ 
for  this  function  we  are  investigating,  but  his  dehvery 

was  rapid  and  impetuous — the  result  of  his  genius — , 
his  diction  agitated  and  a  Httle  too  exuberant,  as 
was  natural  at  his  age.     I  did  not  underrate  him, 

263 


CICERO 

aspernatus  ;  volo  enim  se  efferat  in  adolescente 
fecunditas  :  nam  sicut  facilius,  in  vitibus,  revocantur 
ea,  quae  sese  nimium  profuderunt,  quam,  si  nihil  valet 
materies,  nova  sarmenta  cultura  excitantur  :  ita  volo 
esse  in  adolescente,  unde  aliquid  amputem  ;  non 
enim  potest  in  eo  sucus  esse  diuturnus,  quod  nimis 

89  celeriter  est  maturitatem  assecutum.  Vidi  statim 
indolem,  neque  dimisi  tempus,  et  eum  sum  cohor- 
tatus,  ut  forum  sibi  ludum  putaret  esse  ad  discendum  ; 
magistrum  autem,  quem  vellet,  eligeret  ;  me  quidem 
si  audiret,  L.  Crassum  ;  quod  iste  arripuit,  et  ita  sese 
facturum  confirmavit,  atque  etiam  addidit,  gratiae 
scilicet  causa,  me  quoque  sibi  magistrum  futurum. 
Vix  annus  intercesserat  ab  hoc  sermone  cohortationis 
meae,  cum  iste  accusavit  C.  Norbanum,  defendente 
me.  Non  est  credibile,  quid  interesse  mihi  sit  visum 
inter  eum  qui  tum  erat,  et  qui  anno  ante  fuerat. 
Omnino  in  illud  genus  eum  Crassi  magnificum  atque 
praeclarum  natura  ipsa  ducebat :  sed  ea  non  satis 
proficere  potuisset,  nisi  eodem  studio  atque  imitatione 
intendisset,  atque  ita  dicere  consuesset,  ut  tota  mente 
Crassum  atque  omni  animo  intueretur. 

90  XXII.  Ergo  hoc  sit  primum  in  praeceptis  meis,  ut 
demonstremus,  quem  imitetur  atque  ita  ut,  quae 
maxime  excellant  in  eo,  quem  imitabitur,  ea  dih- 
gentissime  persequatur.  Tum  accedat  exercitatio, 
qua  illum,  quem  delegerit,  imitando  eflfingat,  atque 
ita  exprimat,  non  ut  multos  imitatores  saepe  cognovi, 
qui  aut  ea,  quae  faciha  sunt,  aut  etiam  illa,  quae 
insignia   ac   paene    vitiosa,   consectantur    imitando. 

•  See  §  197  n. 
264 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxi.  88— xxii.  90 

being  well  content  that  luxuriance  should  exalt 
itself  in  the  youthful,  for,  as  with  vines  it  is  easier 
to  cut  back  the  branches  which  have  shot  out  too 
riotously  than  to  produce  new  growths  by  cultivation 
from  a  feeble  stock,  even  so  in  a  young  man  I  want 
something  to  prune,  because  the  sap  can  never  Hve 

89  long  in  anything  which  has  ripened  too  early.  I 
instantly  perceived  his  quahty  and  did  not  miss  the 
opportunity,  but  urged  him  to  regard  the  law-courts 
as  his  school  of  instruction,  choosing  what  master  he 
pleased,  but  Lucius  Crassus  if  he  would  take  my 
advice ;  he  caught  at  this  suggestion  and  assured 
me  that  he  would  follow  it,  adding,  out  of  politeness 
of  course,  that  I  too  should  be  his  teacher.  Scarcely 
a  year  had  elapsed,  after  this  advisory  talk  with  me, 
when  our  friend  prosecuted  Gaius  Norbanus,*  whom 
I  was  defending.  Incredible  was  the  difFerence  I 
saw  between  the  Sulpicius  of  that  day  and  of  a  year 
earher.  Assuredly  Nature  herself  was  leading  him 
into  the  grand  and  glorious  style  of  Crassus,  but  could 
never  have  made  him  proficient  enough,  had  he  not 
pressed  forward  on  that  same  way  by  careful  imita- 
tion,  and  formed  the  habit  of  speaking  with  every 
thought  and  all  his  soul  fixed  in  contemplation  of 
Crassus. 

90  XXII.  "  Let  this  then  be  my  first  counsel,  that  we  Ruiesfor 
show  the  student  whom  to  copy,  and  to  copy  in  such  p™''*^"'^* 
a  way  as  to  strive  with  all  possible  care  to  attain 

the  most  excellent  quahties  of  his  model.  Next  let 
practice  be  added,  whereby  in  copying  he  may 
reproduce  the  pattern  of  his  choice  and  not  portray 
him  as  time  and  again  I  have  known  many  copyists 
do,  who  in  copying  hunt  after  such  characteristics 
as  are  easily  copied  or  even  abnormal  and  possibly 
K  265 


CICERO 

91  Nihil  est  facilius  quam  amictum  imitari  alicuius,  aut 
statum,  aut  motum.  Si  vero  etiam  vitiosi  aliquid  est, 
id  sumere  et  in  eo  ambitiosum  esse  non  magnum  est, 
ut  ille,  qui  nunc  etiam,  amissa  voce,  furit  in  republica, 
Fufius,  nervos  in  dicendo  C.  Fimbriae,  quos  tamen 
habuit  ille,  non  assequitur,  oris  pravitatem  et  ver- 
borum  latitudinem  imitatur.  Sed  tamen  ille  nec 
deligere  scivit,  cuius  potissimum  similis  esset,  et  in 
eo  ipso,  quem  delegerat,  imitari  etiam  vitia  voluit. 

92  Qui  autem  ita  faciet,  ut  oportet,  primum  vigilet 
necesse  est  in  deligendo  ;  deinde,  quem  probarit,  in 
eo,  quae  maxime  excellent,  ea  diligentissime  per- 
sequatur. 

Quid  enim  causae  censetis  esse,  cur  aetates  ex- 
tulerint  singulae  singula  prope  genera  dicendi  ?  Quod 
non  tam  facile  in  nostris  oratoribus  possumus  iudi- 
care,  quia  scripta,  ex  quibus  iudicium  fieri  posset,  non 
multa  sane  reliquerunt,  quam  in  Graecis  ;  ex  quorum 
scriptis,  cuiusque  aetatis  quae  dicendi  ratio  voluntas- 
03  que  fuerit,  intellegi  potest.  Antiquissimi  fere  sunt, 
quorum  quidem  scripta  constent,  Pericles  atque 
Alcibiades,  et  eadem  aetate  Thucydides,  subtiles, 
acuti,  breves,  sententiis  magis  quam  verbis  abun- 
dantes.  Consecuti  sunt  hos  Critias,  Theramenes, 
Lysias  :  multa  Lysiae  scripta  sunt ;  nonnuUa  Critiae  ; 
de  Theramene  audivimus.  Non  potuisset  accidere 
ut  unum  esset  omnium  genus,  nisi  ahquem  sibi  pro- 
ponerent  ad  imitandum^ :  omnes  etiam  tum  re- 
tinebant   illum    Periclis    sucum ;    sed    erant    paulo 

*  non  .  .  .  imitandum  hic  Warmington :  ante  Consecuti. 
266 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxii.  91-93 

91  faulty.  For  nothing  is  easier  than  to  imitate  a  man*s 
style  of  dress,  pose  or  gait.  Moreover,  if  there  is 
a  fault,  it  is  not  much  trouble  to  appropriate  that 
and  to  copy  it  ostentatiously,  just  as  that  Fufius, 
who  even  now  is  raving  in  the  political  world,  though 
his  voice  has  gone,  fails  to  attain  the  energy  in 
speaking  which  Gaius  Fimbria  certainly  possessed, 
though  hitting  ofF  his  uncouth  mouthings  and  broad 
pronunciation,  For  all  that,  however,  he  did  not 
know  how  to  choose  the  model  whom  he  would  most 
willingly  resemble,  and  it  was  positively  the  faults 

92  in  his  chosen  pattern  that  he  elected  to  copy.  But 
he  who  is  to  proceed  aright  must  first  be  watchful 
in  making  his  choice,  and  afterwards  extremely 
careful  in  striving  to  attain  the  most  excellent 
quahties  of  the  model  he  has  approved. 

"  Why  now  is  it,  do  you  suppose,  that  nearly  every  ^  ^  ^^^ 
age  has  produced  its  own  distinctive  style  of  oratory  ?  schoois  of 
Of  this  truth  we  can  judge  less  easily  in  the  case  °^^^y- 
of  our  own  orators,  since  they  have  left  but  very 
few  writings  on  which  a  judgement  could  be  based, 
than  as  regards  the  Greeks,  from  whose  works  the 
method  and  tendency  of  the  oratory  of  every  genera- 

93  tion  may  be  understood.  Quite  the  earliest,  of  whom 
we  have  any  authentic  remains,  are  Pericles  and 
Alcibiades,  with  Thucydides  of  the  same  generation, 
all  of  them  accurate,  pointed,  terse  and  wealthier 
in  ideas  than  diction.  These  were  followed  by 
Critias,  Theramenes  and  Lysias  :  we  possess  many 
writings  of  Lysias,  of  Critias  a  few  ;  Theramenes  is 
but  a  name  to  us.  Their  uniformity  of  style  could 
never  have  come  about,  had  they  not  kept  before 
them  some  single  model  for  imitation :  they  all  still 
retained  the  pecuhar  vigour  of  Pericles,  but  their 

267 


CICERO 

94  uberiore  filo.  Ecce  tibi  exortus  est  Isocrates,  magis- 
ter  rhetorum^  omnium,  cuius  e  ludo,  tanquam  ex  equo 
Troiano,  meri  principes  exierunt ;  sed  eorum  partim 
in  pompa,  partim  in  acie  illustres  esse  voluerunt. 

XXIII.  Atque'  et  illi,  Theopompi,  Ephori,  Philisti, 
Naucratae,  multique  ahi  naturis  difFerunt,  voluntate 
autem  similes  sunt  et  inter  sese  et  magistri,  et  ei, 
qui  se  ad  causas  contulerunt,  ut  Demosthenes,  Hy- 
perides,  Lycurgus,  Aeschines,  Dinarchus,  aliique  com- 
plures,  etsi  inter  se  pares  non  fuerunt,  tamen  omnes 
sunt  in  eodem  veritatis  imitandae  genere  versati, 
quorum  quamdiu  mansit  imitatio,  tamdiu  genus  illud 

95  dicendi  studiumque  vixit.  Posteaquam,  exstinctis 
his,  omnis  eorum  memoria  sensim  obscurata  est  et 
evanuit,  alia  quaedam  dicendi  molliora  ac  remissiora 
genera  viguerunt.  Inde  Demochares,  quem  aiunt 
sororis  fihum  fuisse  Demosthenis  ;  tum  Phalereus  ille 
Demetrius,  omnium  istorum,  mea  sententia,  pohtis- 
simus,  aliique  horum  similes  exstiterunt.  Quae  si 
volemus  usque  ad  hoc  tempus  persequi,  intellegemus, 
ut  hodie  Alabandensem  illum  Meneclem,  et  eius 
fratrem  Hieroclem,  quos  ego  audivi,  tota  imitetur 
Asia  :    sic  semper  fuisse  aUquem,  cuius  se  similes 

gg  plerique  esse  vellent.  Hanc  igitur  simiUtudinem  qui 
imitatione  assequi  volet,  cum  exercitationibus  crebris 
atque  magnis,  tum  scribendo  maxime  persequatur  : 
quod  si  hic  noster  Sulpicius  faceret,  multo  eius  oratio 
esset  pressior  ;  in  qua  nunc  interdum,  ut  in  herbis 

*  rhetorum  li^id :  istorum.    ■  Atque  Wilkins, :  Itaque. 
268 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxii.  94— xxiii.  96 

94  texture  was  a  little  more  luxuriant.  Then  behold  ! 
there  arose  Isocrates,  the  Master  of  all  rhetoricians, 
from  whose  school,  as  from  the  Horse  of  Troy,  none 
but  leaders  emerged,  but  some  of  them  sought  glory 
in  ceremonial,  others  in  action. 

XXIII.  "  And  indeed  the  former  sort,  men  like 
Theopompus,  Ephorus,  Philistus,  Naucrates  and 
many  more,  while  difFering  in  natural  gifts,  yet  in 
spirit  resemble  one  another  and  their  Master  too ; 
and  those  who  betook  themselves  to  lawsuits,  as  did 
Demosthenes,  Hyperides,  Lycurgus,  Aeschines, 
Dinarchus  and  several  others,  although  of  varying 
degrees  of  ability,  were  none  the  less  all  busy  with 
the  same  type  of  imitation  of  real  life,  and  as  long 
as  the  imitation  of  these  persisted,  so  long  did  their 

95  kind  of  oratory  and  course  of  training  endure.  After- 
wards,  when  these  men  were  dead  and  all  remem- 
brance  of  them  gradually  grew  dim  and  then  vanished 
away,  certain  other  less  spirited  and  lazier  styles  of 
speaking  flourished.  Then  came  Demochares,  said  to 
have  been  the  son  of  Demosthenes'  sister,  and  after 
him  the  distinguished  Demetrius  of  Phalerum,  the 
most  elegant,  to  my  thinking,  of  all  that  school,  and 
others  Hke  them.  And,  if  we  please  to  trace  this 
subject  down  to  our  own  times,  we  shall  find,  that  just 
as  to-day  all  Asia  is  copying  the  great  Menecles  of 
Alabanda  and  his  brother  Hierocles,  both  of  whom  I 
have  heard,  so  there  has  always  been  some  speaker 

96  whom  the  majority  would  fain  resemble.  Let  him 
then,  who  hopes  by  imitation  to  attain  this  likeness, 
carry  out  his  purpose  by  frequent  and  large  practice, 
and  if  possible,  by  written  composition  :  if  our  friend 
Sulpicius  here  were  to  do  so,  his  diction  would  be 
far  more  condensed ;  at  present,  as  countrymen  are 

269 


CICERO 

rustici  solent  dicere  in  summa  ubertate,  inest  luxuries 
quaedam,  quae  stylo  depascenda  est. 

97  Hic  Sulpicius  :  Me  quidem,  inquit,  recte  mones, 
idque  mihi  gratum  est :  sed  ne  te  quidem,  Antoni, 
multum  scriptitasse  arbitror. 

Tum  ille:  Quasi  vero,  inquit,  non  ea  praecipiam 
aliis,  quae  mihi  ipsi  desint :  sed  tamen  ne  tabulas 
quidem  conficere  existimor.  Verum  et  in  hoc,  ex  re 
familiari  mea,  et  in  illo,  ex  eo,  quod  dico,  quantulum 

98  id  cumque  est,  quid  faciam,  iudicari  potest.  Atque 
esse  tamen  multos  videmus,  qui  neminem  imitentur 
et  suapte  natura,  quod  velint,  sine  cuiusquam  simili- 
tudine  consequantur.  Quod  et  in  vobis  animadverti 
recte  potest,  Caesar  et  Cotta  ;  quorum  alter  inusi- 
tatum  nostris  quidem  oratoribus  leporem  quemdam 
et  salem,  alter  acutissimum  et  subtiUssimum  dicendi 
genus  est  consecutus.  Neque  vero  vester  aequalis 
Curio,  patre,  mea  sententia,  vel  eloquentissimo 
temporibus  illis,  quemquam  mihi  magnopere  videtur 
imitari ;  qui  tamen  verborum  gravitate  et  elegantia 
et  copia  suam  quamdam  expressit  quasi  formam, 
figuramque  dicendi :  quod  ego  maxime  potui  iudicare 
in  ea  causa,  quam  ille  contra  me  apud  centumviros 
pro  fratribus  Cossis  dixit ;  in  qua  nihil  ilH  defuit,  quod 
non  modo  copiosus,  sed  etiam  sapiens  orator  habere 
deberet. 

99  XXIV.  Verum,  ut  aliquando  ad  causas  deducamus 
illum,  quem  constituimus,  et  eas  quidem,  in  quibus 
plusculum   negotii    est,   iudiciorum    atque    Utium — 

270 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxiii.  96— xxiv.  99 

wont  to  say  of  grass  in  times  of  extreme  productive- 
ness,  it  occasionally  has  a  certain  luxuriance  about 
it,  which  should  be  grazed  ofF  by  the  pen." 

97  Here  Sulpicius  interposed,  "  Truly  you  give  me 
good  counsel  and  I  thank  you  for  it,  but  I  fancy 
that  even  you,  Antonius,  have  done  but  Uttle 
scribbhng." 

To  which  Antonius  made  answer,  "  As  though  I 
could  not  teach  others  what  I  lack  myself ;  though 
certainly   I    am    credited   with    not    even    keeping 
accounts  !     But  what  httle  I  can  do  in  this  direction  But  gifted 
can  be  iudffed  from  my  financial  situation,  and  in  individuais 

,  1  J^  1  T  Ai-TT  candispense 

98  the  other  irom  wnat  1  say.     And  mdeed  we  see  withmodeis. 
that  there  are  many  who  copy  no  man,  but  gain  their 
objects  by  natural  aptitude,  without  resembUng  any 
model.     And  the  truth  of  this  may  be  observed  in 

you  two,  Caesar  and  Cotta,  for  one  of  you  has  acquired 
a  degree  of  humour  and  wit  unusual  in  orators,  at  any 
rate  in  our  own,  and  the  other  a  thoroughly  keen 
and  subtle  type  of  oratory.  Curio  too,  your  con- 
temporary,  whose  father  I  consider  quite  the  most 
eloquent  of  his  day,  seems  to  me  to  copy  no  one  in 
particular,  though  in  the  dignity,  refinement  and 
copiousness  of  his  language  he  has  given  expression 
to  what  may  be  called  his  own  pecuUar  pattern  and 
type  of  oratory,  of  which  I  could  judge  to  perfection 
in  that  action  which  he  conducted  against  me  before 
the  Hundred  Commissioners,  on  behalf  of  the  brothers 
Cossi ;  on  that  occasion  he  lacked  no  qualification 
which  an  orator  of  insight,  not  of  copiousness  alone, 
should  possess. 

99  XXIV.  "  However,  to  introduce  at  last  this  man  Firatmaster 
we  are  portraying  to  the  business  of  trials  and  law-  factsofcase. 
suits,  especially  such  cases  as  involve  rather  more 

271 


CICERO 

riserit  aliquis  fortasse  hoc  praeceptum ;  est  enim  non 
tam  acutum,  quam  necessarium,  magisque  monitoris 
non  fatui,  quam  eruditi  magistri — hoc  ei  primum 
praecipiemus,  quascumque  causas  erit  tractaturus,  ut 

100  eas  diligenter  penitusque  cognoscat.  Hoc  in  ludo 
non  praecipitur :  faciles  enim  causae  ad  pueros 
deferuntur.  '  Lex  peregrinum  vetat  in  murum 
ascendere ;  ascendit ;  hostes  repuht ;  accusatur.' 
Nihil  est  negotii  eiusmodi  causam  cognoscere  ;  recte 
igitur  nihil  de  causa  discenda  praecipiunt :  haec 
est  enim  in  ludo  causarum  fere  formula.  At  vero 
in  foro,  tabulae,  testimonia,  pacta  conventa,  stipula- 
tiones,  cognationes,  affinitates,  decreta,  responsa,  vita 
denique  eorum  qui  in  causa  versantur,  tota  cogno- 
scenda  est :  quarum  rerum  neglegentia  plerasque 
causas,  et  maxime  privatas  (sunt  enim  multo  saepe 

101  obscuriores)  videmus  amitti.  Ita  nonnulh,  dum 
operam  suam  multam  existimari  volunt,  ut  toto  foro 
vohtare  et  a  causa  ad  causam  ire  videantvu*,  causas 
dicimt  incognitas.  In  quo  est  illa  quidem  magna 
ofFensio,  vel  neglegentiae,  susceptis  rebus ;  vel  per- 
fidiae,  receptis  ;  sed  etiam  iUa  maior  opinione,  quod 
nemo  potest  de  ea  re,  quam  non  novit,  non  turpissime 
dicere.  Ita  dum  inertiae  vituperationem,  quae  maior 
est,  contemnunt,  assequuntur  etiam  illam,  quam 
magis  ipsi  fugiunt,  tarditatis. 

102  Equidem  soleo  dare  operam,  ut  de  sua  quisque  re 
272 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxiv.  99-102 

trouble, — someone  will  perhaps  laugh  at  this  axiom, 
for  it  is  not  so  much  shrewd  as  necessary,  and 
comes  from  an  adviser  who  is  no  fool,  rather  than 
from  a  learned  Master — ,  we  shall  first  instruct 
him  to  get  up  carefully  and  thoroughly  whatever 

100  cases  he  proposes  to  conduct.  This  is  no  canon 
of  the  schools,  for  the  cases  set  to  the  boys  are 
simple.  '  Statute  forbids  a  foreigner  to  mount  the 
wall ;  a  foreigner  mounts  ;  he  has  driven  ofF  the 
enemy  ;  he  is  prosecuted.'  It  is  no  trouble  to  get 
up  a  case  hke  that,  and  so  they  are  right  in  giving 
no  directions  for  mastering  the  case,  for  this  is  just 
about  the  type  of  wording  in  cases  set  in  the  schools. 
But  in  the  law-courts  documents,  evidence,  informal 
agreements,  formal  contracts,  relationship  by  blood 
or  marriage,  magisterial  orders,  opinions  of  counsel, 
and  finally  the  Ufe-history  of  the  parties  to  the  pro- 
ceedings,  must  all  be  examined ;  and  we  see  that 
it  is  generally  through  neglect  of  these  matters  that 
cases  are  lost,  particularly  such  as  concern  private 
rights,   for   these    are   often  of  peculiar  difficulty. 

101  Thus  some  practitioners,  wishing  their  business  to  be 
thought  large,  and  themselves  to  be  seen  flitting 
from  lawsuit  to  lawsuit  all  round  the  courts,  argue 
cases  which  they  have  not  got  up.  Herein  they  incur 
very  grave  reproach,  either  of  carelessness,  if  their 
services  are  volunteered,  or  of  bad  faith,  if  they  are  re- 
tained  ;  but  that  reproach  is  deemed  all  the  greater, 
in  that  no  man  can  speak,  without  the  direst  disgrace, 
on  a  subject  which  he  has  not  mastered.  And  so, 
while  scorning  the  accusation  of  laziness,  in  reality 
the  more  serious,  they  encounter  as  well  that  of  dull- 
ness,  which  they  themselves  more  sedulously  avoid. 

102  "  It  is  my  own  practice  to  take  care  that  every  client 

273 


CICERO 

me  ipse  doceat  et  ut  ne  quis  alius  adslt,  quo  liberius 
loquatur,  et  agere  adversarii  causam,  ut  ille  agat 
suam  et,  quidquid  de  sua  re  cogitarit,  in  medium 
proferat.  Itaque  cum  ille  discessit,  tres  personas  unus 
sustineo  summa  animi  aequitate,  meam,  adversarii, 
iudicis.  Qui  locus  est  talis,  ut  plus  habeat  adiumenti 
quam  incommodi,  hunc  iudico  esse  dicendum  ;  ubi 
plus  mali  quam  boni  reperio,  id  totum  abiudico  atque 

103  eicio.  Ita  assequor,  ut  alio  tempore  cogitem,  quid 
dicam,  et  aho  dicam  :  quae  duo  plerique  ingenio  freti 
simul  faciunt ;  sed  certe  eidem  ilU  mehus  ahquanto 
dicerent,  si  ahud  sumendum  sibi  tempus  ad  cogi- 
tandum,  ahud  ad  dicendum  putarent. 

104  Cum  rem  penitus  causamque  cognovi,  statim 
occurrit  animo,  quae  sit  causa  ambigendi.  Nihil  est 
enim,  quod  inter  homines  ambigatur  (sive  ex  crimine 
causa  constat,  ut  facinoris,  sive  ex  controversia,  ut 
hereditatis,  sive  ex  dehberatione,  ut  behi,  sive  ex 
persona,  ut  laudis,  sive  ex  disputatione,  ut  de  ratione 
vivendi)  in  quo  non,  aut  quid  factum  sit,  aut  fiat, 
futurumve  sit,  quaeratur,  aut  quale  sit,  aut  quid 
vocetur. 

106  XXV.  Ac  nostrae  fere  causae,  quae  quidem  sunt 
criminum,  plerumque  infitiatione  defenduntur.  Nam 
et  de  pecuniis  repetundis,  quae  maximae  sunt,  ne- 
ganda  fere  sunt  omnia,  et  de  ambitu  raro  illud  datur, 
ut  possis  hberahtatem  atque  benignitatem  ab  ambitu 

274 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxiv.  102— xxv.  105 

personally  instructs  me  on  his  afFairs,  and  that  no  one 
else  shall  be  present,  so  that  he  may  speak  the  more 
freely  ;  and  to  argue  his  opponent's  case  to  him,  so 
that  he  may  argue  his  own  and  openly  declare 
whatever  he  has  thought  of  his  position.  Then,  when 
he  has  departed,  in  my  own  person  and  with  perfect 
impartiality  I  play  three  characters,  myself,  my 
opponent  and  the  arbitrator.  Whatever  consideration 
is  hkely  to  prove  more  helpful  than  embarrassing  I 
decide  to  discuss  ;  wherever  I  find  more  harm  than 
good  I  entirely  reject  and  discard  the  topic  concerned. 

103  In  this  way  I  gain  the  advantage  of  reflecting  first  on 
what  to  say  and  saying  it  later,  two  things  which  most 
people,  trusting  in  their  talent,  do  simultaneously, 
though  those  same  individuals  would  certainly  speak 
rather  more  successfully,  if  they  thought  fit  to  take 
one  occasion  for  reflection  and  another  for  speaking. 

104  "  When  I  have  thoroughly  mastered  the  circum-  The  issue 
stances  of  a  case  the  issue  in  doubt  comes  instantly  to  ^g  ®"  ^^g' 
my  mind.     For  of  all  the  issues  disputed  among  men,  one  of  three 
whether  the  matter  is  criminal,  as  a  charge  of  outrage,    ^  ^ ' 

or  a  civil  proceeding,  as  one  relating  to  an  inheritance, 
or  a  discussion  of  poUcy,  as  one  touching  a  war,  or  of 
a  personal  kind,  as  a  panegyric,  or  a  philosophical 
debate,  as  on  the  way  to  live,  there  is  not  one  of 
which  the  point  is  not  either  what  has  been  done,  or 
what  is  being  done,  or  going  to  be  done,  or  as  to  the 
nature  or  description  of  something. 

105  XXV.  "In  almost  all  our  cases,  in  prosecutions  at  (i)  factof 
any  rate,  the  usual  defence  is  a  plea  of  not  guilty.  ^^^^^^  *° ' 
For,  in  trials  for  extortion,  the  most  important  class, 
nearly  every  allegation  must  be  denied,  and,  on  a 
charge  of  corrupt  practices,  lavish  generosity  can 
seldom  be  distinguished  from  profuse  bribery  ;    in 

275 


CICERO 

atque  largitione  seiungere  ;  de  sicariis,  de  veneficiis, 
de  peculatu  infitiari  necesse  est.  Id  est  igitur  genus 
primum  causarum  in  iudiciis  ex  controversia  facti ; 
in   deliberationibus   plerumque    ex   futuri,  raro    ex 

106  instantis  aut  acti.  Saepe  etiam  res  non  sit  necne, 
sed  qualis  sit  quaeritur  ;  ut  cura  L.  Opimii  causam 
defendebat  apud  populum,  audiente  me,  C.  Carbo 
consul,  nihil  de  C.  Gracchi  nece  negabat,  sed  id  iure 
pro  salute  patriae  factum  esse  dicebat ;  ut  eidem 
Carboni  tribuno  plebis  alia  tum  mente  rem  pubh- 
cam  capessenti  P.  Africanus  de  Ti.  Graccho  inter- 
roganti  responderat  iure  caesum  videri.  lure  autem 
omnia  defenduntur,  quae  sunt  eius  generis,  ut  aut 
oportuerit  aut  hcuerit  aut  necesse  fuerit  aut  impru- 

107  dentia  aut  casu  facta  esse  videantur.  lam  quid 
vocetur,  quaeritur,  cura  quo  verbo  quid  appel- 
landum  sit,  contenditur ;  ut  mihi  ipsi  cmn  hoc 
Sulpicio  fuit  in  Norbani  causa  summa  contentio. 
Pleraque  enim  de  eis,  quae  ab  isto  obiciebantur, 
cura  confiterer,  tamen  ab  illo  maiestatem  minutara 
negabam,  ex  quo  verbo  lege  Appuleia  tota  illa  causa 

208  pendebat.  Atque  in  hoc  genere  causarum  non  nulh' 
praecipiunt  ut  verbum  illud,  quod  causam  facit, 
breviter  uterque  definiat,  quod  mihi  quidem  per- 
quam  puerile  videri  solet.  Aha  est  enim,  cum  inter 
doctos  horaines  de  eis  ipsis  rebus  quae  versantur 
in  artibus   disputatur,  verborum  definitio,   ut  cum 


"  See  §  197  n. 

*  In   100   B.C.,  appointing  a  connmission   to  investigate 
treasons  committed  during  the  Cimbrian  war,  1 13 — 101  b.c 

276 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxv.  105-108 

cases  of  assassination,  poisoning  or  misappropriation 
a  denial  is  the  inevitable  plea.  Thus  in  Court  the 
first  class  of  cases  is  that  of  disputed  facts  ;  debate 
generally  proceeds   from   something  still  to  come, 

106  seldom  from  anything  present  or  past.    Often  too  (2)  it« 
the    question    is    not    whether    something    be    the  °*  ^^ 
fact  or  not,  but  what  is  its  nature  ;    as,   when  I 
heard   Gaius    Carbo,   in   his   consulship,    defending 
Lucius  Opimius  before  the  people,  he  denied  no  de- 

tail  of  the  killing  of  Gaius  Gracchus,  but  urged  that 
it  was  justifiable  and  for  the  public  safety  ;  or  as 
when  PubHus  Africanus  made  answer  to  that  very 
Carbo  (by  then  a  tribune  of  the  commons  with 
changed  political  views  and  putting  a  question  as  to 
Tiberius  Gracchus),  that  *  his  death  appeared  to  be 
justifiable.'  Now  all  acts  may  be  defended  as  justifi-  (3)  ita  defl. 
able  which  are  such  that  the  doing  thereof  was  a  ^^^^^'^ 
duty,  or  permissible,  or  necessary,  or  which  are  shown 
to  have  been  done  inadvertently  or  by  accident. 

107  Again  the  question  is  one  of  definition,  when  the 
terms  in  which  an  act  should  be  described  are  in  dis- 
pute,  as  in  the  main  contention  between  myself  and 
our  friend  Sulpicius  at  the  trial  of  Norbanus.*  For, 
while  admitting  most  of  our  friends  indictment,  I 
still  maintained  that  the  defendant  was  not  guilty  of 
'  treason,'  since  the  whole  case  depended  on  the  con- 
struction  of  this  word,  by  virtue  of  the  Statute  of 

108  Appuleius.^  And  in  such  proceedings  some  lay  down 
a  rule  that  each  side  shall  concisely  define  the  de- 
batable  term,  a  proposition  which  I  myself  always 
think  thoroughly  childish.  For  definition  of  terms  is 
another  thing  when  controversy  arises  among  special- 
ists  touching  the  intimate  concerns  of  the  arts,  for 
instance  when  inquiry  is  made  as  to  the  essential 

877 


CICERO 

quaeritur,  quid  sit  ars,  quid  sit  lex,  quid  sit  civitas,  in 
quibus  hoc  praecipit  ratio  atque  doctrina,  ut  vis  eius 
rei  quam   definias   sic  exprimatur   ut   neque   absit 

109  quicquam  neque  supersit.  Quod  quidem  in  illa  causa 
neque  Sulpicius  fecit  neque  ego  facere  conatus  sum  ; 
nam  quantum  uterque  nostrum  potuit,  omni  copia 
dicendi  dilatavit,  quid  esset  maiestatem  minuere. 
Etenim  definitio  primum  reprehenso  verbo  uno  aut 
addito  aut  dempto  saepe  extorquetur  e  manibus  ; 
deinde  genere  ipso  doctrinam  redolet  exercitatio- 
nemque  paene  puerilem  ;  tum  et  in  sensum  et  in 
mentem  iudicis  intrare  non  potest,  ante  enim  prae- 
terlabitur,  quam  percepta  est. 

110  XXVI.  Sed  in  eo  genere,  in  quo  quale  sit  quid, 
ambigitur,  exsistit  etiam  ex  scripti  interpretatione 
saepe  contentio,  in  quo  nuUa  potest  esse  nisi  ex 
ambiguo  controversia.  Nam  illud  ipsum,  quod  scrip- 
tum  a  sententia  discrepat,  genus  quoddam  habet 
ambigui ;  quod  tum  explicatur,  cum  ea  verba,  quae 
desunt,  suggesta  sunt,  quibus  additis  defenditur 
sententiam  scripti  perspicuam  fuisse.  Ex  contrariis- 
que  scriptis  si  quid  ambigitur,  non  novum  genus 
nascitur,  sed  superioris  generis  causa  duplicatur. 
Idque  aut  numquam  diiudicari  poterit  aut  ita  diiudi- 
cabitur,  ut  referendis  praeteritis  verbis  id  scriptum, 
quodcumque  defendemus,  suppleatur.  Ita  fit,  ut 
unum  genus  in  eis  causis,  quae  propter  scriptum 
ambiguntur,  reUnquatur,  si  est  scriptum  ahquid 
ambigue. 

111  Ambiguorum  autem  cum  plura  genera  sunt,  quae 

278 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxv.  108— xxvi.  111 

nature  of  an  art,  a  statute  or  a  community,  in  which 
circumstances  scientific  method  ordains  that  the 
significance  of  whatever  you  are  defining  shall  be 

109  made  plain,  with  no  omission  or  redundance.  But  in 
that  case  of  ours  Sulpicius  did  no  such  thing  nor  did 
I  attempt  it,  since  we  both,  to  the  utmost  of  our 
power,  enlarged  with  all  our  fluency  upon  the  mean- 
ing  of '  act  of  treason.'  For,  in  the  first  place,  if  the 
addition  or  substraction  of  a  word  be  seized  on,  a 
definition  is  often  wrung  from  our  grasp,  and  then  too 
the  very  suggestion  savours  of  the  schools  and  a 
training  little  better  than  elementary,  and  lastly  the 
definition  cannot  reach  the  understanding  and  reason 
of  the  arbitrator,  as  It  slips  by  him  before  he  has 
taken  it  in. 

110  XXVI.  "But  in  that  kind  of  cases,  wherein  the  Thesethree 
nature  of  somethinff  is  in  issue,  a  further  contest  often  issues  ex- 

Ai  ./•!  ii_        plamed, 

arises  out  of  the  construction  or  a  document,  when 
the  only  possible  dispute  comes  from  an  equivocation. 
For  the  mere  fact  that  letter  and  spirit  are  at  variance 
involves  something  of  an  equivocation  ;  and  this  is 
solved  directly  the  missing  words  are  supplied,  and, 
when  these  are  inserted,  it  is  contended  that  the 
sense  of  the  writing  has  become  plain.  And,  if  un- 
certainty  arises  from  passages  which  contradict  one 
another,  there  emerges  no  new  sort  of  problem,  but 
a  double  example  of  the  former  kind.  And  this 
will  either  prove  insoluble,  or  will  be  so  solved,  that 
by  the  restoration  of  the  words  omitted,  whichever 
version  we  are  upholding  will  be  completed.  It 
follows  that  only  one  class  is  left  of  problems  turn- 
ing  on  the  writer's  language,  these  arising  where 
something  has  been  equivocally  expressed. 

111  "  Now,  although  there  are  several  kinds  of  equivo- 

27<) 


CICERO 

mihi  videntur  ei  melius  nosse,  qui  dialectici  appel- 
lantur,  hi  autem  nostri  ignorare,  qui  non  minus  nosse 
debeant,  tum  illud  est  frequentissimum  in  omni 
consuetudine  vel  sermonis  vel  scripti,  cum  idcirco 
aliquid  ambigitur,  quod  aut  verbum  aut  verba  sint 

112  praetermissa.  Iterum  autem  peccant,  cum  genus 
hoc  causarum,  quod  in  scripti  interpretatione  versa- 
tur,  ab  illis  causis,  in  quibus,  qualis  quaeque  res  sit, 
disceptatur,  seiungunt ;  nusquam  enim  tam  quae- 
ritur,  quale  sit  genus  ipsum  rei  quam  in  scripto,  quod 
totum  a  facti  controversia  separatum  est. 

113  Ita  tria  sunt  omnino  genera,  quae  in  discepta- 
tionem  et  controversiam  cadere  possunt :  quid  fiat 
factum  futurumve  sit,  aut  quale  sit,  aut  quo  modo 
nominetur.  Nam  illud  quidem,  quod  quidam  Graeci 
adiungunt,  'rectene  factum  sit,'  totum  in  eo  est, 
'quale  sit.' 

114  XXVII.  Sed  iam  ad  institutum  revertar  meum. 
Cum  igitur  accepta  causa  et  genere  cognito  rem 
tractare  coepi,  nihil  prius  constituo,  quam  quid  sit 
illud,  quo  mihi  sit  referenda  omnis  illa  oratio,  quae  sit 
propria  quaestionis  et  iudicii.  Deinde  illa  duo  dili- 
gentissime  considero,  quorum  alterum  commenda- 
tionem  habet  nostram  aut  eorum,  quos  defendimus, 
alterum  est  accommodatum  ad  eorum  animos,  apud 
quos  dicimus,  ad  id,  quod  volumus,  commovendos.  Ita 
omnis  ratio  dicendi  tribus  ad  persuadendum  rebus  est 
nixa :  ut  probemus  vera  esse,  quae  defendimus  ;  ut 
concihemus  eos  nobis,  qui  audiunt ;  ut  animos  eorum, 
ad  quemcumque  causa  postulabit  motum,  vocemus. 

116  -^^  probandum  autem  duplex  est  oratori  subiecta 

•  «.«.  the  rhetoricians. 
280 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxvi.  111— xxvii.  116 

cation  (better  understood,  I  think,  by  the  so-called 
logicians,  and  unknown  to  these "  friends  of  ours, 
who  should  understand  them  just  as  well),  yet  the 
most  common,  in  the  whole  range  of  verbal  or  written 
intercourse,  is  the  equivocation  due  to  the  omission 

112  of  a  word  or  words.  And  they  are  wrong  again  in 
distinguishing  between  this  sort  of  cases,  con- 
cerned  with  documentary  construction,  and  those 
where  the  nature  of  something  is  in  debate  ;  for 
never  is  the  precise  character  of  anything  so  closely 
investigated  as  in  the  construction  of  a  document, 
which  has  nothing  in  common  with  questions  of  fact. 

113  "  Then  questions  of  three  kinds  in  all  may  fall  under 
debate  and  dispute — ,  what  is  being  done,  or  has  been 
done  or  is  going  to  be  done,  or  what  is  the  nature  of 
something,  or  what  is  its  right  designation  .''     For 

i  that  further  question,  added  by  sundry  Greeks, 
whether  something  was  lawfuUy  done,  is  completely 
covered  by  the  question  of  its  nature. 

114  XXVII.  "  But  to  return  at  length  to  my  own  plan.  Three 
As  soon  then  as  I  have  received  my  instructions  and  «bjects  .a 
classed  the  case  and  taken  the  matter  in  hand,  the 

very  first  thing  I  determine  is  that  point  to  which  I 
must  devote  all  such  part  of  my  speech  as  belongs 
peculiarly  to  the  issue  and  the  verdict.  Next  I  con- 
template  with  the  utmost  care  those  other  two 
essentials,  the  one  involving  the  recommendation  of 
myself  or  my  clients,  the  other  designed  to  sway  the 

115  feelings  of  the  tribunal  in  the  desired  direction.  Thus 
for  purposes  of  persuasion  the  art  of  speaking  relies 
whoUy  upon  three  things  :  theproof  ofourallegations, 
the  winning  of  our  hearers'  favour,  and  the  rousing  of 
their  feehngs  to  whatever  impulse  our  case  may 

116  require.    For  purposes  of  proof,  however,  the  material 

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materies  :  una  rerum  earum,  quae  non  exeogitantur 
ab  oratore,  sed  in  re  positae  ratione  tractantur,  ut 
tabulae,  testimonia,  paeta  conventa,  quaestiones, 
leges,  senatus  consulta,  res  iudicatae,  decreta,  re- 
sponsa,  reliqua,  si  quae  sunt,  quae  non  ab  oratore 
pariuntur,  sed  ad  oratorem  a  causa  atque  a  reis 
deferuntur  ;  altera  est,  quae  tota  in  disputatione  et 

117  in  argumentatione  oratoris  coUocata  est.  Ita  in 
superiore  genere  de  tractandis  argumentis,  in  hoc 
autem  etiam  de  inveniendis  cogitandum  est.  Atque 
isti  quidem,  qui  docent,  cum  causas  in  plura  genera 
secuerunt,  singulis  generibus  argumentorum  copiam 
suggerunt.  Quod  etiamsi  ad  instituendos  adolescen- 
tulos  magis  aptum  est,  ut,  simul  ac  posita  causa  sit, 
habeant  quo  se  referant,  unde  statim  expedita 
possint  argumenta  depromere,  tamen  et  tardi  ingenii 
est  rivulos  consectari,  fontis  rerum  non  videre,  et 
iam  aetatis  est  ususque  nostri  a  capite  quod  velimus 
arcessere  et  unde  omnia  manent  videre. 

118  Et  primum  genus  illud  earum  rerum,  quae  ad 
oratorem  deferuntur,  meditatum  nobis  in  perpetuum 
ad  omnem  usum  similium  rerum  esse  debebit ;  nam  et 
pro  tabulis  et  contra  tabulas  et  pro  testibus  et  contra 
testes  et  pro  quaestionibus  et  contra  quaestiones 
et  item  de  ceteris  rebus  eiusdem  generis  vel  separa- 
tim  dicere  solemus  de  genere  universo  vel  definite  de 
singuhs  temporibus,  hominibus,  causis  ;  quos  quidem 
locos — vobis  hoc,  Cotta  et  Sulpici,  dico— multa  com- 
mentatione  atque  meditatione  paratos  atque  expe- 

282 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxvii.  116-118 

at  the  orator's  disposal  is  twofold,  one  kind  made  up  Facts  must 
of  the  things  which  are  not  thought  out  by  himself,  ||g,f|^^ 
but  depend  upon  the  circumstances  and  are  dealt  evidenceor 
with  by  rule,  for  example  documents,  oral  evidence,  ^'"S"'"'*'»*- 
informal  agreements,  examinations,  statutes,  decrees 
of  the  Senate,  judicial  precedents,  magisterial  orders, 
opinions  of  counsel,  and  whatever  else  is  not  pro- 
duced  by  the  orator,  but  is  suppUed  to  him  by  the 
case  itself  or  by  the  parties  :  the  other  kind  is  founded 

117  entirely  on  the  orator's  reasoned  argument.     And  so,  Methods  ot 
with  the  former  sort,  he  need  only  consider  the  thesl)'"^ 
handUng  of  his  proofs,  but  with  the  latter,  the  dis-  acquired 
covery  of  them  as  well.     And  indeed  those  professors,    ^  ®  "  ^ 
after  distinguishing  a  larger  number  of  types  of  cases, 
suggest  proofs  in  plenty  for  each  type.     But,  even  if 

this  plan  is  better  fitted  for  training  the  young,  to 
the  end  that,  directly  a  case  is  propounded,  they  may 
have  authorities  from  which  they  can  forthwith 
borrow  ready-made  proofs,  yet  it  is  a  symptom  of 
congenital  dullness  to  follow  up  the  tiny  rills,  but  fail 
to  discern  the  sources  of  things  :  and  by  this  time  it 
is  the  privilege  of  men  of  our  years  and  experience  to 
call  up  what  we  want  from  the  water's  head,  and  to 
discern  the  springs  of  every  stream. 

118  "  And,  to  begin  with,  that  class  of  things  supplied  to 
the  orator  we  shaU  have  to  study  constantly,  with  a 
view  to  the  general  use  of  similar  instances ;  for  in 
attacking  or  defending  documents,  witnesses  or  exam- 
inations  by  torture,  and  also  in  deaUng  with  aU  other 
such  subjects,  it  is  our  habit  to  discuss  either  the  whole 
class  in  the  abstract,  or  individual  occasions,  persons 
or  circumstances  in  the  concrete  :  these  common- 
places  (I  am  speaking  to  you,  Cotta  and  Sulpicius) 
you  ought,  by  dint  of  large  study  and  practice,  to 

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119  ditos  habere  debetis.  I^ongum  est  enim  nunc  me  expli- 
care,  qua  ratione  aut  confirmare  aut  infirmare  testes, 
tabulas,  quaestiones  oporteat.  Haec  sunt  omnia  in« 
genii  vel  mediocris,  exercitationis  autem  maximae ; 
artem  quidem  et  praecepta  dumtaxat  hactenus  requi- 

120  runt,  ut  certis  dicendi  luminibus  ornentur.  Itemque 
illa,  quae  sunt  alterius  generis,  quae  tota  ab  oratore 
pariuntur,  excogitationem  non  habent  difficilem ; 
explicationem  magis  illustrem  perpohtamque  de- 
siderant.  Itaque  cum  haec  duo  nobis  quaerenda 
sint  in  causis,  primvrai  quid,  deinde  quo  modo 
dicamus,  alterum,  quod  totum  arte  tinctum  videtur, 
tametsi  artem  requirit,  tamen  prudentiae  est  paene 
mediocris  quid  dicendum  sit  videre  ;  alterum  est,  in 
quo  oratoris  vis  illa  divina  virtusque  cernitur,  ea,  quae 
dicenda  sunt,  ornate,  copiose  varieque  dicere. 

121  XXVIII.  Qua  re  illam  partem  superiorem,  quoniam 
semel  ita  vobis  placuit,  non  recusabo  quo  minus 
perpoliam  atque  conficiam — quantum  consequar,  vos 
iudicabitis — quibus  ex  locis  ad  eas  tres  res,  quae  ad 
fidem  faciendam  solae  valent,  ducatur  oratio,  ut 
et  concihentur  animi  et  doceantur  et  moveantur. 
Haec  sunt  enim  tria.  Ea  vero  quem  ad  modum  illus- 
trentur,  praesto  est,  qui  omnes  docere  possit,  qui  hoc 
primus  in  nostros  mores  induxit,  qui  maxime  auxit, 

122  qui  solus  efFecit.  Namque  ego,  Catule, — dicam  enim 
non  reverens  assentandi  suspicionem — neminem  esse 
oratorem  paulo  illustriorem  arbitror,  neque  Graecum 
neque  Latinum,  quem  aetas  nostra  tulerit,  quem  non 
et  saepe  et  diligenter  audierim.  Itaque  si  quid  est  in 
me — quod  iam  sperare  videor,  quoniam  quidem  vos, 

•  i.e.  inventio,  or  the  discovery  of  what  to  say. 
284) 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxvii.  119— xxviii.  122 

119  have  ready  at  hand.  It  would  be  a  long  story  for  me 
to  unfold  just  now  the  right  way  to  corroborate  or 
weaken  witnesses,  documents  or  examinations.  All 
this  demands  no  great  talent  but  vast  practice,  and 
Art  and  her  maxims  only  to  this  extent — that  it  be 

120  illuminated  by  good  and  efFective  diction.  So  too 
those  subjects  of  the  other  class,  produced  entirely 
by  the  orator,  are  easy  enough  to  think  out,  but  call 
for  clearer  and  highly  finished  exposition.  Thus, 
while  in  our  cases  we  have  these  two  objectives,  first 
what  to  say,  and  secondly  how  to  say  it,  the  former, 
which  seems  to  be  art  pure  and  simple,  cannot  indeed 
dispense  with  art,  though  it  needs  but  ordinary  skill 
to  discover  what  ought  to  be  said  ;  but  it  is  in  the 
latter  that  the  orator's  godhke  power  and  excellence 
are  discerned,  that  is,  his  delivery  of  what  he  has  to 
say  in  a  style  elegant,  copious  and  diversified. 

121  XXVIII.  "  Accordingly ,  as  you  have  once  for  all  so  Mode  of 
resolved,  I  shall  not  object  to  working  out  completely  arguments 
(you  will  judge  of  the  measure  of  my  success)  that  etiectiveiy 
former  **  portion,  dealing  with  those  commonplaces  crassua. 
from  which  may  be  drawn  a  speech  such  as  to  attain 

those  three  things  which  alone  can  carry  conviction  ; 
I  mean  the  winning  over,  the  instructing  and  the 
stirring  of  men's  minds.  For  these  are  the  three. 
But  how  to  embellish  these  arguments  we  have  at 
hand  him  who  could  teach  the  world,  the  man  who 
first  made  this  accomplishment  habitual  among  us, 
did  most  to  improve  it,  and  alone  has  mastered  it. 

122  For  I  think,  Catulus  (and  I  shall  say  so  without  fear 
of  being  suspected  of  flattery),  that  I  have  Hstened 
often  and  attentively  to  every  one  of  the  rather  more 
brilliant  speakers  of  our  day,  Greek  and  Roman  alike. 
And  so,  if  there  be  anything  in  me  (as  I  think  I  may 

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his  ingeniis  homines,  tantum  operae  mihi  ad  audien- 
dum  datis — ex  eo  est,  quod  nihil  quisquam  umquam 
me  audiente  egit  orator,  quod  non  in  memoria  mea 
penitus  insederit.  Atque  ego  is,  qui  sum,  quantus- 
cumque  sum  ad  iudicandum,  omnibus  auditis  oratori- 
bus,  sine  ulla  dubitatione  sic  statuo  et  iudico,  nemi- 
nem  omnium  tot  et  tanta,  quanta  sunt  in  Crasso, 

123  habuisse  ornamenta  dicendi.  Quam  ob  rem,  si  vos 
quoque  hoc  idem  existimatis,  non  erit,  ut  opinor, 
iniqua  partitio,  si,  cum  ego  hunc  oi-atorem,  quem 
nunc  fingo,  ut  institui,  crearo,  aluero,  confirmaro, 
tradam  eum  Crasso  et  vestiendum  et  ornandum. 

124  Tum  Crassus  :  Tu  vero,  inquit,  Antoni,  perge,  ut 
instituisti.  Neque  enim  est  boni  neque  Uberalis 
parentis,  quem  procrearis  et  eduxeris,  eum  non  et 
vestire  et  ornare,  praesertim  cum  te  locupletem 
esse  negare  non  possis.  Quod  enim  ornamentum, 
quae  vis,  qui  animus,  quae  dignitas  ilU  oratori  defuit, 
qui  in  causa  peroranda  non  dubitavit  excitare  reum 
consularem  et  eius  diloricare  tunicam  et  iudicibus 
cicatrices  adversas  senis  imperatoris  ostendere  ?  Qui 
idem,  hoc  accusante  Sulpicio,  cum  hominem  sedi- 
tiosum  furiosumque  defenderet,  non  dubitavit  sedi- 
tiones  ipsas  ornare,  ac  demonstrare  gravissimis  verbis 
multos  saepe  impetus  populi  non  iniustos  esse,  quos 
praestare  nemo  possit ;  multas  etiam  e  re  publica 
seditiones  saepe  esse  factas,  ut  cum  reges  essent 
exacti,  ut  cum  tribunicia  potestas  constituta ; 
illam    Norbani    seditionem   ex   luctu   civium  et  ex 


•  M'.  Aquilius,  see  §  194  n 
»  See  §  197  n. 

286 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxviii.  122-124 

hope  there  is,  now  that  men  of  your  talents  take  so 
much  trouble  to  hear  me),  it  is  because  no  orator 
ever  delivered  a  speech  in  my  hearing  which  did  not 
settle  deep  within  my  memory.  And  I,  being  what 
I  am,  and  so  far  as  I  am  competent  to  judge,  after 
hearing  all  the  orators,  do  unhesitatingly  decree  and 
pronounce  as  follows,  that  not  one  of  them  all 
possessed  so  many  and  excellent  resources  of  diction 

123  as  appear  in  Crassus.  Therefore,  if  you  share  this 
estimate  of  mine,  it  will,  I  think,  be  no  unfair  division 
of  labour  if,  having  begotten,  nurtured  and  made 
strong  this  orator,  whom  I  am  now  moulding  as  I 
planned,  I  hand  him  over  to  Crassus,  to  be  clothed 
and  fitted  out." 

124  Here  Crassus  observed  :  "  Nay,  Antonius,  you  go  Cnwsus 
on  with  your  plan.     For  it  ill  becomes  a  good  and  A^tonius  to 
generous  father  to  refuse  clothing  and  equipment  to  expiain  his 
the  child  you  have  begotten  and  reared,  especially  ^hod. 

as  you  cannot  plead  poverty.  For  what  (id  that 
advocate  lack,  in  the  way  of  resource,  passion,  energy 
or  greatness,  who  in  closing  his  case  did  not  hesitate 
to  call  forward  the  defendanf  of  consular  rank,  and 
tear  open  his  tunic,  and  display  to  the  tribunal  the 
scars  on  the  old  generars  breast  ?  Who  again,  in  his 
defence  of  a  factious  and  frenzied  client,  prosecuted 
by  Sulpicius  here,  did  not  hesitate  to  glorify  civil  dis- 
cord  in  itself,  and  to  show,  in  most  convincing  terms, 
that  many  popular  movements  are  justifiable,  and  no 
one  by  any  possibility  answerable  for  them  ;  that 
moreover  civil  discord  has  often  been  aroused  in  the 
interest  of  the  community,  witness  the  expulsion  of 
the  kings  and  the  establishment  of  the  authority  of 
tribunes  ;  that  the  outbreak  of  Norbanus,^  arising  as 
it  did  from  pubHc  mourning  and  indignation  against 

287 


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Caepionis  odio,  qui  exercitum  amiserat,  neque  re- 

125  primi  potuisse  et  iure  esse  conflatam  ?  Potuit  hic 
locus  tam  anceps,  tam  inauditus,  tam  lubricus,  tam 
novus  sine  quadam  incredibili  vi  ac  facultate  dicendi 
tractari  ?  Quid  ego  de  Cn.  Mallii,  quid  de  Q.  Regis 
commiseratione  dicam  ?  Quid  de  aliis  innumerabili- 
bus  ?  in  quibus  non  hoc  maxime  enituit,  quod  tibi 
omnes  dant,  acumen  quoddam  singulare,  sed  haec 
ipsa,  quae  nunc  ad  me  delegare  vis,  ea  semper  in 
te  eximia  et  praestantia  fuerunt. 

126  XXIX.  Tum  Catulus  :  Ego  vero,  inquit,  in  vobis 
hoc  maxime  admirari  soleo,  quod,  cum  inter  vos  in 
dicendo  dissimillimi  sitis,  ita  tamen  uterque  vestrum 
dicat,  ut  ei  nihil  neque  a  natura  denegatum  neque  a 
doctrina  non  delatum  esse  videatur.  Qua  re,  Crasse, 
neque  tu  tua  suavitate  nos  prfvabis,  ut,  si  quid  ab 
Antonio  aut  praetermissum  aut  relictum  sit,  non 
explices  ;  neque  te,  Antoni,  si  quid  non  dixeris, 
existimabimus  non  potuisse  potius  quam  a  Crasso 
dici  maluisse. 

127  Hic  Crassus :  Quin  tu,  inquit,  Antoni,  omittis 
ista,  quae  proposuisti,  quae  nemo  horum  desiderat : 
quibus  ex  locis  ea,  quae  dicenda  sunt  in  causis,  re- 
periantur  ;  quae  quamquam  a  te  novo  quodam  modo 
praeclareque  dicuntur,  sunt  tamen  et  re  faciliora 
et  praeceptis  pervagata.  IUa  deprome  nobis  unde 
afferas,  quae  saepissime  tractas  semperque  divini- 
tus.     Depromam    equidem,  inquit,  et  quo   facilius 

288 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxviii.  124— xxix.  127 

Caepio,  who  had  lost  his  army,  could  not  have  been 

125  restrained  and  was  justifiably  kindled.  Could  this 
line  of  argument,  so  hazardous,  startling,  treacherous 
and  unfamiliar,  be  handled  otherwise  than  by 
oratorical  power  and  readiness  truly  marvellous  ? 
What  shall  I  say  of  the  lamentation  over  Gnaeus 
Mallius,  or  of  that  over  Quintus  Rex  ?  What  of 
countless  other  cases,  wherein  the  really  unequalled 
acuteness,  universally  recognized  as  yours,  was  not 
the  most  brilliant  feature,  but  those  very  qualifica- 
tions,  which  you  would  now  delegate  to  me,  were 
consistently  displayed  in  outstanding  excellence  by 
yourself  ?  " 

126  XXIX.  "  For  my  part,"  interposed  Catulus,  "  the 
thing  about  you  two  which  most  persistently  excites 
my  wonder  is,  that  while  you  are  utterly  different  in 
style,  yet  each  speaks  as  though  nothing  had  been 
denied  him  by  nature  or  withheld  from  him  by  train- 
ing.  And  so,  Crassus,  you  will  not  stint  us  of  your 
charm  to  the  extent  of  decUning  to  expound  any thing 
passed  over  or  left  out  by  Antonius,  nor  shall  we 
suppose,  Antonius,  that  you  could  have  a  speaker 
more  welcome  to  you  than  Crassus,  to  say  what  you 
may  have  omitted  to  say." 

127  "  Not  so,  Antonius,"  continued  Crassus,  "  rather 
please  omit  that  part  of  your  programme  which  none 
of  ourfriends  here  wants,  touching  the  commonplaces 
which  supply  us  with  what  we  have  to  say  in  our 
cases :  although  you  discuss  these  things  with  brilliant 
originality,  they  are  for  all  that  really  rather  easy 
and  widely  current  in  maxims.  Produce  for  us  the 
sources  of  what  you  so  often  handle  and  always  in 
inspired  fashion."  "  I  will  certainly  produce  them," 
replied  the  other,  "  and,  the  more  readily  to  exact 

289 


CICERO 

id    a    te    exigam,    quod    petam,    nihil  tibi    a    me 

128  postulanti  recusabo.  Meae  totius  orationis  et 
istius  ipsius  in  dicendo  facultatis,  quam  modo 
Crassus  in  caelum  verbis  extulit,  tres  sunt  rationes, 
ut  ante  dixi :   una  conciliandorum  hominum,  altera 

129  docendorum,  tertia  concitandorum.  Harum  trium 
partium  prima  lenitatem  orationis,  secunda  acu- 
men,  tertia  vim  desiderat.  Nam  hoc  necesse  est,  ut 
is,  qui  nobis  causam  adiudicaturus  sit,  aut  inclina- 
tione  voluntatis  propendeat  in  nos,  aut  defensionis 
argumentis  adducatur,  aut  animi  permotione  cogatur. 
Sed  quoniam  illa  pars,  in  qua  rerum  ipsarum  expli- 
catio  ac  defensio  posita  est,  videtur  omnem  huius 
generis  quasi  doctrinam  continere,  de  ea  primum 
loquemur  et  pauca  dicemus.  Pauca  enim  sunt,  quae 
usu  iam  tractata  et  animo  quasi  notata  habere 
videamur. 

130  XXX.  Ac  tibi  sapienter  monenti,  Crasse,  libenter 
assentiemur,  ut  singularum  causarum  defensiones 
quas  solent  magistri  pueris  tradere,  relinquamus, 
aperiamus  autem  capita  ea,  unde  omnis  ad  omnem  et 
causam  et  orationem  disputatio  ducitur.  Neque 
enim,  quotiens  verbum  aliquod  est  scribendum  nobis, 
totiens  eius  verbi  litterae  sunt  cogitatione  conqui- 
rendae  ;  nec  quotiens  causa  dicenda  est,  totiens  ad 
eius  causae  seposita  argumenta  revolvi  nos  oportet, 
sed  habere  certos  locos,  qui,  ut  litterae  ad  verbum 
scribendum,  sic  illi  ad  causam  explicandam  statim 

131  occurrant.  Sed  hi  loci  ei  demum  oratori  prodesse 
possunt,  qui  est  versatus  in  rerum  vel  usu,  quem  aetas 
290 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxix.  127— xxx.  131 

what  I  want  from  you,  I  will  refuse  nothing  that  you 

128  demand  of  me.  Under  my  whole  oratorical  system 
and  that  very  readiness  in  speaking  which  Crassus 
just  now  lauded  to  the  skies,  lie  three  principles,  as  I 
said  before,  first  the  winning  of  men's  favour,  secondly 

129  their  enlightenment,  thirdly  their  excitement.  Of 
these  three  the  first  calls  for  gentleness  of  style,  the 
second  for  acuteness,  the  third  for  energy.  For,  of 
necessity,  the  arbitrator  who  is  to  decide  in  our 
favour  must  either  lean  to  our  side  by  natural  inclina- 
tion,  or  be  won  over  by  the  arguments  for  the  defence, 
or  constrained  by  stirring  his  feelings.  But  as  the 
portion  including  the  exposition  of  the  actual  facts 
and  the  line  of  defence  seems  to  include  the  whole 
doctrine  on  this  subject,  we  will  speak  of  that  first 
and  briefly.  For  there  are  a  few  points  which  I  have 
perhaps  already  handled  in  practice  and  noted  in 
my  memory. 

130  XXX.  "  And    I    shall   gladly    follow    your   good  Bmpioy- 
counsel,    Crassus,    ignoring    the    lines    of   defence  ?^ommor 
proper    to    particular    types    of    cases,    as    taught  piaces.* 
regularly  by  the  professors  to  the   boys,  while    I 

open  up  the  sources  from  which  the  whole  argument 
for  every  case  and  speech  is  derived.  For  just  as, 
whenever  we  have  some  word  to  write,  we  need  not 
search  out  its  component  letters  by  hard  thinking, 
so,  whenever  we  have  some  case  to  argue,  our  right 
course  is  not  to  fall  back  upon  proofs  laid  away  for 
that  particular  type  of  cases,  but  to  have  in  readiness 
sundry  commonplaces  which  will  instantly  present 
themselves  for  setting  forth  the  case,  as  the  letters 

131  do  for  writing  the  word.  But  these  commonplaces 
can  be  useful  only  to  a  speaker  who  is  a  man  of 
affairs,  qualified  by  experience,  which  age  assuredly 

291 


CICERO 

denique  affert,  vel  auditione  et  cogitatione,  quae 
studio  et  diligentia  praecurrit  aetatem.  Nam  si  tu 
mihi  quamvis  eruditum  hominem  adduxeris,  quamvis 
acrem  et  acutum  in  cogitando,  quamvis  ad  pro- 
nuntiandum  expeditum,  si  erit  idem  in  consuetudine 
civitatis,  in  exemplis,  in  institutis,  in  moribus  ac 
voluntatibus  civium  suorum  hospes,  non  multum  ei 
loci  proderunt  illi,  ex  quibus  argumenta  promuntur. 
Subacto  mihi  ingenio  opus  est,  ut  agro  non  semel 
arato,  sed  et^  novato  et  iterato,  quo  mehores  fetus 
possit  et  grandiores  edere.  Subactio  autem  est  usus, 
auditio,  lectio,  litterae. 
132  Ac  primum  naturam  causae  videat,  quae  numquam 
latet,  factumne  sit  quaeratur,  an  quale  sit,  an  quod 
nomen  habeat ;  quo  perspecto  statim  occurrit 
naturali  quadam  prudentia,  non  his  subductionibus, 
quas  isti  docent,  quid  faciat  causam,  id  est,  quo 
sublato  controversia  stare  non  possit ;  deinde  quid 
veniat  in  iudicium,  quod  isti  sic  iubent  quaerere. 
'  Interfecit  Opimius  Gracchum.  Quid  facit  causam  ? 
Quod  rei  publicae  causa,  cum  ex  senatus  consulto  ad 
arma  vocasset.  Hoc  toUe,  causa  non  erit.  At  id 
ipsirni  negat  contra  leges  licuisse  Decius.  Veniet 
igitur  in  iudicium  licueritne  ex  senatus  consulto 
servandae  rei  publicae  causa.'  Perspicua  sunt  haec 
quidem  et  in  volgari  prudentia  sita  ;   sed  illa  quae- 

^  et  add.  Beid  ;  [novato  et]  alii. 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxx.  131-132 

brings,  or  by  listening  and  reflection,  which  through 
careful  study  outruns  age.  For  bring  me  a  man 
as  accompUshed,  as  clear  and  acute  in  thinking, 
and  as  ready  in  delivery  as  you  please  ;  if,  for 
all  that,  he  is  a  stranger  to  social  intercourse, 
precedent,  tradition,  and  the  manners  and  dis- 
position  of  his  fellow-countrymen,  those  common- 
places  from  which  proofs  are  derived  will  avail 
him  but  Httle.  I  must  have  talent  which  has  been 
cultivated,  soil,  as  it  were,  not  of  a  single  ploughing, 
but  both  broken  and  given  a  second  ploughing  so  as 
to  be  capable  of  bearing  better  and  more  abundant 
produce.  And  the  cultivation  is  practice,  listening, 
reading  and  written  composition. 
132  "  And  let  the  pupil  first  discern  the  nature  of  a  Some 
case,  never  an  obscure  thing,  whether  the  question  '^1^^°^' 
relate  to  the  doing  of  an  act,  or  to  its  character  or  aiways 
right  designation  :  this  once  ascertained,  the  sub-  ^^*'  * 
stance  of  the  case,  or  that  without  which  the  dis- 
cussion  must  collapse,  leaps  instantly  to  the  mind, 
through  what  I  may  call  native  intuition,  not  through 
the  reckonings  taught  by  those  people  ;  next  he 
must  determine  the  issue  to  be  decided,  which  they 
would  have  him  investigate  as  follows.  '  Opimius 
killed  Gracchus.  What  is  the  substance  of  the 
case  .''  That  he  did  so  in  the  interest  of  the  com- 
munity,  after  proclaiming  a  state  of  war  in  obedience 
to  the  Senate's  decree.  Strike  out  this  plea,  and 
there  will  be  no  case.  Decius  however  denies  the 
legality  of  the  decree  itself,  as  being  contrary  to 
statute.  So  the  issue  will  be  whether  the  Senates 
decree  and  the  salvation  of  the  community  justified 
the  act.'  These  points  are  quite  clear  and  within 
the  compass  of  ordinary  knowledge,  but  a  search  is 

293 


CICERO 

renda,  quae  et  ab  accusatore  et  a  defensore  argu- 
menta  ad  id,  quod  in  iudicium  venit,  spectantia 
debent  afFerri. 

133  XXXI.  Atque  hic  illud  videndum  est,  in  quo  sum- 
mus  est  error  istorum  magistrorum,  ad  quos  liberos 
nostros  mittimus,  non  quo  hoc  quidem  ad  dicendum 
magno  opere  pertineat,  sed  tamen  ut  videatis  quam^ 
sit  genus  hoc  eorum  qui  sibi  eruditi  videntur  hebes 
atque  impolitum.*  Constituunt  enim  in  partiendis 
orationum  modis  duo  genera  causarum  :  unum  ap- 
pellant,  in  quo  sine  personis  atque  temporibus  de 
universo  genere  quaeratur  ;  alterum,  quod  personis 
certis  et  temporibus  definiatur ;  ignari  omnes  con- 
troversias  ad  universi  generis  vim  et  naturam  referri. 

134  Nam  in  ea  ipsa  causa,  de  qua  ante  dixi,  nihil  pertinet 
ad  oratoris  locos  Opimii  persona,  nihil  Decii.  De 
ipso  universo  genere  infinita  quaestio  est,  num 
poena  videatur  esse  aflSciendus,  qui  civem  ex  senatus 
consulto  patriae  conservandae  causa  interemerit, 
cum  id  per  leges  non  Uceret.  Nulla  denique  est 
causa,  in  qua  id,  quod  in  iudicium  venit,  reorura 
personis  ac  non  generum  ipsorum  universa  dubitatione 

135  quaeratur.  Quin  etiam  in  eis  ipsis,  ubi  de  facto 
ambigitur,  ceperitne  pecunias  contra  leges  P. 
Decius,  argumenta  et  criminum  et  defensionis  revo- 
centur  oportet  ad  genus  et  ad  naturam  universam  : 
quod  sumptuosus,  de  luxurie,  quod  aUeni  appetens, 
de  avaritia,  quod  seditiosus,  de  turbulentis  et  mahs 


^  quam  Piderit :  quale. 
[hebes  atque  impolitum]  Kayser. 


S94 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxx.  132— xxxi.  135 

necessary  to  discover  the  proofs,  bearing  upon  the 
issue,  which  are  proper  to  be  adduced  by  the  prose- 
cution  and  the  defence  respectively. 

133  XXXI.  "  And  here  we  must  notice  the  very  great  Errorof 
mistake   made   by   those   professors,   to   whom   we  ^common? 
send  our  sons  ;  not  indeed  that  this  has  much  to  do  piaces '  from 
with  speaking,  but  just  to  let  you  see  how  dull  and 
inelegant  is  this  class  of  the  people  who  fancy  thera-     • 
selves  accompHshed.     For  in  their  division  of  the 
diflPerent  kinds  of  speeches  they  set  up  two  sorts 

of  cases  :  one  they  describe  as  raising  general 
questions,  not  related  to  individuals  or  occasions  ; 
and  the  other  as  depending  upon  specific  individuals 
and  occasions  ;  not  knowing  that  any  debate  what- 
soever  can  be  brought  under  the  notion  and  quaUty 

134  of  the  general  kind.  For,  in  the  very  case  I 
mentioned  just  now,  the  personahty  of  Opimius 
or  of  Decius  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  orator*s 
commonplaces.  There  is  an  abstract  question  of  a 
purely  general  kind,  *  Is  a  defendant  to  be  deemed 
deserving  of  punishment,  who  has  slain  a  fellow- 
countryman  in  obedience  to  a  decree  of  the  Senate, 
and  for  the  salvation  of  his  native  land,  though  by 
statute  such  act  was  unlawful  ?  '  There  is  in  fact 
no  case  wherein  the  issue  for  decision  turns  on  the 
personaUties  of  the  parties,  and  not  on  the  abstract 

135  discussion  of  general  conceptions.  Indeed,  even 
where  the  question  is  one  of  pure  fact,  such  as 
*  Did  Publius  Decius  take  moneys  unlawfully  ? '  the 
evidence  for  prosecution  and  defence  alike  must 
have  reference  to  general  terms  and  essential 
qualities  :  to  convict  of  extravagance  you  must 
refer  to  profusion  ;  of  covetousness,  to  greed  ;  of 
sedition,    to    turbulent    and    wicked    members    of 

295 


CICERO 

civibus,  quod  a  multis  arguitur,  de  genere  testium, 
contraque,  quae  pro  reo  dicentur,  omnia  necessario  a 
tempore  atque  homine  ad  communes  renun  et  gene- 

136  rum  summas  revolventur.  Atque  haec  forsitan 
homini  non  omnia,  quae  sunt  in  natura  rerum, 
celeriter  animo  comprehendenti  permulta  videantur, 
quae  veniant  in  iudicium  tum,  cum  de  facto  quae- 
ratur;  sed  tamen  criminum  multitudo  est  et  de- 
fensionum,  non  locorum  infinita. 

137  XXXII.  Quae  vero,  cum  de  facto  non  ambigitur, 
quaeruntur,  qualia  sint,  ea  si  ex  reis  numeres,  et 
innumerabilia  sunt  et  obscura  ;  si  ex  rebus,  valde 
et  modica  et  illustria.  Nam  si  Mancini  causam  in  uno 
Mancino  ponimus,  quotienscumque  is,  quem  pater 
patratus  dediderit,  receptus  non  erit,  totiens  causa 
nova  nascetur.  Sin  illa  controversia  causam  facit, 
videaturne  ei,  quem  pater  patratus  dediderit,  si  is 
non  sit  receptus,  postliminium  esse,  nihil  ad  artem 
dicendi    nec    ad    argumenta    defensionis    Mancini 

138  nomen  pertinet.  Ac,  si  quid  affert  praeterea  hominis 
aut  dignitas  aut  indignitas,  extra  quaestionem  est  et 
ea  tamen  ipsa  oratio  ad  universi  generis  disputa- 
tionem  referatur  necesse  est.  Haec  ego  non  eo 
consiho  disputo,  ut  homines  eruditos  redarguam ; 
quamquam  reprehendendi  sunt  qui  in  genere  de- 
finiendo  istas   causas   describunt  in   personis   et  in 

139  temporibus  positas  esse.    Nam  etsi  incurrunt  tempora 

*  See  Book  I,  xL 
S96 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxi.  135— xxxii.  139 

the  community ;  to  prove  that  the  defendants 
accusers  are  many,  you  must  deal  with  witnesses 
in  the  mass  :  and  conversely  all  the  evidence  for 
the  defence  will  have  to  turn  away  from  the 
particular  occasion  and  individual  to  general  con- 

136  ceptions  of  circumstances  and  kinds.  And,  to  a 
man  who  is  slow  in  his  intellectual  apprehension  of 
all  that  there  is  in  Hfe,  the  issues  arising  for  decision 
on  questions  of  fact  may  perhaps  seem  very  numerous, 
but  in  reaHty  it  is  the  charges  and  the  Hnes  of 
defence,  not  the  commonplaces,  which  are  endless 
in  their  variety. 

137  XXXII.  But  the  cases  wherein  there  is  no  ques-  The  great 
tion  of  fact,  and  only  the  character  of  an  act  is  in  variety  of 

11.  •  11  t    .        .  .n  1  1  cases  can  be 

doubt,  are  innumerable  and  mtricate  if  reckoned  brougiit 
up  by  the  actors,  but  very  few  and  clear  if  reckoned  heals.^^^ 
up  by  the  acts.  For,  if  we  confine  the  decision  in 
the  Case  of  Majicinus '^  to  Mancinus  alone,  then  every 
time  the  surrender  of  anyone  deHvered  up  by  the 
Priestly  Envoy  has  been  rejected,  a  fresh  debate 
wiH  begin.  But,  if  the  substance  of  that  case  is 
the  problem  '  Whether  a  man  deHvered  up  by  the 
Priestly  Envoy  has  the  right  of  re-entry  if  his 
surrender  is  rejected,'  then  the  person  of  Mancinus 
has  nothing  to  do  with  the  art  of  speaking  or  the 

138  evidence  for  the  defence.  Moreover  whatever  help 
a  mans  worth  or  his  want  of  it  afFords  is  irrelevant 
to  the  inquiry,  and  yet  that  part  of  the  speech  also 
must  be  classed  as  discussion  of  a  general  proposi- 
tion.  I  treat  these  matters  not  in  order  to  contradict 
accompHshed  people,  though  they  are  to  be  censured 
who,  in  determining  their  classification,  define  such 
cases   as   depending   upon  specific   individuals   and 

139  occasions.     For  occasions  and  individuals  do  indeed 

L  297 


CICERO 

et  personae,  tamen  intellegendum  est,  non  ex  eis,  sed 
ex  genere  quaestionis  pendere  causas.  Sed  hoc 
nihil  ad  me ;  nuUum  enim  nobis  certamen  cum  istis 
esse  debet.  Tantum  satis  est  intellegi  ne  hoc  quidem 
eos  consecutos,  quod  in  tanto  otio,  etiam  sine  hac 
forensi  exercitatione,  efficere  potuerunt,  ut  genera 
rerum  discernerent  eaque  paulo  subtilius  explicarent. 

140  Verum  hoc,  ut  dixi,  nihil  ad  me.  Illud  ad  me  ac 
multo  etiam  magis  ad  vos,  Cotta  noster  et  Sulpici  : 
quo  modo  nunc  se  istorum  artes  habent,  pertimes- 
cenda  est  multitudo  causarum  ;  est  enim  infinita,  si 
in  personis  ponitur  ;  quot  homines,  tot  causae ;  sin  ad 
generum  universas  quaestiones  referuntur,  ita  modicae 
et  paucae  sunt,  ut  eas  omnes  diligentes  et  memores 
et  sobrii  oratores  percursas  animo  et  prope  dicam 
decantatas  habere  debeant ;  nisi  forte  existimatis 
a  M'.  Curio  causam  didicisse  L.  Crassum  et  ea  re 
multa  attulisse,  quam  ob  rem  postumo  non  nato 
Curium   tamen    heredem    Coponii    esse    oporteret. 

141  Nihil  ad  copiam  argmnentorum  neque  ad  causae  vim 
ac  naturam  nomen  Coponii  aut  Curii  pertinuit.  In 
genere  erat  universo  rei  negotiique,  non  in  tempore 
ac  nominibus,  omnis  quaestio  :  cum  scriptum  ita  sit 
Si  mihi  JiUus  genitur,  isque  prius  moritur,  et  cetera, 
tum  mihi  ille  sit  heres,  si  natus  filius  non  sit, 
videaturne  is,  qui  filio  mortuo  institutus  heres  sit, 

"  See  Book  I,  §  180. 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxii.  139-141 

enter  into  the  inquiry,  but  it  must  be  understood 
that  the  cases  do  not  depend  upon  these,  but  upon 
general  questions.  This  however  is  nothing  to  me, 
for  we  are  not  obhged  to  quarrel  with  those  people. 
It  is  quite  enough  to  make  it  known  that  they  have 
not  even  succeeded  in  distinguishing  difFerent  classes 
of  things,  and  in  describing  them  a  little  more 
accurately,  as  with  their  unbounded  leisure  they 
could  have  done,  even  though  they  lacked  our  own 

140  public  practice.  But  this,  as  I  said,  is  nothing  to 
me.  What  is  important  to  me,  and  far  more  so 
to  you,  friends  Cotta  and  Sulpicius,  is  that,  in 
the  present  stage  of  those  men's  attainments,  a 
multiplicity  of  cases  is  greatly  to  be  feared  ;  for  their 
variety  is  endless  if  they  are  identified  with  indi- 
viduals  ;  every  man  then  has  his  case  ;  but,  if  they 
are  brought  under  general  heads  of  inquiry,  they  are 
so  ordinary  and  so  few  that  careful  and  thoughtful 
speakers  with  good  memories  should  be  able  to 
handle  them  all,  after  mentally  running  through 
them  and  all  but  sing-songing  them  ;  unless  you 
happen  to  think  that  Lucius  Crassus  got  up  his  brief 
from  Manius  Curius,"  and  for  that  reason  adduced 
all  those  grounds  for  holding  Curius  entitled  to 
succeed  as  heir  to  Coponius,  though  no  posthumous 

141  son  had  been  born.  The  identity  of  Coponius  or  of 
Curius  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  wealth  of  argu- 
ment  or  with  the  essential  character  of  the  case, 
The  whole  inquiry  turned  upon  an  abstract  question, 
founded  in  the  facts  of  the  matter,  not  in  any  occasion 
or  personalities  :  the  words  in  the  will  being  '  If  a 
son  is  horn  to  me,  and  such  son  dies  bejhre,  etc.,  then  let 
So-and-so  he  my  heir,'  and  no  son  having  in  fact  been 
born,  ought  that  party  to  inherit  who  was  nominated 

299 


CICERO 

heres  esse.  Perpetui  iuris  et  universi  generis  quaestio 
non  hominum  nomina,  sed  rationem  dicendi  et  argu- 
mentorum  fontes  desiderat. 

142  XXXIII.  In  quo  etiam  isti  nos  iuris  consulti  im- 
pediunt  a  discendoque  deterrent.  Video  enim  in 
Catonis  et  in  Bruti  libris  nominatim  fere  referri  quid 
alicui  de  iure  viro  aut  mulieri  responderit  :  credo,  ut 
putaremus  in  hominibus,  non  in  re,  consultationis  aut 
dubitationis  causam  aliquam  fuisse  ;  ut,  quod  ho- 
mines  innumerabiles  essent,  debilitati  a  iure  cog- 
noscendo  voluntatem  discendi  simul  cum  spe  per- 
discendi  abiceremus.  Sed  haec  Crassus  aliquando 
nobis  expediet  et  exponet  discripta  generatim  ;  est 
enim,  ne  forte  nescias,  heri  nobis  ille  hoc,  Catule, 
pollicitus  se  ius  civile,  quod  nunc  diflPusum  et  dis- 
sipatmn  esset,  in  certa  genera  coacturum  et  ad  artem 
facilem  redacturum. 

143  Et  quidem,  inquit  Catulus,  haudquaquam  id  est 
difficile  Crasso,  qui  et,  quod  disci  potuit  de  iure, 
didicit  et,  quod  eis,  qui  eum  docuerunt,  defuit,  ipse 
aflFeret,  ut,  quae  sint  in  iure,  vel  apte  discribere  vel 
ornate  illustrare  possit.  Ergo  ista,  inquit  Antonius, 
tum  a  Crasso  discemus,  cum  se  de  turba  et  a  subselliis 

144  in  otium,  ut  cogitat,  soliumque  contulerit.  lam  id 
quidem  saepe,  inquit  Catulus,  ex  eo  audivi,  cum 
diceret  sibi  certiun  esse  a  iudiciis  causisque  discedere  ; 
SOO 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxii.  141— xxxiii.  144 

heir  in  substitution  for  a  deceased  son  ?  An  inquiry 
depending  upon  a  fixed  and  general  rule  of  law 
needs  no  men's  names,  but  methodical  presentation 
and  the  sources  of  arguments. 

142  XXXIII.  "  And  here  again  those  learned  lawyers 
embarrass  us  and  frighten  us  away  from  more  learn- 
ing.  For  I  observe  that  in  the  treatises  of  Cato  and 
Brutus  the  advice  given  by  counsel  to  cHents  of  either 
sex  is  generally  set  down  with  the  parties  named : 
I  suppose,  to  make  us  think  that  some  reason  for 
seeking  advice  or  for  the  discussion  originated  in 
the  parties  and  not  in  the  circumstances  ;  to  the 
end  that,  seeing  the  parties  to  be  innumerable,  we 
might  be  discouraged  from  studying  the  law,  and 
might  cast  away  our  inchnation  to  learn  at  the 
same  moment  as  our  hope  of  mastery.  But  these 
matters  Crassus  will  one  day  disentangle  for  us  and 
set  forth  arranged  under  heads  ;  for  you  must  know, 
Catulus,  that  yesterday  he  promised  us  that  he 
would  collect  under  definite  heads  the  common  law, 
at  present  dispersed  in  disorder,  and  would  reduce 
it  to  an  easy  system." 

143  "  To  be  sure,"  answered  Catulus,  "  that  is  easy 
enough  for  Crassus,  who  has  learned  all  there  is  to 
be  learned  about  law,  and  will  personally  supply  the 
deficiencies  of  his  teachers,  to  make  it  possible  for 
liim  to  arrange  fittingly  and  elucidate  elegantly  the 
contents  of  the  law."  "  Well  then,"  said  Antonius, 
"  we  shall  learn  those  things  from  Crassus,  when 
as  he  is  thinking  of  doing,  he  has  withdrawn  from 
the    hubbub   of   the    Courts   to   the   peace   of   his 

144  armchair."  "  I  have  often  heard  him  say  so,"  re- 
joined  Catulus,  "  when  he  has  been  announcing  his 
resolve  to  retire  from  practice  at  the  Bar,  but,  as  I 

301 


CICERO 

sed,  ut  ipsi  soleo  dicere,  non  licebit ;  neque  enim  ipse 
auxilium  suum  saepe  a  viris  bonis  frustra  implorari 
patietur  neque  id  aequo  animo  feret  civitas,  quae  si 
voce  L.  Crassi  carebit,  ornamento  quodam  sese 
spoliatam  putabit.  Nam  hercle,  inquit  Antonius, 
si  haec  vere  a  Catulo  dicta  sunt,  tibi  mecum  in  eodem 
est  pistrino,  Crasse,  vivendum  ;  et  istam  oscitantem 
et   dormitantem   sapientiam   Scaevolarum   et   cete- 

145  rorum  beatorum  otio  concedamus.  Arrisit  hic 
Crassus  leniter  et :  Pertexe  modo,  inquit,  Antoni, 
quod  exorsus  es  ;  me  tamen  ista  oscitans  sapientia, 
simul  atque  ad  eam  confugero,  in  hbertatem  vin- 
dicabit. 

XXXIV.  Huius  quidem  loci,  quem  modo  sum 
exorsus,  hic  est  finis,  inquit  Antonius  ;  quoniam 
intellegitur  non  in  hominum  innumerabilibus  per- 
sonis  neque  in  infinita  temporum  varietate,  sed  in 
generum  causis  atque  naturis  omnia  sita  esse,  quae  in 
dubium  vocarentur,  genera  autem  esse  definita  non 
solum  numero,  sed  etiam  paucitate,  ut  eam  materiem 
orationis,  quae  cuiusque  esset  generis,  studiosi  qui 
essent  dicendi,  omnibus  locis  discriptam,  instructam 
omatamque  comprehenderent  rebus  dico  et  senten- 

146  tiis.  Ea  vi  sua  verba  parient,  quae  semper  satis 
ornata  mihi  quidem  videri  solent,  si  eius  modi  sunt,  ut 
ea  res  ipsa  peperisse  videatur.  Ac  si  verum  quaeritis, 
quod  mihi  quidem  videatur — nihil  enim  ahud  affir- 
mare  possum  nisi  sententiam  et  opinionem  meam — 
hoc  instrumentum  causarum  et  generum  universorum 
in  forum  deferre  debemus  neque,  ut  quaeque  res 
delata  ad  nos  erit,  tum  denique  scrutari  locos,  ex 
S02 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxui.  144^xxxiv.  146 

always  tell  him,  he  will  not  get  the  chance  :  for  he 
himself  will  seldom  sufFer  his  aid  to  be  begged  in 
vain  by  men  of  worth,  nor  will  the  community  bear 
it,  but  will  think  itself  robbed  of  its  jewel,  as  it  were, 
if  it  miss  the  tones  of  Lucius  Crassus."  "  Upon  my 
word,  Crassus,"  interposed  Antonius,  "  if  Catulus 
has  been  telling  the  truth,  you  and  I  will  have  to 
pass  our  lives  together  in  the  same  pounding-mill ; 
and  we  shall  let  leisure  have  ( — and  welcome  too) 
that  yawning  and  drowsy  philosophizing  of  men  like 

145  Scaevola  and  the  others  who  are  lucky."  Crassus 
laughed  quietly  at  this,  observing,  "  Just  weave  out 
the  warp  you  have  begun,  Antonius,  but  that  yawn- 
ing  Philosophy  of  yours,  when  once  I  have  found 
sanctuary  with  her,  will  claim  my  freedom." 

XXXIV.  "  This  then,"  resumed  Antonius,  "  is  the  Necessity 
aim  of  the  topic  whose  warp  I  opened  just  now  :   it  equippfd  in 
beinff  understood  that  all  the  possible  subiects  of  adyance 
debate  are  not  founded  on  a  countless  host  of  human  ments— 
beings  or  an  endless  diversity  of  occasions,  but  on  by^^idyr 
t^rpical  cases  and  characters,  and  that  the  types  are 
not  merely  limited  in  number  but  positively  few,  I 
wished  the  devotees  of  eloquence  to  contemplate  the 
fabric  of  speeches  of  the  several  kinds,  in  distribution 
under  all  the  headings,  and  in  good  order  and  well 

146  furnished,  with  facts,  I  mean,  and  reflections.  These 
things,  by  their  own  natural  force,  will  beget  the 
words,  which  I,  at  any  rate,  always  think  well  enough 
found,  if  they  are  such  as  seem  to  grow  out  of  the 
inherent  circumstances.  And  if  you  want  the  truth, 
at  any  rate  as  I  see  it  (for  I  can  assert  only  my  own 
verdict  and  belief),  we  ought  to  bring  this  stock  of 
cases  and  types  down  to  Court  with  us,  and  not  wait 
until  we  have  accepted  a  brief,  before  we  search  the 

303 


CICERO 

quibus  argumenta  eruamus ;  quae  quidem  omnibus, 
qui  ea  mediocriter  modo  considerarint,  studio  adhibito 
et  usu  pertractata  esse  possunt ;  sed  tamen  animus 
referendus  est  ad  ea  capita  et  ad  illos,  quos  saepe 
iam  appellavi,  locos,  ex  quibus   omnia  ad  omnem 

147  orationem  inventa  ducuntur.  Atque  hoc  totum  est 
sive  artis  sive  animadversionis  sive  consuetudinis 
nosse  regiones,  intra  quas  venere  et  pervestiges, 
quod  quaeras.  Ubi  eum  locum  omnem  cogitatione 
saepseris,  si  modo  usu  rerum  percallueris,  nihil  te 
eflPugiet  atque  omne,  quod  erit  in  re,  occurret  atque 
incidet. 

XXXV.  Et  sic,  cum  ad  inveniendum  in  dicendo 
tria  sint :  acumen,  deinde  ratio,  quam  licet,  si  volu- 
mus,  appellemus  artem,  tertium  diligentia,  non 
possum  equidem  non  ingenio  primas  concedere,  sed 
tamen  ipsum  ingenium  diligentia  etiam  ex  tarditate 

148  incitat ;  diligentia,  inquam,  quae  cum  omnibus  in 
rebus  tum  in  causis  defendendis  plurimum  valet. 
Haec  praecipue  colenda  est  nobis  ;  haec  semper 
adhibenda ;  haec  nihil  est  quod  non  assequatur. 
Causa  ut  penitus,  quod  initio  dixi,  nota  sit,  diligentia 
est ;  ut  adversarium  attente  audiamus  atque  ut  eius 
non  solum  sententias,  sed  etiam  verba  omnia  ex- 
cipiamus,  voltus  denique   perspiciamus  omnes,  qui 

149  sensus  animi  plerumque  indicant,  diligentia  est.  Id 
tamen  dissimulanter  facere,  ne  sibi  ille  aliquid  pro- 
ficere  videatur,  prudentia  est.  Deinde  ut  in  eis  locis, 
quos  proponam  paulo  post,  pervolvatur  animus,  ut 
penitus  insinuet  in  causam,  ut  sit  cura  et  cogitatione 

304 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxiv.  146— xxxv.  149 

commonplaces,  from  which  to  dig  out  our  proofs ; 
which  indeed  can  be  handled,  after  no  very  deep 
consideration,  by  anyone  who  is  helped  by  study  and 
practice,  but  for  all  that  the  mind  must  needs  return 
to  those  headings  and  those  commonplaces  which  I 
have  often  mentioned  as  such  already,  from  which 
every  device  for  every  speech  whatever  is  derived. 

147  Again,  in  art,  in  observation  and  in  practice  alike,  it 
is  everything  to  be  famihar  with  the  ground  over 
which  you  are  to  chase  and  track  down  your  quarry. 
When  you  have  mentally  encompassed  all  that  area, 
if  only  you  are  quite  hardened  to  practical  dealings, 
nothing  will  escape  you,  but  every  detail  of  an  affair 
will  come  up  with  a  rush  and  fall  into  your  net. 

XXXV.  "  And  so,  since  in  oratory  three  things  are 
necessary  to  discovery  of  arguments,  first  acuteness, 
secondly  theory,  or  art,  as  we  may  call  it  if  we  Hke, 
and  thirdly  painstaking,  I  must  needs  grant  pride  of 
place  to  talent,  though  talent  itself  is  roused  from 

148  lethargy  by  painstaking,  painstaking,  I  repeat,  which 
is  always  valuable,  and  most  of  all  in  fighting  a  case. 
This  virtue  we  must  especially  cultivate  and  ever  be 
caUing  it  to  our  aid ;  there  is  nothing  that  this  cannot 
attain.  By  painstaking  comes  that  intimate  know- 
ledge  of  a  case,  to  which  I  alluded  at  first ;  it  is  pains- 
taking  to  listen  with  close  attention  to  our  opponent, 
and  so  as  to  catch  not  only  his  periods,  but  his  every 
word  as  well,  and  finally  to  read  all  his  changes  of 
countenance,  which  generally  gives  the  clue  to  his 

149  frame  of  mind.  But  to  do  this  unobtrusively,  so  that 
he  may  not  think  he  has  scored  a  point,  is  discretion. 
Then  that  the  mind  should  dwell  upon  those  common- 
places  which  I  shall  set  forth  presently,  that  it  should 
worm  itself  into  the  roots  of  a  matter,  with  its  powers 

305 


CICERO 

intentus,  diligentia  est ;  ut  his  rebus  adhibeat  tam- 
quam  lumen  aliquod  memoriam,  ut  vocem,  ut  vires, 

160  diligentia  est.  Inter  ingenium  quidem  et  diligentiam 
perpaulvun  loci  reliquum  est  arti.  Ars  demonstrat 
tantum,  ubi  quaeras,  atque  ubi  sit  illud,  quod  studeas 
invenire  ;  reliqua  sunt  in  cura,  attentione  animi, 
cogitatione,  vigilantia,  assiduitate,  labore ;  com- 
plectar  uno  verbo,  quo  saepe  iam  usi  sumus,  diU- 
gentia  ;    qua  una  virtute   omnes  virtutes  reliquae 

151  continentur.  Nam  orationis  quidem  copia  videmus 
ut  abundent  philosophi,  qui,  ut  opinor — sed  tu  haec, 
Catule,  melius — nulla  dant  praecepta  dicendi  nec 
idcirco  minus,  quaecumque  res  proposita  est,  susci- 
piunt,  de  qua  copiose  et  abundanter  loquantur. 

162  XXXVI.  Tum  Catulus :  Est,  inquit,  ut  dicis, 
Antoni,  ut  plerique  philosophi  nulla  tradant  praecepta 
dicendi  et  habeant  paratum  tamen  quid  de  quaque 
re  dicant.  Sed  Aristoteles,  is,  quem  ego  maxime 
admiror,  proposuit  quosdam  locos,  ex  quibus  omnis 
argumenti  via  non  modo  ad  philosophorum  dis- 
putationem,  sed  etiam  ad  hanc,  qua  in  causis 
utimur,  inveniretur ;  a  quo  quidem  homine  iam 
dudum,  Antoni,  non  aberrat  oratio  tua,  sive  tu 
simiUtudine  iUius  divini  ingenii  in  eadem  incurris 
vestigia  sive  etiam  illa  ipsa  legisti  atque  didicisti, 
quod  quidem  magis  veri  simile  videtur.  Plus  enim 
te    operae     Graecis    dedisse    rebus    video,    quam 

153  putaramus.      Tum    ille :     Verum,    inquit,    ex    me 

"  In  Topica. 
806 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxv.  149— xxxvi.  153 

of  attention  and  thought  at  full  stretch,  is  still  pains- 
taking  ;  to  supplement  all  this  with  the  toreh  of 
memory,  with  intonation  and  with  energy,  is  pains- 

150  taking  once  more.  Indeed  between  talent  and 
painstaking  there  is  very  little  room  left  for  art.  Art 
merely  points  out  where  to  search,  and  the  locahty 
of  what  you  are  anxious  to  find  :  all  else  depends  on 
carefulness,  mental  concentration,  reflection,  watch- 
fulness,  persistence  and  hard  work  ;  I  shall  sum  up 
these  in  the  single  word  I  have  often  used  already, 
painstaking  to  wit,  on  which  single  virtue  all  other 

161  virtues  are  dependent.  For  we  notice  the  over- 
flowing  copiousness  of  the  diction  of  the  philosophers 
who,  I  think  (though  you,  Catulus,  are  better  in- 
formed  on  these  points),  prescribe  no  rules  for  speak- 
ing,  but  none  the  less  undertake  to  discuss  with 
overflowing  copiousness,  whatever  subject  is  laid 
before  them." 

152  XXXVI.  Thereupon  Catulus  remarked,  "  You  are  simiiar 
right,  Antonius,  in  saying  that  most  philosophers  ^^J^^tie. 
prescribe  no  rules  for  speaking,  and  yet  have  some- 
thing  ready  to  say  about  everything.  Aristotle, 
however,  my  own  most  particular  admiration,  set 
forth  <»  certain  commonplaces,  among  which  every  line 
of  argument  might  be  found,  not  merely  for  philo- 
sophical  debate,  but  also  for  our  own  contentions  in 
the  Courts  :  it  is  certainly  long,  Antonius,  since  your 
own  style  deviated  from  his  principles,  whether  it  be 
that  through  hkeness  to  that  godUke  genius  you  fall 
into  the  same  track,  or,  as  seems  far  more  probable, 
you  too  have  perused  and  learned  those  very  maxims. 
For  I  perceive  that  you  have  bestowed  more  pains 

163  on  Greek  Hterature  than  we  had  supposed."  And 
the  other  answered,  "  Catulus,  I  will  tell  you  the 

307 


CICERO 

audies,  Catule  :  semper  ego  existimavi  iucundiorem 
et  probabiliorem  huic  populo  oratorem  fore,  qui 
primum  quam  minimam  artificii  alicuius,  deinde 
nuUam  Graecarum  rerimi  significationem  daret.  At- 
que  ego  idem  existimavi  pecudis  esse,  non  hominis, 
cum  tantas  res  Graeci  susciperent,  profiterentur, 
agerent  seseque  et  videndi  res  obscurissimas  et 
bene  vivendi  et  copiose  dicendi  rationem  daturos 
hominibus  pollicerentur,  non  admovere  aurem  et, 
si  palam  audire  eos  non  auderes,  ne  minueres  apud 
tuos  cives  auctoritatem  tuam,  subauscultando  tamen 
excipere  voces  eorum  et  procul  quid  narrarent  at- 
tendere.  Itaque  feci,  Catule,  et  istorum  omnium 
siunmatim  causas  et  genera  ipsa  gustavi. 
X64  XXXVII.  Valde  hercule,  inquit  Catulus,  timide 
tamquam  ad  aliquem  libidinis  scopulum  sic  tuam 
mentem  ad  philosophiam  appulisti,  quam  haec  civitas 
aspernata  numquam  est.  Nam  et  referta  quondam 
Italia  Pythagoreorum  fuit  tum,  cum  erat  in  hac 
gente  magna  illa  Graecia  ;  ex  quo  etiam  quidam 
Numam  Pompilium,  regem  nostrum,  fuisse  Pytha- 
goreum  ferunt ;  qui  annis  ante  permultis  fuit  quam 
ipse  Pythagoras  ;  quo  etiam  maior  vir  habendus  est, 
quod  illam  sapientiam  constituendae  civitatis  duobus 
prope  saecuUs  ante  cognovit,  quam  eam  Graeci  natam 
esse  senserunt.  Et  certe  non  tuUt  uUos  haec  civitas 
aut  gloria  clariores  aut  auctoritate  graviores  aut 
humanitate  poUtiores  P.  Africano,  C.  LaeUo,  L. 
Furio,  qui  secum  eruditissimos  homines  ex  Graecia 

808 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxvi.  153— xxxvii.  154 

truth :  I  always  considered  that  a  speaker  would  be 
more  pleasing  and  acceptable  to  a  nation  like  ours 
if  he  were  to  show,  first,  as  Uttle  trace  as  possible  of 
any  artifice,  and  secondly  none  whatever  of  things 
Greek.  And  at  the  same  time  I  considered  that, 
with  the  Greelis  undertaking,  professing  and  achiev- 
ing  such  marvels,  and  promising  to  reveal  to  mankind 
the  way  to  understand  the  profoundest  mysteries,  to 
Hve  rightly  and  to  speak  copiously,  it  would  be  brutish 
and  inhuman  not  to  lend  an  ear,  and,  though  perhaps 
not  venturing  to  listen  to  them  openly,  for  fear  of 
lessening  your  influence  with  your  fellow-citizens, 
yet  to  pick  up  their  sayings  by  eavesdropping,  and 
keep  a  look-out  from  afar  for  their  talk.  Accordingly 
I  did  so,  Catulus,  and  took  a  little  taste  of  the  cases 
and  actual  types  of  all  those  friends  of  yours." 
164  XXXVII.  "  Upon  my  word,"  said  Catulus,  "  you  Roman 
are  hke  a  pilot  cautiously  steering  towards  a  danger-  ?o^^"j|^ 
ous  reef,  some  Sirens'  isle,  when  you  direct  your  phUosophy. 
mind  to  Philosophy,  which  this  country  has  never 
disdained  !  For  even  of  old  Italy  was  crowded  with 
Pythagoreans,  in  the  days  when  a  part  of  this  land 
was  Great  Greece  as  they  called  it ;  so  that  some 
even  claim  our  King  Numa  Pompilius  as  a  Pytha- 
gorean,  though  he  lived  very  many  years  earlier 
than  Pythagoras  himself,  for  which  reason  he  must  be 
accounted  an  even  greater  man,  in  that  he  mastered 
the  famous  science  of  community-building  nearly 
two  centuries  before  the  Greeks  perceived  its  exist- 
ence.  And  surely  this  community  has  produced  no 
men  of  more  splendid  fame,  more  weighty  influence 
or  more  polished  manners,  than  PubHus  Africanus, 
Gaius  Laelius  and  Lucius  Furius,  who  at  all  times 
and  in  public  had    about  them  most  accomphshed 

S09 


CICERO 

166  palam  semper  habuerunt.  Atque  ego  hoc  ex  eis 
saepe  audivi,  cum  dicerent  pergratum  Athenienses 
et  sibi  fecisse  et  multis  principibus  civitatis,  quod, 
cum  ad  senatum  legatos  de  suis  maximis  rebus 
mitterent,  tres  illius  aetatis  nobilissimos  philosophos 
misissent,  Cameadem  et  Critolaum  et  Diogenem  ; 
Itaque  eos,  dum  Romae  essent,  et  a  se  et  ab  ahis  fre- 
quenter  auditos  ;  quos  tu  cum  haberes  auctores, 
Antoni,   miror    cur   philosophiae   sicut   Zethus   ille 

156  Pacuvianus  prope  bellum  indixeris.  Minime,  inquit 
Antonius,  ac  sic  decrevi  philosophari  potius,  ut  Neo- 
ptolemus  apud  Ennium  '  Paucis :  nam  omnino  haud 
placet.'  Sed  tamen  haec  est  mea  sententia,  quam 
videbar  exposuisse  :  ego  ista  studia  non  improbo, 
moderata  modo  sint :  opinionem  istorum  studiorimi 
et  suspicionem  artificii  apud  eos,  qui  res  iudicent, 
oratori  adversariam  esse  arbitror,  imminuit  enim 
et  oratoris  auctoritatem  et  orationis  fidem. 

167  XXXVIII.  Sed,  ut  eo  revocetur,  unde  huc  de- 
clinavit  oratio,  ex  tribus  istis  clarissimis  philosophis, 
quos  Romam  venisse  dixisti,  videsne  Diogenem  eum 
fuisse,  qui  diceret  artem  se  tradere  bene  disserendi 
et  vera  ac  falsa  diiudicandi,  quam  verbo  Graeco 
SiaXfKTtKrjv  appellaret  ?  In  hac  arte,  si  modo  est 
haec  ars,  nullum  est  praeceptum,  quo  modo  verum 

168  inveniatur,  sed  tantum  est,  quo  modo  iudicetur,  Nam 
et  omne,  quod  eloquimur  sic,  ut  id  aut  esse  dicamus 
aut  non  esse,  et,  si  simpliciter  dictum  sit,  suscipiunt 

•  In  155  B.c.  The  Athenians  had  pillaged  Oropus,  on 
the  Boeotian  frontier,  and  had  baen  sentenced  by  umpires 
appointed  by  the  Romans  to  a  fine  of  500  talents,  reduced 
to  100  after  this  embassy, 

'  See  Remains  of  Old  Latin  (L.C.L.),  ii,  pp,  162-163. 

"  Ibid,  i.  pp.  368-369,  and  Aulus  Gellius  v.  15.  9  and  16,  &. 
810 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxvii.  155— xxxviii.  158 

155  personages  from  Greece.  Moreover  I  have  often 
heard  those  notables  speak  of  the  vast  pleasure 
afforded  to  themselves  and  many  leaders  of  the  State 
by  the  Athenians,  in  having  sent,"  as  envoys  to  the 
Senate  on  business  of  supreme  importance  to  Athens, 
the  three  most  illustrious  philosophers  of  that  day, 
Carneades,  Critolaus  and  Diogenes,  who  accordingly, 
during  their  stay  in  Rome,  frequently  had  my  in- 
formants  and  others  for  an  audience  :  wlth  these 
witnesses  before  you,  Antonius,  I  marvel  why,  like 
that  Zethus  described  by  Pacuvius,''  you  have  all  but 

156  declared  war  against  Philosophy."  "  Not  at  all," 
repHed  Antonius,  "  but  rather  I  have  determined 
to  philosophize,  as  Neoptolemus  says  in  Ennius,  *  In 
a  few  things,  for  I  don't  want  to  do  so  in  all  ways.' " 
For  all  that,  however,  my  verdict,  as  I  thought  I  had 
made  plain,  is  this  :  I  do  not  disapprove  of  such 
pursuits,  if  kept  within  Umits,  though  I  hold  that  a 
reputation  for  such  pursuits,  or  any  suggestion  of 
artifice,  is  Ukely  to  prejudice  an  orator  with  the 
judiciary  :  for  it  weakens  at  once  the  credibiUty  of 
the  orator  and  the  cogency  of  his  oratory. 

157  XXXVIII.  "  But,  to  recall  Oratory  to  the  point  at  stoic 
which  this  digression  started,  do  you  observe  that,  u°ei*^rfor 
of  those   three   most   illustrious   philosophers,   who  the  orator. 
visited  Rome  as  you  told  us,  it  was  Diogenes  who 
claimed  to  be  teaching  an  art  of  speaking  well,  and 

of  distinguishing  truth  from  error,  which  art  he 
caUed  by  the  Greek  name  of  dialectic  ?  This  art, 
if  indeed  it  be  an  art,  contains  no  directions  for  dis- 

158  covering  truth,  but  only  for  testing  it.  For  as  to 
every  proposition  that  we  enunciate  with  an  affirma- 
tion  of  its  truth  or  falsity,  if  it  be  affirmed  without 
quaUfication,  the  dialecticians  undertake  to  decide 

311 


CICERO 

dialectici,  ut  iudicent,  verumne  sit  an  falsum,  et,  si 
coniuncte  sit  elatum,  et  adiuncta  sint  alia,  iudicant, 
rectene  adiuncta  sint  et  verane  summa  sit  unius 
cuiusque  rationis,  et  ad  extremum  ipsi  se  compungunt 
suis  acuminibus  et  multa  quaerendo  reperiunt  non 
modo  ea,  quae  lam  non  possint  ipsi  dissolvere,  sed 
etiam  quibus  ante  exorsa,  et  potius  detexta,  prope 

1C9  retexantur.  Hic  nos  igitur  Stoicus  iste  nihil  adiuvat, 
quoniam,  quem  ad  modum  inveniam  quid  dicam,  non 
docet ;  atque  idem  etiam  impedit,  quod  et  multa 
reperit,  quae  negat  ullo  modo  posse  dissolvi,  et  genus 
sermonis  afFert  non  liquidum,  non  fusum  ac  profluens, 
sed  exile,  aridum,  concisum  ac  minutum,  quod  si 
quis  probabit,  ita  probabit,  ut  oratori  tamen  aptum 
non  esse  fateatur.  Haec  enim  nostra  oratio  multi- 
tudinis  est  auribus  accommodanda,  ad  oblectandos 
animos,  ad  impellendos,  ad  ea  probanda,  quae  non 
aurificis  statera,  sed  populari  quadam  trutina  ex- 
aminantur. 

160  Qu3.  re  istam  artem  totam  dimittamus,  quae  in  ex- 
cogitandis  argumentis  muta  nimium  est,  in  iudicandis 
nimium  loquax.  Critolaum  istum,  quem  cum  Diogene 
venisse  commemoras,  puto  plus  huic  nostro  studio  pro- 
desse  potuisse.  Erat  enim  ab  isto  Aristotele,  a  cuius 
inventis  tibi  ego  videor  non  longe  aberrare.  Atque 
inter  hunc  Aristotelem,  cuius  et  illum  legi  librum,  in 
quo  exposuit  dicendi  artes  omnium  superiorum,  et 
illos,  in  quibus  ipse  sua  quaedam  de  eadem  arte  dixit, 
812 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxviii.  158-160 

whether  it  be  true  or  false  ;  and,  if  again  it  be  stated 
hypothetically,  with  collateral  propositions  annexed, 
then  they  decide  whether  these  others  are  properly 
annexed,  and  whether  the  conclusion  drawn  from 
each  and  every  reasoning  is  correct :  and  in  the  end 
they  prick  themselves  with  their  own  barbs,  and  by 
wide  investigation  discover  not  only  difficulties  such 
as  they  themselves  can  no  longer  solve,  but  also 
others  by  which  webs  already  attacked,  or  rather  well- 

159  nigh  unwound,  are  tangled  up  again.  In  this  con- 
nexion  then  that  eminent  Stoic  is  of  no  help  to  us, 
since  he  does  not  teach  me  how  to  discover  what  to 
say ;  and  he  actually  hinders  me,  by  finding  many 
difficulties  which  he  pronounces  quite  insoluble,  and 
by  introducing  a  kind  of  diction  that  is  not  lucid, 
copious  and  flowing,  but  meagre,  spiritless,  cramped 
and  paltry  ;  and,  if  any  man  commends  this  style,  it 
will  only  be  with  the  quahfication  that  it  is  unsuitable 
to  an  orator.  For  this  oratory  of  ours  must  be  adapted 
to  the  ears  of  the  multitude,  for  charming  or  urging 
their  minds  to  approve  of  proposals,  which  are  weighed 
in  no  goldsmith's  balance,  but  in  what  I  may  call 
common  scales. 

160  "  Let  us  therefore  renounce  entirely  that  art  which  insight  of 
has  too  httle  to  say  when  proofs  are  being  thought  ^nd^^ufty 
out,  and  too  much  when  they  are  being  assessed.  inargu- 
That  Critolaus,  whose  visit  in  company  with  Diogenes  cameades. 
you  recall,  might  have  been  more  useful,  I  think,  in  this 
pursuit  of  ours.     For  he  was  a  foUower  of  your  Aris- 

totle,  from  whose  doctrines  you  think  my  own  differ 
but  Uttle.  And  between  this  Aristotle  (I  read  also 
that  book  of  his,  setting  forth  the  rhetorical  theories 
of  all  his  forerunners,  and  those  other  works  contain- 
ing  sundry  observations  of  his  own  on  the  same  art), 

313 


CICERO 

et  hos  germanos  huius  artis  magistros  hoc  mihi  visum 
est  interesse,  quod  ille  eadem  acie  mentis,  qua  rerum 
omnium  vim  naturamque  viderat,  haec  quoque 
aspexit,  quae  ad  dicendi  artem,  quam  ille  despicie- 
bat,  pertinebant ;  illi  autem,  qui  hoc  solum  colendum 
ducebant,  habitarunt  in  hac  una  ratione  tractanda 
non  eadem  prudentia,  qua  ille,  sed  usu  in  hoc  uno 

161  genere  studioque  maiore.  Carneadi  vero  vis  incre- 
dibiUs  illa  dicendi  et  varietas  perquam  esset  optanda 
nobis,  qui  nuUam  umquam  in  illis  suis  disputationibus 
rem  defendit,  quam  non  probarit,  nullam  oppugnavit, 
quam  non  everterit.  Sed  hoc  maius  est  quiddam, 
quam  ab  eis,  qui  haec  tradunt  et  docent,  postulandimi 
sit. 

162  XXXIX.  Ego  autem,  si  quem  nunc  rudem  plane 
institui  ad  dicendum  velim,  his  potius  tradam  assiduis 
uno  opere  eandem  incudem  diem  noctemque  tun- 
dentibus,  qui  omnes  tenuissimas  particulas  atque 
omnia  minima  mansa  ut  nutrices  infantibus  pueris  in 
os  inserant.  Sin  sit  is,  qui  et  doctrina  mihi  HberaHter 
institutus  et  aliquo  iam  imbutus  usu  et  satis  acri 
ingenio  esse  videatur,  illuc  eum  rapiam,  ubi  non 
seclusa  ahqua  acula  teneatur,  sed  unde  universum 
flumen  erumpat ;  qui  ilU  sedes  et  quasi  domiciHa 
omnium  argumentorum  commonstret  et  ea  breviter 

163  illustret  verbisque  definiat.  Quid  enim  est,  in  quo 
haereat,  qui  viderit  omne,  quod  sumatur  in  oratione 
Sll 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxviii.  160— xxxix.  163 

and  these  true  professors  of  this  art,  there  seeraed 
to  rae  to  be  this  difference, — that  he  surveyed  these 
concerns  of  the  art  of  rhetoric,  which  he  disdained, 
with  that  sarae  keen  insight,  by  which  he  had  dis- 
cerned  the  essential  nature  of  all  things  ;  whereas 
those  others,  considering  this  the  only  thing  worth 
cultivating,  have  dwelt  upon  the  treatment  of  this 
single  subject,  without  his  sagacity,  but,  in  this  one 
instance,  with  larger  practice  and  closer  application. 

161  As  for  Carneades,  however,  the  extraordinary  power 
and  diversity  of  his  oratory  would  be  extreraely  to 
our  Hking  ;  since,  in  those  debates  of  his  he  supported 
no  contention  without  proving  it,  and  attacked  none 
which  he  did  not  overthrow.  But  this  is  rather  raore 
than  should  be  asked  of  the  authors  and  teachers  of 
these  maxims. 

162  XXXIX.  "  For  my  part,  if  just  now  I  were  to  want  The 

a  complete  novice  trained  up  to  oratory,  I  should  ^^p^g®°' 
rather  entrust  hira  to  these  untiring  people,  who  whichare 
hamraer  day  and  night  on  the  sarae  anvil  at  their  one  either  from 
and  only  task,  for  them  to  put  into  his  mouth  none  the  case 
but  the  most  delicate  morsels — everything  chewed  from 
exceedingly   small — in  the   raanner   of  wet   nurses  ^itiioii*' 
feeding  baby-boys.     But  should  he,  whora  I  have 
had  liberally  educated  in  theory,  and  who  by  this 
tirae  has  sorae  tincture  of  practice,  show  also  signs 
of  sufficient  natural  acuteness,  I  will  hurry  him  off 
to  that  source  where  no  sequestered  pool  is  land- 
locked,  but  from  it  bursts  forth  a  general  flood  ; 
to  that  teacher  who  will  point  out  to  him  the  very 
homes  of  all  proofs,  so  to   speak,  illustrating  these 

163  briefly  and  defining  thera  in  terras.  For  in  what 
respect  could  a  speaker  be  at  a  loss,  who  has  con- 
templated  everything  to  be  employed  in  a  speech, 

315 


CICERO 

aut  ad  probandum  aut  ad  refellendum  aut  ex  sua 
siuni  vi  atque  natura  aut  assumi  foris  ?  Ex  sua  vi, 
cum  aut  res  quae  sit  tota  quaeratur,  aut  pars  eius 
aut  vocabulum  quod  habeat  aut  quippiam,  rem  illam 
quod  attingat ;  extrinsecus  autem,  cum  ea,  quae 
sunt  foris  neque  inhaerent  in  rei  natura,  coUiguntur. 

164  Si  res  tota  quaeritur,  definitione  universa  vis  ex- 
plicanda  est,  sic  :  '  si  maiestas  est  amplitudo  ac 
dignitas  civitatis,  is  eam  minuit,  qui  exercitum  hosti- 
bus  popuU  Romani  tradidit,  non  qui   eum,  qui  id 

165  fecisset,  popuU  Romani  potestati  tradidit.*  Sin  pars, 
partitione,  hoc  modo  :  *  aut  senatui  parendum  de 
salute  rei  pubUcae  fuit  aut  aUud  consiUum  insti- 
tuendum  aut  sua  sponte  faciendum ;  aUud  con- 
siUum,  superbum  ;  suum,  arrogans  ;  utendum  igitur 
fuit  consiUo  senatus.'  Si  ex  vocabulo,  ut  Carbo  : 
'  si  consul  est,  qui  consuUt  patriae,  quid  aUud  fecit 

166  Opimius  ?  *  Sin  ab  eo,  quod  rem  attingat,  plures 
sunt  argumentorum  sedes  ac  loci,  nam  et  coniuncta 
quaeremus  et  genera  et  partes  generibus  subiectas 
et  simiUtudines  et  dissimiUtudines  et  contraria  et 
consequentia  et  consentanea  et  quasi  praecurrentia 
et  repugnantia  et  causas  rerum  vestigabimus  et  ea, 

316 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxix.  163-166 

for  purposes  of  either  proof  or  disproof,  or  to  be 
derived  from  the  essential  nature  of  the  case,  or 
adopted  from  without  ?  Intrinsic  arguments,  when 
the  problem  concerns  the  character  of  the  subject 
as  a  whole,  or  of  part  of  it,  or  the  name  it  is  to  bear, 
or  anything  whatever  relating  to  the  subject ;  ex- 
trinsic  arguments,  on  the  other  hand,  when  topics 
are  assembled  from  without  and  are  not  inherent  in 
the  nature  of  the  case. 

164  "  If  the  problem  concerns  the  whole  subject,  the 
general  idea  of  it  has  to  be  made  plain  by  definition ; 
for  example  :  '  If  sovereignty  be  the  grandeur  and 
glory  of  the  State,  it  was  violated  by  the  man  who 
dehvered  up  to  the  enemy  an  army  of  the  Roman 
People,  not  by  him  who  delivered  the  man  that  did  it 

165  into  the  power  of  the  Roman  People.'  But  if  only  a 
part  is  being  dealt  with,  its  nature  must  be  explained 
by  distribution,  as  follows  :  '  The  right  course,  in  a 
situation  afFecting  the  welfare  of  the  State,  was  to 
obey  the  Senate,  or  to  set  up  another  advisory  body, 
or  to  act  on  his  own  initiative  :  to  set  up  another 
body  would  have  been  insolence,  to  follow  his  own 
counsel,  arrogance  ;  therefore  he  should  have  taken 
the  advice  of  the  Senate.'  If  the  argument  turns 
on  a  word,  remember  Carbo's '  If  a  consuFs  duty  is  to 
consult  the  interests  of  his  native  land,  what  else  has 

166  Opimius  done  ?  '  If  it  turns  on  something  corre- 
lated  with  the  subject,  the  proofs  come  from  several 
sources  or  common-places  ;  for  we  shall  investigate 
connected  terms,  and  general  heads  with  their 
sub-divisions,  and  resemblances  and  differences,  and 
opposites,  and  corresponding  and  concurrent  circum- 
stances,  and  so-called  antecedents,  and  contra- 
dictories,  and  we    shall  track  down  the  causes  of 

317 


CICERO 

quae  ex  causis  orta  sunt,  et  maiora,  paria,  minora 
quaeremus. 

167  XL.  Ex  coniunctis  sic  argumenta  ducuntur  :  '  si 
pietati  summa  tribuenda  laus  est,  debetis  moveri, 
cum  Q.  Metellum  tam  pie  lugere  videatis.'  Ex 
genere  autem  :  *  si  magistratus  in  populi  Romani 
potestate  esse  debent,  quid  Norbanum  accusas,  cuius 
tribunatus  voluntati  paruit  civitatis  ?  ' 

168  Ex  parte  autem  ea,  quae  est  subiecta  generi :  *  si 
omnes,  qui  rei  publicae  consulunt,  cari  nobis  esse 
debent,  certe  in  primis  imperatores,  quorimi  consiliis, 
virtute,  periculis,  retinemus  et  nostram  salutem  et 
imperii  dignitatem.'  Ex  similitudine  autem :  '  si 
ferae  partus  suos  diligunt,  qua  nos  in  liberos  nostros 

169  indulgentia  esse  debemus  !  '  At  ex  dissimilitudine  : 
'  si  barbarorum  est  in  diem  vivere,  nostra  consilia 
sempiternum  tempus  spectare  debent.'  Atque 
utroque  in  genere  et  similitudinis  et  dissimilitudinis 
exempla  sunt  ex  aliorum  factis  aut  dictis  aut  eventis, 
et  fictae  narrationes  saepe  ponendae.  lam  ex  con- 
trario  :     '  si  Gracchus  nefarie,  praeclare  Opimius.' 

170  Ex  consequentibus  :  '  si  et  ferro  interfectus  ille  et 
tu  inimicus  eius  cum  gladio  cruento  comprehensus  es 
in  illo  ipso  loco  et  nemo  praeter  te  ibi  visus  est  et 
causa  nemini  et  tu  semper  audax,  quid  est  quod  de 
facinore   dubitare  possimus  ?  *     Ex  consentaneis  et 

318 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xxxix.  166— xl.  170 

things,  and  the  efFects  proceeding  from  causes,  and 
investigate  things  of  relatively  greater,  equal  or 
lesser  significance. 

167  XL.  ' '  An  instance  of  proof  deduced  from  connected 
terms  is  :  '  If  the  highest  praise  is  due  to  loyalty, 
you  should  be  stirred  at  the  sight  of  Quintus  Metellus 
mourning  so  loyally.'  One  of  deduction  from  a 
general  term  is  :  '  If  the  magistracies  ought  to  be 
under  the  control  of  the  Roman  People,  why  impeach 
Norbanus,  whose  conduct  as  tribune  was  subservient 
to  the  will  of  the  community  ?  * 

168  "  As  a  deduction  from  a  subdivision  of  a  general 
head  take :  '  If  we  are  bound  to  esteem  all  who  make 
the  interests  of  the  State  their  care,  surely  our  com- 
manders-in-chief  stand  foremost,  by  whose  strategy, 
valour  and  hazards  we  preserve  both  our  own  security 
and  the  grandeur  of  our  sovereignty.'  Then,  as  a 
deduction  from  resemblance,  we  have  :  '  If  the  wild 
beasts  cherish  their  young,  what  tendemess  ought 

169  we  to  bear  to  our  children  !  *  One  from  difference,  on 
the  other  hand,  is  :  *  If  it  be  the  mark  of  uncivilized 
folk  to  live  but  for  the  day,  our  own  purposes  should 
contemplate  all  time.'  And,  in  cases  involving  both 
resemblance  and  difference,  analogies  are  found  in 
the  deeds  or  the  words  or  the  fate  of  other  people, 
and  feigned  tales  must  often  be  cited.  Again,  as  a 
deduction  from  an  opposite,  take  :  '  If  Gracchus  did 

170  wickedly,  Opimius  did  nobly.'  And,  as  one  from 
corresponding  circumstances  :  '  If  he  was  killed  by 
a  sword,  and  you,  his  enemy,  were  caught  on  the 
very  spot  with  a  bloody  blade,  and  none  other  than 
yourself  was  seen  there  or  had  any  motive,  and  you 
were  ever  a  man  of  violence,  what  doubt  could  we 
feel  as  to  the  crime  ?  '     And,  to  illustrate  deduction 

319 


CICERO 

praecurrentibus  et  repugnantibus,  ut  olim  Crassus 
adolescens  :  *  non  si  Opimium  defendisti,  Carbo, 
idcirco  te  isti  bonum  civem  putabunt ;  simulasse 
te  et  aliud  quid  quaesisse  perspicuum  est,  quod 
Ti.  Gracchi  mortem  saepe  in  contionibus  deplorasti, 
quod  P.  Africani  necis  socius  fuisti,  quod  eam  legem 
in  tribunatu  tulisti,  quod  semper  a  bonis  dissedisti.' 

171  Ex  causis  autem  rerum  sic  :  '  avaritiam  si  tollere 
vultis,  mater  eius  est  tollenda,  luxuries.*  Ex  eis 
autem,  quae  sunt  orta  de  causis  :  '  si  aerarii  copiis 
et  ad  belli  adiumenta  et  ad  ornamenta  pacis  utimur, 

172  vectigalibus  serviamus.'      Maiora  autem  et  minora 

et  paria  comparabimus  sic :    ex  maiore  :    '  si  bona 

existimatio  divitiis   praestat   et   pecunia  tantopere 

expetitur,  quanio  gloria  magis  est  expetenda  ?  '     ex 

minore  : 

Hic  parvae  consuetudinis 
Causa  huius  mortem  tam  fert  familiariter  : 
Quid  si  ipse  amasset  ?  quid  hic  mihi  faciet  patri  ? 

ex  pari :  'est  eiusdem  et  eripere  et  contra  rem 
publicam  largiri  pecunias.' 

173  Foris  autem  assumuntur  ea,  quae  non  sua  vi,  sed 
extranea  sublevantur,  ut  haec  :  '  hoc  verum  est ; 
dixit  enim  Q.  Lutatius.'  '  Hoc  falsum  est ;  habita 
enim  quaestio  est.'     '  Hoc  sequi  necesse  est ;  recito 


"  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus  Minor,  who  captured 
Carthage  146  b.c,  died  in  129,  probably  from  a  stroke,  but 
the  Gracchans  were  suspected  of  assassination. 

*  Apparently  extending  the  use  of  the  ballot. 

*  From  Terence,  .^ndria  110-112. 

320 


DE  ORATORE,  11.  xl.  170-173 

from  concurrent  circumstances,  antecedents  and  con- 
tradictories,  we  remember  Crassus  arguing  in  his 
youth  :  *  This  tribunal,  Carbo,  is  not  going  to  deem 
you  a  patriotic  citizen  just  because  you  defended 
Opimius  :  clearly  you  were  only  pretending,  and 
had  some  other  end  in  view,  inasmuch  as  in  your 
harangues  you  frequently  lamented  the  death  of 
Tiberius  Gracchus,  and  you  were  a  party  to  the 
murder  of  Publius  Africanus,"  and  you  brought  in 
that  statute  *  during  your  tribuneship,  and  always  dis- 

171  agreed  with  the  patriotic'  And  a  deduction  from 
the  causes  of  things  is  :  '  If  you  would  abolish  covet- 
ousness,  you  must  abolish  its  mother,  profusion.* 
And  one  from  the  efFects  of  causes  is  :  '  If  we  are 
using  the  funds  of  the  Treasury  to  aid  war  and 
beautify  peace,  let   us  become  the  slaves  of  taxa- 

172  tion.'  And,  to  show  how  we  shall  compare  things 
of  relatively  greater,  lesser  and  equal  significance, 
a  deduction  from  the  greater  is  :  '  If  good  repute  is 
above  riches,  and  money  is  so  keenly  desired,  how 
far  more  keenly  should  fame  be  desired  ?  '  For  one 
from  the  lesser  take  : 

Just  for  a  slender  acquaintance ! 
So  heartfelt  his  grief  at  her  death ! 
What  had  he  loved  her  ?    What  sorrow 
Will  he  show  for  his  father — for  me  ? " 

For  one  from  the  equal  we  have  :  '  It  is  one  and  the 
same  man's  part  to  snatch  the  State's  money  and 
lavish  it  to  her  detriment.' 

173  Finally,  proofs  adopted  from  outside  are  such  as 
rest  upon  no  intrinsic  force  of  their  own  but  upon 
external  authority,  instances  being  :  '  This  is  true, 
for  Quintus  Lutatius  said  so  '  :  '  This  evidence  is 
false,  for  torture  has  been  employed  '  :   '  This  must 

321 


CICERO 

enim  tabulas.'      De   quo    genere    toto   paulo   ante 
dixi. 

174  XLI.  Haec,  ut  brevissime  dici  potuerunt,  ita  a  me 
dicta  sunt.  Ut  enim  si  aurum  cui,  quod  esset  multi- 
fariam  defossum,  commonstrare  vellem,  satis  esse 
deberet,  si  signa  et  notas  ostenderem  locorum,  quibus 
cognitis  ipse  sibi  foderet  et  id,  quod  vellet,  parvulo 
labore,  nullo  errore,  inveniret :  sic  has  ego  argumen- 
torum  novi  notas,  quae  illa  mihi  quaerenti  demon- 
strant,  ubi  sint ;  reliqua  cura  et  cogitatione  eruuntur. 

175  Quod  autem  argumentorum  genus  cuique  causarmn 
generi  maxime  conveniat,  non  est  artis  exquisitae 
praescribere,  sed  est  mediocris  ingenii  iudicare. 
Neque  enim  nunc  id  agimus,  ut  artem  aliquam 
dicendi  explicemus,  sed  ut  doctissimis  hominibus 
usus  nostri  quasi  quaedam  monita  tradamus.  His 
igitur  locis  in  mente  et  cogitatione  defixis  et  in  omni 
re  ad  dicendum  posita  excitatis,  nihil  erit  quod 
oratorem  effugere  possit,  non  modo  in  forensibus 
disceptationibus,  sed  omnino  in  ullo  genere  dicendi. 

176  Si  vero  assequetur,  ut  talis  videatur,  qualem  se  videri 
velit,  et  animos  eorum  ita  afficiat,  apud  quos  aget, 
ut  eos,  quocumque  velit,  vel  trahere  vel  rapere 
possit,  nihil  profecto  praeterea  ad  dicendum  requiret. 

lam  illud  videmus  nequaquam  satis  esse,  reperire 

177  quid  dicas,  nisi  id  inventum  tractare  possis.  Tractatio 
autem  varia  esse  debet,  ne  aut  cognoscat  artem  qui 
audiat  aut  defatigetur  similitudinis  satietate.  Proponi 

322 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xl.  173— xli.  177 

inevitably  follow,  for  I  am  reading  from  the  docu- 
ments.'     Of  all  this  kind  of  thing  I  spoke  just  now. 

174  XLI.  "  I  have  sketched  these  topics  as  shortly  as  a  brief 
possible.     For  if  I  wished  to  reveal  to  somebody  gold  *J*n*™®h* 
that  was  hidden  here  and  there  in  the  earth,  it  should  as  attention 
be  enough  for  me  to  point  out  to  him  some  marks  wludo^"*^" 
and  indications  of  its  positions,  with  which  knowledge  more  than 
he  could  do  his  own  digging,  and  find  what  he  wanted,     ^'^' 
with  very  httle  trouble  and  no  chance  of  mistake : 

so  I  know  these  indications  of  proofs,  which  reveal  to 
me  their  whereabouts  when  I  am  looking  for  them  ; 
all  the  rest  is  dug  out  by  dint  of  oereful  consideration, 

175  But  what  type  of  proofs  best  befits  each  type  of  case 
needs  not  consummate  art  to  dictate,  but  only 
ordinary  talent  to  decide.  For  our  immediate  task 
is  not  to  display  any  system  of  speaking,  but  to 
hand  on  to  highly  educated  men  certain  lessons,  as 
I  may  call  them,  learned  from  our  own  practice. 
Accordingly,  with  these  commonplaces  firmly  estab- 
hshed  in  his  mind  and  memory,  and  roused  into 
activity  with  every  topic  proposed  for  discussion, 
nothing  will  be  able  to  elude  the  orator,  either  in 
our  own  contentions  at  the  Bar,  or  in  any  depart- 

17g  ment  whatever  of  speaking.  If  however  he  shall 
succeed  in  appearing,  to  those  before  whom  he  is  to 
plead,  to  be  such  a  man  as  he  would  desire  to  seem, 
and  in  touching  their  hearts  in  such  fashion  as  to  be 
able  to  lead  or  drag  them  whithersoever  he  pleases, 
he  will  assuredly  be  completely  furnished  for  oratory. 

"  Again,  we  see  that  the  discovery  of  what  to  say  is  Variety  of 
whoUy  insufficient,  unless  you  can  handle  it  when  esIenUaL* 

177  found.  But  the  handhng  should  be  diversified,  so 
that  your  hearer  may  neither  perceive  the  art  of  it, 
nor  be  worn  out  by  too  much  monotony.     You  ought 

323 


CICERO 

oportet  quid  afFeras  et  id  qua  re  ita  sit  ostendere  ;  et 
ex  eisdem  illis  locis  interdum  concludere,  relinquere 
alias  alioque  transire ;  saepe  non  proponere  ac  ratione 
ipsa  afFerenda  quid  proponendum  fuerit,  declarare  ; 
si  cui  quid  simile  dicas,  prius  ut  simile  confirmes, 
deinde  quod  agitur,  adiungas ;  interpuncta  argu- 
mentorum  plerumque  occulas,  ne  quis  ea  nume- 
rare  possit,  ut  re  distinguantur,  verbis  confusa  esse 
videantur. 

178  XLII.  Haec  properans  ut  et  apud  doctos  et  semi- 
doctus  ipse  percurro,  ut  aliquando  ad  illa  maiora 
veniamus.  Nihil  est  enim  in  dicendo,  Catule,  maius, 
quam  ut  faveat  oratori  is,  qui  audiet,  utque  ipse  sic 
moveatur,  ut  impetu  quodam  animi  et  perturbatione, 
magis  quam  iudicio  aut  consilio  regatur.  Plura 
enim  multo  homines  iudicant  odio  aut  amore  aut 
cupiditate  aut  iracundia  aut  dolore  aut  laetitia  aut 
spe  aut  timore  aut  errore  aut  aliqua  permotione 
mentis,  quam  veritate  aut  praescripto  aut  iuris  norma 

179  aliqua  aut  iudicii  formula  aut  legibus.  Qua  re, 
nisi  quid  vobis  aliud  placet,  ad  illa  pergamus. 

Pauliun,  inquit  Catulus,  etiam  nunc  deesse  vi- 
detur  eis  rebus,  Antoni,  quas  exposuisti,  quod  sit 
tibi  ante  explicandum,  quam  iUuc  proficiscare,  quo 
te  dicis  intendere.  Quidnam  ?  inquit.  Qui  ordo 
tibi  placeat,  inquit  Catulus,  et  quae  dispositio 
324, 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xli.  177— xlii.  179 

to  formulate  your  proposition,  and  give  the  reasons 
for  its  being  what  it  is ;  and  from  those  same 
commonplaces  you  should  sometimes  draw  your  con- 
elusion,  and  sometimes  abandon  them  to  pass  else- 
where  ;  often  it  is  better  not  to  formulate  expressly, 
but  to  make  it  plain,  by  affirming  the  underlying 
principle,  what  the  formulation  would  have  been  ; 
if  you  are  putting  a  parallel  case  to  something,  you 
should  first  show  how  it  is  like,  and  then  annex  the 
matter  in  hand ;  as  a  rule  you  should  conceal  the 
intervals  between  successive  proofs,  to  prevent  them 
from  being  counted,  so  that,  though  separate  in  fact, 
they  may  seem  blended  in  statement. 

178  XLII.  "  I  am  running  over  these  things  in  a  hurry,  Favour  ot 
and  like  a  half-trained  man  who  is  facing  experts,  in  f^ust  be* 
order  that  we  may  come  at  last  to  those  more  essential  secured. 
matters,     Now  nothing  in  oratory,  Catulus,  is  more 
important  than  to  win  for  the  orator  the  favour  of  his 
hearer,  and  to  have  the  latter  so  afFected  as  to  be 
swayed  by  something  resembling  a  mental  impulse 

or  emotion,  rather  than  by  judgement  or  dehberation. 
For  men  decide  far  more  problems  by  hate,  or  love, 
or  lust,  or  rage,  or  sorrow,  or  joy,  or  hope,  or  fear,  or 
illusion,  or  some  other  inward  emotion,  than  by 
reality,  or  authority,or  any  legal  standard,  or  judicial 

179  precedent,  or  statute.     And  so,  unless  you  think 
difFerently,  let  us  proceed  to  the  things  I  spoke  of." 

"  Even   now,"   returned   Catulus,   "  there   seems  Arrange- 
to  be   a  little   something   missing,  Antonius,  from  dlgcussed* 
your  exposition,  which  you  should  clear  up,  before  later. 
setting  out  for  that  region  whither  you  say  you 
are  bound."      "  Pray  what  is  that  ?  "    asked  the 
other.      "  Your  view  as  to  the  right  arrangement 
and  distribution  of  proofs,"  said  Catulus,  "  in  which 

825 


CICERO 

argumentorum,  in  qua  tu  mihi  semper  deus  videri 
soles." 

180  Vide  quam  sim,  inquit,  deus  in  isto  genere, 
Catule:  non  hercule  mihi,  nisi  admonito,  venisset  in 
mentem ;  ut  possis  existimare  me  in  ea,  in  quibus 
nonnunquam  aliquid  efficere  videor,  usu  solere  in  di- 
cendo,  vel  casu  potius  incurrere.  Ac  res  quidem 
ista,  quam  ego,  quia  non  noram,  sic  tanquam  ignotxmi 
hominem  praeteribam,  tantum  potest  in  dicendo,  ut 

181  ad  vincendum  nulla  plus  possit;  sed  tamen  mihi 
videris  ante  tempus  a  me  rationem  ordinis  et  dis- 
ponendarum  rerum  requisisse.  Nam  si  ego  omnem 
vim  oratoris  in  argumentis  et  in  re  ipsa  per  se  com- 
probanda  posuissem,  tempus  esset  iam  de  ordine 
argumentorum,  et  de  collocatione  aliquid  dicere. 
Sed  cum  tria  sint  a  me  proposita,  de  uno  dictum, 
cum  de  duobus  rehquis  dixero,  tum  erit  denique 
de  disponenda  tota  oratione  quaerendum. 

182  XLIII.  Valet  igitur  multum  ad  vincendum  probari 
mores  et  instituta  et  facta  et  vitam  eorum,  qui  agent 
causas,  et  eorum,  pro  quibus,  et  item  improbari 
adversariorum,  animosque  eorum,  apud  quos  agetur, 
concihari  quam  maxime  ad  benevolentiam,  cum  erga 
oratorem  tum  erga  illum  pro  quo  dicet  orator.  Con- 
ciHantur  autem  animi  dignitate  hominis,  rebus  gestis, 
existimatione  vitae  ;  quae  facilius  ornari  possunt,  si 
modo  sunt,  quam  fingi,  si  nulla  sunt.  Sed  haec 
adiuvant  in  oratore  :    lenitas  vocis,  vultus  pudoris 

"  See  the  opening  of  chapter  xxxv.,  supra. 
826 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlii.  179— xliii.  182 

connexion  your  practice  always  strikes  me  as  ideal." 

180  "  Observe,  Catulus,"  came  the  answer,  "  how  far  I 
am  ideal  in  that  kind  of  thing  :  upon  my  word,  but 
for  your  suggestion,  the  notion  would  never  have  en- 
tered  my  head  :  so  that  you  may  look  upon  me  as 
generally  running  into  those  ways,  in  which  now  and 
then  I  seem  efFective,  just  in  the  course  of  speaking, 
or  rather  by  accident.  And  indeed  that  factor  which, 
through  failure  to  recognize  it,  I  was  passing  by 
unnoticed,  as  I  might  a  human  stranger,  is  second 
to  none  in  the  making  of  oratorical  success,  but, 
for  all  that,  I  think  you  have  been  premature  in  ask- 
ing  me  for  my  theory  of  the  arrangement  and  dis- 

181  tribution  of  topics.  For  had  I  based  the  orator's 
essential  power  solely  upon  his  proofs,  and  upon  his 
establishing  personally  his  actual  case,  it  would  now 
be  the  time  to  say  a  word  as  to  the  arrangement  and 
marshalling  of  proofs.  But  since  I  have  assumed 
three  **  elements  in  discovery  and  discussed  only  one 
of  them,  it  will  be  time  to  conclude  by  investigating 
the  arrangement  of  a  speech  as  a  whole,  when  I  have 
first  discussed  the  two  elements  that  remain. 

182  XLIII.  "  A  potent  factor  in  success,  then,  is  for  the  Means  of 
characters,  principles,  conduct  and  course  of  Ufe,  both  f^^a^^f^ 
of  those  who  are  to  plead  cases  and  of  their  clients,  to  audtence. 
be  approved,  and  conversely  those  of  their  opponents 
condemned  ;   and  for  the  feelings  of  the  tribunal  to 

be  won  over,  as  far  as  possible,  to  goodwill  towards 
the  advocate  and  the  advocate's  client  as  well.  Now 
feelings  are  won  over  by  a  man's  merit,  achievements 
or  reputable  life,  qualifications  easier  to  embellish,  if 
only  they  are  real,  than  to  fabricate  where  non- 
existent.  But  attributes  useful  in  an  advocate  are  a 
mild  tone,  a  countenance  expressive  of  modesty, 

827 


CICERO 

significatio/  verborum  comitas  ;  si  quid  persequare 
acrius,  ut  invitus  et  coactus  facere  videare.  Facili- 
tatis,  liberalitatis,mansuetudinis,pietatis,  grati  animi, 
non  appetentis,  non  avidi,  signa  proferri  perutile  est ; 
eaque  omnia,  quae  proborum,  demissorum,  non  acrium, 
non  pertinacium,  non  litigiosorum,  non  acerborum 
sunt,  valde  benevolentiam  conciliant  abalienantque 
ab  eis,  in  quibus  haec  non  sunt ;  itaque  eadem  sunt  in 

183  adversarios  ex  contrario  conferenda.  Sed  genus  hoc 
totum  orationis  in  eis  causis  excellet,  in  quibus  minus 
potest  inflammari  animus  iudicis  acri  et  vehementi 
quadam  incitatione.  Non  enim  semper  fortis  oratio 
quaeritur,  sed  saepe  placida,  summissa,  lenis,  quae 
maxime  commendat  reos.  Reos  autem  appello  non 
eos  modo,  qui  arguuntur,  sed  omnes,  quorum  de  re 

184  disceptatur ;  sic  enimolim  loquebantur.  Horum  igitur 
exprimere  mores  oratione,  iustos,  integros,  religiosos, 
timidos,  perferentes  iniuriarum,mirum  quiddam  valet ; 
et  hoc  vel  in  principiis  vel  in  re  narranda  vel  in  pero- 
randa  tantam  habet  vim,  si  est  suaviter  et  cum  sensu 
tractatum,  ut  saepe  plus  quam  causa  valeat.  Tantum 
autem  efficitur  sensu  quodam  ac  ratione  dicendi,  ut 
Quasi  mores  oratoris  effingat  oratio.  Genere  enim 
quodam  sententiarum  et  genere  verborum,  adhibita 
etiam  actione  leni  facilitatemque  significante  effici- 
tur,  ut  probi,  ut  bene  morati,  ut  boni  viri  esse 
videantur. 

^  pudor[is  signifacatio]  Bakius. 
S28 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xliii.  182-184 

gentle  language,  and  the  faculty  of  seeming  to  be 
dealing  reluctantly  and  under  compulsion  with  some- 
thing  you  are  really  anxious  to  prove.  It  is  very  help- 
ful  to  display  the  tokens  of  good-nature,  kindness, 
calmness,  loyalty  and  a  disposition  that  is  pleasing 
and  not  grasping  or  covetous,  and  all  the  qualities 
belonging  to  men  who  are  upright,  unassuming  and 
not  given  to  haste,  stubbornness,  strife  or  harshness, 
are  powerful  in  winning  goodwill,  while  the  want  of 
them  estranges  it  from  such  as  do  not  possess  them  ; 
accordingly    the  very  opposites   of  these   quaUties 

183  must  be  ascribed  to  our  opponents.  But  all  this  kind 
of  advocacy  will  be  best  in  those  cases  wherein  the 
arbitrator's  feelings  are  not  hkely  to  be  kindled  by 
what  I  may  call  the  ardent  and  impassioned  onset. 
For  vigorous  language  is  not  always  wanted,  but  often 
such  as  is  cahn,  gentle,  mild  :  this  is  the  kind  that  most 
commends  the  parties.  By '  parties  '  I  mean  not  only 
persons  impeached,  but  all  whose  interests  are  being 
determined,  for  that  was  how  people  used  the  term 

184  in  the  old  days.  And  so  to  paint  their  characters 
in  words,  as  being  upright,  stainless,  conscientious, 
modest  and  long-suffering  under  injustice,  has  a 
really  wonderful  effect ;  and  this  topic,  whether  in 
opening,  or  in  stating  the  case,  or  in  ^vinding-up,  is 
so  compelUng,  when  agreeably  and  feehngly  handled, 
as  often  to  be  worth  more  than  the  merits  of  the 
case.  Moreover  so  much  is  done  by  good  taste 
and  style  in  speaking,  that  the  speech  seems  to 
depict  the  speaker's  character.  For  by  means  of 
particular  types  of  thought  and  diction,  and  the 
employment  besides  of  a  deUvery  that  is  unruffled 
and  eloquent  of  good-nature,  the  speakers  are  made 
to  appear  upright,  well-bred  and  virtuous  men. 

M  329 


CICERO 

185  XLIV.  Huic  autem  est  illa  dispar  adiuncta  ratio 
orationis,  quae  alio  quodam  genere  mentes  iudicum 
permovet,  impellitque,  ut  aut  oderint  aut  diligant 
aut  invideant  aut  salvum  velint  aut  metuant  aut 
sperent  aut  cupiant  aut  abhorreant  aut  laetentur 
aut  maereant  aut  misereantur  aut  punire  velint,  aut 
ad  eos  motus  adducantur,  si  qui  finitimi  sunt  et  pro- 
pinqui  his^  ac  talibus  animi  perturbationibus. 

Atque  illud  optandum  est  oratori,  ut  aliquampermo- 
tionem  animorum  sua  sponte  ipsi  afFerant  ad  causam 
iudices,  ad  id,  quod  utiUtas  oratoris  feret,  accommo- 

186  datam.  Facilius  est  enim  currentem,  ut  aiunt,  incitare 
quam  commovere  languentem.  Sin  id  aut  non  erit 
aut  erit  obscurius,  sicut  medico  dihgenti,  priusquam 
conetur  aegro  adhibere  medicinam,  non  solum  morbus 
eius,  cui  mederi  volet,  sed  etiam  consuetudo  valentis 
et  natura  corporis  cognoscenda  est. 

Sic  equidem  cum  aggredior  ancipitem  causam  et 
gravem,adanimos  iudicum  pertractandos,omni  mente 
in  ea  cogitatione  curaque  versor,  ut  odorer,  quam 
sagacissime  possim,  quid  sentiant.  quid  existiment, 
quid  exspectent,  quid  vehnt,  quo  deduci   oratione 

187  facillime  posse  videantur.  Si  se  dant  et,  ut  ante  dixi, 
sua  sponte,  quo  impellimus,  inclinant  atque  propen- 
dent,  accipio  quod  datur  et  ad  id,  unde  aliquis 
flatus  ostenditur,  vela  do.  Sin  est  integer  quietusque 
iudex,  plus  est  operis  ;    sunt   enim  omnia  dicendo 

^  sunt  et  propinqui  his  Ellendt :  sunt  de  propinquis. 
830 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xliv.  185-187 

186      XLIV.  "  But  closely  associated  with  this  is  that  dis-  importance 
similar  style  of  speaking  which,  in  quite  another  way,  suitabie '°^ 
excites  and  urges  the  feelings  of  the  tribunal  towards  emotions  in 
hatred  or  love,  ill-will  or  well-wishing,  fear  or  hope,  *'^'**®'^*^®  • 
desire  or  aversion,  joy  or  sorrow,  compassion  or  the 
wish  to  punish,  or  by  it  they  are  prompted  to  what- 
ever  emotions  are  nearly  allied  and  similar  to  these 
passions  of  the  soul,  and  to  such  as  these. 

"  Another  desirable  thing  for  the  advocate  is  that 
the  members  of  the  tribunal,  of  their  own  accord, 
should  carry  within  them  to  Court  some  mental 
emotion  that  is  in  harmony  with  what  the  advocate's 

186  interest  will  suggest.  For,  as  the  saying  goes,  it  is 
easier  to  spur  the  willing  horse  than  to  start  the  lazy 
one.  But  if  no  such  emotion  be  present,  or  recogniz- 
able,  he  will  be  like  a  careful  physician  who,  before 
he  attempts  to  administer  a  remedy  to  his  patient, 
must  investigate  not  only  the  malady  of  the  man 
he  wishes  to  cure,  but  also  his  habits  when  in  health, 
and  his  physical  constitution. 

"  This  indeed  is  the  reason  why,  when  setting  about 
a  hazardous  and  important  case,  in  order  to  explore 
the  feelings  of  the  tribunal,  I  engage  wholeheartedly 
in  a  consideration  so  careful,  that  I  scent  out  with 
all  possible  keenness  their  thoughts,  judgements, 
anticipations  and  wishes,  and  the  direction  in  which 
they  seem   Ukely  to  be   led  away  most  easily  by 

187  eloquence.  If  they  surrender  to  me,  and  as  I  said 
before,  of  their  own  accord  lean  towards  and  are 
prone  to  take  the  course  in  which  I  am  urging  them 
on,  I  accept  their  bounty  and  set  sail  for  that  quarter 
which  promises  something  of  a  breeze.  If  however 
an  arbitrator  is  neutral  and  free  from  predisposition, 
my  task  is  harder,  since  everything  has  to  be  called 

331 


CICERO 

excitanda,  nihil  adiuvante  natura.  Sed  tantam  vim 
habet  illa,  quae  recte  a  bono  poeta  dicta  est  *  flex- 
anima  atque  omnium  regina  rerum,'  oratio,  ut  non 
modo  incHnantem  excipere  aut  stantem  inclinare, 
sed  etiam  adversantem  ac  repugnantem  ut  im- 
perator  bonus  ac  fortis  capere  possit, 

188  XLV.  Haec  sunt  illa,  quae  me  ludens  Crassus  modo 
flagitabat,  cum  a  me  divinitus  tractari  solere  diceret 
et  in  causa  M'.  Aquilii,  Gaiique  Norbani,  non  nullis- 
que  aliis  quasi  praeclare  acta  laudaret.  Quae  me- 
hercule  ego,  Crasse,  cum  a  te  tractantur  in  causis, 
horrere  soleo  :  tanta  vis  animi,  tantus  impetus,  tantus 
dolor,  oculis,  vultu,  gestu,  digito  denique  isto  tuo 
significari  solet ;  tantum  est  flumen  gravissimorum 
optimorumque  verborum,  tam  integrae  sententiae, 
tam  verae,  tam  novae,  tam  sine  pigmentis  fucoque 
puerili,  ut  mihi  non  solum  tu  incendere  iudicem,  sed 
ipse  ardere  videaris. 

189  Neque  fieri  potest,  ut  doleat  is,  qui  audit,  ut  oderit, 
ut  invideat,  ut  pertimescat  aliquid,  ut  ad  fletum 
misericordiamque  deducatur,  nisi  omnes  illi  motus, 
quos  orator  adhibere  volet  iudici,  in  ipso  oratore 
impressi  esse  atque  inusti  videbuntur.  Quodsi 
fictus  aliquis  dolor  suscipiendus  esset  et  si  in  eius 
modi  genere  orationis  nihil  esset  nisi  falsum  atque 
imitatione  simulatum,  maior  ars  aliqua  forsitan  esset 
requirenda.  Nunc  ego,  quid  tibi,  Crasse,  quid  ceteris 
accidat,  nescio  ;    de  me  autem  causa  nuUa  est,  cur 

"  i.e.  Pacuvius,  in  his  tragedy  Hermione.    See  Remains  of 
Old  Latin,  ii.  pp.  232-233  (L.C.L.). 

S32 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xUv.  187— xlv.  189 

forth  by  my  speech,  with  no  help  from  the  listener's 
character.  But  so  potent  is  that  Eloquence,  rightly 
styled,  by  an  excellent  poet,*  '  soulbending  sove- 
reign  of  all  things,'  that  she  can  not  only  support 
the  sinking  and  bend  the  upstanding,  but,  like  a  good 
and  brave  commander,  can  even  make  prisoner  a 
resisting  antagonist. 

1  XLV.  "  These  are  the  details  for  which  Crassus  was  success  of 
playfully  importuning  me  just  now,  when  he  said  f^^>^ 
that  I  always  handled  them  ideally,  and  he  praised 
what  he  called  the  brilliant  treatment  of  them  in  the 
cases  of  Manius  Aquilius,  Gaius  Norbanus  and  sundry 
others.  Now  I  give  you  my  word,  Crassus,  that  I 
always  tremble  when  these  things  are  handled  by 
yourself  in  Court  :  such  is  the  mental  power,  such 
the  passion,  so  profound  the  indignation,  ever  mani- 
fest  in  your  glance,  features,  gesture,  even  in  that 
wagging  finger  of  yours  ;  so  mighty  is  the  flow  of 
your  most  impressive  and  happy  diction,  so  sound, 
true  and  original  your  sentiments,  and  so  innocent  of 
colouring-matter  or  paltry  dye,  that  to  me  you  seem 
to  be  not  merely  inflaming  the  arbitrator,  but  actually 
on  fire  yourself. 

I      "  Moreover  it  is  impossible  for  the  listener  to  feel  Thespeaker 
indignation,  hatred  or  ill-will,  to  be  terrified  of  any-  ^i^\\if 
thing,  or  reduced  to  tears  of  compassion,  unless  all  feei  the 
those  emotions,  which  the  advocate  would  inspire  in  hTwi°hls 
the  arbitrator,  are  visibly  stamped  or  rather  branded  toexcite; 
on  the  advocate  himself.     Now  if  some  feigned  indig- 
nation  had  to  be  depicted,  and  that  same  kind  of 
oratory  aiforded  only  what  was  counterfeit  and  pro- 
duced  by  mimicry,  some  loftier  art  would  perhaps  be 
called  for.     As  things  stand,  Crassus,  I  do  not  know 
how  it  may  be  with  yourself  or  the  rest,  but  in  my 

333 


CICERO 

apud  homines  prudentissimos  atque  amicissimos  men- 
tiar :  non  mehereule  unquam  apud  iudices,  aut 
dolorem,  aut  misericordiam  aut  invidiam  aut  odium 
dicendo  excitare  volui,  quin  ipse  in  commovendis 
iudicibus  eis  ipsis  sensibus,  ad   quos  illos  adducere 

190  vellem,  permoverer.  Neque  est  enim  facile  perficere, 
ut  irascatur  cui  tu  velis,  iudex,  si  tu  ipse  id  lente  ferre 
videare  ;  neque  ut  oderit  eum,  quem  tu  veHs,  nisi  te 
ipsum  flagrantem  odio  ante  viderit ;  neque  ad  miseri- 
cordiam  adducetur,  nisi  tu  ei  signa  doloris  tui  verbis, 
sententiis,  voce,  vultu,  coUacrimatione  denique  osten- 
deris.  Ut  enim  nulla  materies  tam  facihs  ad 
exardescendum  est,  quae  nisi  admoto  igni  ignem 
concipere  possit,  sic  nuUa  mens  est  tam  ad  compre- 
hendendam  vim  oratoris  parata,  quae  possit  incendi, 
nisi  ipse  inflammatus  ad  eam  et  ardens  accesserit. 

191  XLVI.  Ac,  ne  hoc  forte  magnum  ac  mirabile  esse 
videatur  hominem  toties  irasci,  toties  dolere,  toties 
omni  motu  animi  concitari,  praesertim  in  rebus  alienis, 
magna  vis  est  earum  sententiarum  atque  eorum 
locorum,  quos  agas  tractesque  dicendo,  nihil  ut  opus 
sit  simulatione  et  fallaciis  ;  ipsa  enim  natura  ora- 
tionis  eius,  quae  suscipitur  ad  ahorum  animos  per- 
movendos,  oratorem  ipsum  magis  etiam  quam  quem- 

192  quam  eorum,  qui  audiunt,  permovet.  Et  ne  hoc  in 
causis,  in  iudiciis,  in  amicorum  pericuHs,  in  concursu 
hominum,  in  civitate,  in  foro  accidere  miremur,  cura 
834 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlv.  189— xlvi.  192 

own  case  there  is  no  reason  why  I  should  lie  to  men 
of  consummate  experience,  who  are  also  my  best 
friends  :  I  give  you  my  word  that  I  never  tried,  by 
means  of  a  speech,  to  arouse  either  indignation  or 
compassion,  either  ill-will  or  hatred,  in  the  minds  of 
a  tribunal,  without  being  really  stirred  myself, 
as  I  worked  upon  their  minds,  by  the  very  feelings 

190  to  which  I  was  seeking  to  prompt  them.  For  it  is 
not  easy  to  succeed  in  making  an  arbitrator  angry 
with  the  right  party,  if  you  yourself  seem  to  treat 
the  affair  with  indifference  ;  or  in  making  him  hate 
the  right  party,  unless  he  first  sees  you  on  fire  with 
hatred  yourself ;  nor  will  he  be  prompted  to  com- 
passion,  unless  you  have  shown  him  the  tokens  of 
your  own  grief  by  word,  sentiment,  tone  of  voice, 
look  and  even  by  loud  lamentation.  For  just  as 
there  is  no  substance  so  ready  to  take  fire,  as  to  be 
capable  of  generating  flame  without  the  application 
of  a  spark,  so  also  there  is  no  mind  so  ready  to  absorb 
an  orator*s  influence,  as  to  be  inflammable  when  the 
assaihng  speaker  is  not  himself  aglow  with  passion. 

191  XLVI.  "  Again,  lest  haply  it  should  seem  a  mighty  as  ho 
miracle,  for  a  man  so  often  to  be  roused  to  wrath,  ^^ij"""^. 
indignation   and   every  inward   emotion — and  that  sidering  his 
too   about   other  people's   business — the   power  ofexISpies. 
those  reflections  and  commonplaces,  discussed  and 
handled  in  a  speech,  is  great  enough  to  dispense 

with  all  make-believe  and  trickery  :  for  the  very 
quaUty  of  the  diction,  employed  to  stir  the  feeUngs 
of  others,  stirs  the  speaker  himself  even  more  deeply 

192  than  any  of  his  hearers.  And,  not  to  have  us 
astonished  at  this  happening  in  Utigation,  or  before 
arbitrators,  or  in  the  impeachments  of  our  friends, 
or  among  a  crowd  of  people,  or  in  poUtical  Ufe,  or 

S35 


CICERO 

agituj  non  solum  ingenii  nostri  existimatio,  (nam  id 
esset  levius ; — quanquam,  cum  professus  sis  te  id 
posse  facere,  quod  pauci,  ne  id  quidem  neglegendum 
est)  ;  sed  alia  sunt  maiora  multo,  fides,  officium,  dili- 
gentia,  quibus   rebus    adducti,    etiam   cum   alienis- 

193  simos  defendimus,  tamen  eos  alienos,  si  ipsi  viri  boni 
volumus  haberi,  existimare  non  possumus.  Sed,  ut 
dixi,  ne  hoc  in  nobis  mirum  esse  videatur,  quid  potest 
esse  tam  fictum  quam  versus,  quam  scaena,  quam 
fabulae  ?  Tamen  in  hoc  genere  saepe  ipse  vidi,  ut 
ex  persona  mihi  ardere  oculi  hominis  histrionis  vide- 
rentur  spondaha  illa  dicentis  : 

segregare  abs  te  ausu's  aut  sine  illo  Salamina  ingredi, 
neque  paternum  aspectum  es  veritus  ? 

Nunquam  illum  '  aspectum '  dicebat,  quin  mihi 
Telamon  iratus  furere  luctu  filii  videretur.  Ut  idem 
inflexa  ad  miserabilem  sonum  voce, 

quem  aetate  exacta  indigem 
liberum  lacerasti,  orbasti,  exstinxti ;  neque  fratris  necis, 
neque  eius  gnati  parvi,  qui  tibi  in  tutelam  est  traditus? 

flens  ac  lugens  dicere  videbatur.  Quae  si  ille 
histrio,  cotidie  cum  ageret,  tamen  agere  sine 
dolore  non  poterat,  quid  Pacuvium  putatis  in 
scribendo  leni  animo  ac  remisso  fuisse  ?     Fieri  nuUo 

194  modo  potuit.  Saepe  enim  audivi  poetam  bonum 
neminem — id  quod  a  Democrito  et  Platone  in  scriptis 


"  Tiiese  lines  are  from  the  Teucer,  a  tragedy  of  Paciiviiis. 
See  Remains  of  Old  Latin,  ii.  pp.  292-293  (L.C.L.). 
836 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlvi.  192-194 

public  debate,  when  not  only  our  talent  is  under 
criticism  (no  great  matter,  though  even  this  should 
not  be  overlooked,  when  you  have  claimed  a  pro- 
iiciency  attained  by  few),  but  other  and  far  more 
important  attributes  are  on  trial,  I  mean  our  loyalty, 
sense  of  duty  and  carefulness,  under  whose  influence, 
even  when  defending  complete  strangers,  we  still 
cannot  regard  them  as  strangers,  if  we  would  be 

193  accounted  good  men  ourselves.  However,  as  I  said, 
not  to  have  this  seem  a  marvel  among  us,  what  can 
be  so  unreal  as  poetry,  the  theatre  or  stage-plays  ? 
And  yet,  in  that  sort  of  things,  I  myself  have  often 
been  a  spectator  when  the  actor-man's  eyes  seemed 
to  me  to  be  blazing  behind  his  mask,  as  he  spoke 
those  solemn  lines," 

Darest  thou  part  from  thy  brother,  or  Salamis  enter  without 

him, 
Dreading  the  mien  of  thy  sire  not  at  all  ? 

Never  did  he  utter  that  word  '  mien,'  without  my 
beholding  an  infuriated  Telamon  maddened  by  grief 
for  his  son.  Whenever  too  he  lowered  his  voice 
to  a  plaintive  tone,  in  the  passage," 

Aged  and  childless, 
Didst  tear  and  bereave  and  didst  quench  me,  forgetting  the 

death  of  thy  brother, 
Forgetting  his  tiny  son,  though  entrusted  to  thee  as  a 

guardian  ? 

I  thought  I  heard  sobs  of  mourning  in  his  voice. 
Now  if  that  player,  though  acting  it  daily,  could 
never  act  that  scene  without  emotion,  do  you  really 
think  that  Pacuvius,  when  he  wrote  it,  was  in  a  calm 
and  careless  frame  of  mind  ?     That  could  never  be. 

194  For  I  have  often  heard  that — as  they  say  Democritus 

SS7 


CICERO 

relictum  esse  dicunt — sine  inflammatione  animorum 
exsistere  posse,  et  sine  quodam  afflatu  quasi  furoris. 
XLVII.  Qua  re  nolite  existimare  me  ipsum,  qui  non 
heroum  veteres  casus  fictosque  luctus  vellem  imitari 
atque  adumbrare  dicendo,  neque  actor  essem  alienae 
personae,  sed  auctor  meae,  cum  mihi  M'.  Aquihus 
in  civitate  retinendus  esset,  quae  in  illa  causa  pero- 

195  randa  fecerim,  sine  magno  dolore  fecisse.  Quem 
enim  ego  consulem  fuisse,  imperatorem,  ornatum  a 
Senatu,  ovantem  in  Capitolium  ascendisse  meminis- 
sem,  hunc  cum  afflictum,  debilitatum,  maerentem,  in 
summum  discrimen  adductum  viderem,  non  prius 
sum  conatus  misericordiam  ahis  commovere,  quam 
misericordia  sum  ipse  captus.  Sensi  equidem  tum 
magnopere  moveri  iudices,  cum  excitavi  maestum 
ac  sordidatum  senem  et  cum  ista  feci,  quae  tu, 
Crasse,  laudas,  non  arte,  de  qua  quid  loquar  nescio, 
sed  motu  magno  animi  ac  dolore,  ut  discinderem 

196  tunicam,  ut  cicatrices  ostenderem.  Ctmi  C.  Marius 
maerorem  orationis  meae  praesens  ac  sedens  multum 
lacrimis  suis  adiuvaret,  cumque  ego  illum  crebro 
appellans  collegam  ei  suum  commendarem  atque 
ipsum  advocatum  ad  communem  imperatorum  for- 
tunam  defendendam  invocarem,  non  fuit  haec  sine 
meis  lacrimis,  non  sine  dolore  magno  miseratio, 
omniumque  deorum  et  hominum  et  civium  et 
sociorum  imploratio  ;  quibus  omnibus  verbis,  quae  a 

'  Aquilius  was  consul  in  101  b.c.  After  suppressing  the 
Servile  War  in  Sicily,  he  was  prosecuted  in  98  b.c.  for  extor- 
tion,  but  successfuUy  defended  by  Antonius  (c/.  §  188). 

"  Marius  was  consul  for  the  fifth  time  in  101  b.c. 

SS8 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlvi.  194— xlvii.  196 

and  Plato  have  left  on  record — no  man  can  be  a  good 
poet  who  is  not  on  fire  with  passion,  and  inspired  by 
something  very  like  frenzy. 

XLVII.  "  Do  not   suppose   then  that  I   myself,  instance  of 
though  not  concerned  to  portray  and  reproduce  in  t^o\t^\n 
language    the  bygone  misfortunes  and    legendary  casesof 
griefs  of  heroes,   and  though  presenting  my  own  an*<r* "" 
personality    and    not    representing    another's,    did  Norbanus. 
without  profound  emotion  the  things  I  did  when 
closing  that  famous  case,"  in  which  my  task  was  to 

195  maintain  Manius  Aquilius  in  his  civic  rights.  For 
here  was  a  man  whom  I  remembered  as  having  been 
consul,  commander-in-chief,  honoured  by  the  Senate, 
and  mounting  in  procession  to  the  Capitol ;  on  seeing 
him  cast  down,  crippled,  sorrowing  and  brought  to 
the  risk  of  all  he  held  dear,  I  was  myself  overcome 
by  compassion  before  I  tried  to  excite  it  in  others. 
Assuredly  I  felt  that  the  Court  was  deeply  affected 
when  I  called  forward  my  unhappy  old  client,  in  his 
garb  of  woe,  and  when  I  did  those  things  approved 
by  yourself,  Crassus — not  by  way  of  technique,  as 
to  which  I  know  not  what  to  say,  but  under  stress 
of  deep  emotion  and  indignation — I  mean  my  tear- 

19Q  ing  open  his  tunic  and  exposing  his  scars.  While 
Gaius  Marius,  from  his  seat  in  court,  was  strongly 
reinforcing,  by  his  weeping,  the  pathos  of  my  appeal, 
and  I,  repeatedly  naming  him,  was  committing  his 
colleague  ^  to  his  care,  and  calling  upon  him  to  speak 
himself  in  support  of  the  common  interests  of  com- 
manders-in-chief,  all  this  lamentation,  as  well  as 
my  invocation  of  every  god  and  man,  every  citizen 
and  ally,  was  accompanied  by  tears  and  vast  in- 
dignation  on  my  own  part ;  had  my  personal  in- 
dignation  been  missing  from  all  the  talking  I  did 

339 


CICERO 

me  tum  sunt  habita,  si  dolor  afuisset  meus,  non 
modo  non  miserabilis,  sed  etiam  irridenda  fuisset 
oratio  mea.  Quam  ob  rem  hoc  vos  doceo,  Sulpici, 
bonus  ego  videlicet  atque  eruditus  magister,  ut  in 
dicendo  irasci,  ut  dolere,  ut  flere  possitis. 

197  Quanquam  te  quidem  quid  hoc  doceam,  qui  in 
accusando  sodali  et  quaestore  meo  tantum  incendium 
non  oratione  solum,  sed  etiam  multo  magis  vi  et  dolore 
et  ardore  animi  concitaras,  ut  ego  ad  id  restinguen- 
dum  vix  conarer  accedere }  Habueras  enim  tum 
omnia  in  causa  superiora :  vim,  fugam,  lapida- 
tionem,  crudehtatem  tribuniciam  in  Caepionis  gravi 
miserabilique  casu,  in  iudicium  vocabas  ;  deinde 
principem  et  senatus  et  civitatis,  M.  Aemilium,  lapide 
percussum  esse  constabat ;  vi  pulsum  ex  templo 
L.  Cottam,  et  T.  Didium,  cum  intercedere  vellent 
rogationi,  nemo  poterat  negare. 

198  XLVIII.  Accedebat,  ut  haec  tu  adolescens  pro 
re  pubHca  queri  summa  cum  dignitate  existimarere ; 
ego,  homo  censorius,  vix  satis  honeste  viderer  sedi- 
tiosum  civem  et  in  hominis  consularis  calamitate 
crudelem  posse  defendere.  Erant  optimi  cives 
iudices,  bonorum  virorum  plenum  forum,  vix  ut  mihi 
tenuis  quaedam  venia  daretur  excusationis,  quod 
tamen  eum  defenderem,  qui  mihi  quaestor  fuisset. 
Hic  ego  quid  dicam  me  artem  aUquam  adhibuisse  ? 


»  i.e.  Gaius  Norbanus,  who  had  been  Antonius's  quaestor 
in  103  B.c.  (c/.  Book  II,  §§  89,  107,  124).  Q.  Servilius 
Caepio,  as  proconsul  in  Gaul,  had  been  the  main  cause  of 
the  crushing  defeat  inflicted  upon  the  Roman  army  by  the 
Cimbri  at  Arausio.  Being  subsequently  prosecuted  and 
condemned  for  his  treason  and  embezzlement  in  Gaul,  he 
was  exiled.  Norbanus  had  been  active  in  the  proceedings 
against  him,  and  this  led  to  the  prosecution  of  Norbanus 

340 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlvii.  196— xlviii.  198 

on  that  occasion,  my  address,  so  far  from  inspiring 
compassion,  would  positively  have  deserved  ridicule. 
And  so  I  am  telling  you  this,  Sulpicius,  as  naturally 
such  a  kindly  and  accompUshed  teacher  would  do,  in 
order  to  help  you  to  be  wrathful,  indignant  and 
tearful  in  your  speech-making. 

197  "  But  why  indeed  should  I  teach  this  to  you,  who, 
in  prosecuting  my  comrade  and  quaestor,*»  had 
kindled  such  a  blaze,  not  by  eloquence  only,  but 
far  more  by  vehemence,  indignation  and  fiery  en- 
thusiasm,  that  I  hardly  ventured  to  draw  near  and 
put  it  out  ?  For  all  the  advantages  in  that  case  had 
been  yours :  you  were  citing  to  the  Court  the  violence, 
the  flight,  the  stone-throwing  and  the  tribunes* 
ruthlessness  that  marked  the  disastrous  and  lament- 
able  affair  of  Caepio  ;  then  too  it  was  established 
that  Marcus  Aemilius,  chief  of  Senate  and  chief  of 
State,  had  been  struck  by  a  stone,  while  it  was 
undeniable  that  Lucius  Cotta  and  Titus  Didius,  on 
trying  to  veto  a  resolution,  had  been  forcibly  driven 
from  sanctuary. 

198  XLVIII.  "  In  the  result,  while  you,  only  a  stripling, 
were  thought  to  be  conducting  this  pubhc  prosecu- 
tion  with  consummate  distinction,  I,  a  past  censor, 
was  thought  to  be  acting  not  quite  honourably  in  bear- 
ing  to  defend  a  factious  citizen,  who  moreover  had 
been  merciless  to  a  past  consul  in  distress.  Citizens 
of  the  best  repute  formed  the  tribunal ;  men  of  re- 
spectabiUty  crowded  the  Court ;  so  that  I  had 
difficulty  in  winning  a  grudging  sort  of  acceptance 
of  my  plea  that  at  any  rate  my  cHent  was  my  old 
quaestor.     In  these  circumstances  how  can  I  say 

himself  by  the  aristocrats  in  95  b.c,  when  Antonius  con- 
ducted  his  defence,  as  here  described. 

841 


CICERO 

Quid  fecerim,  narrabo  ;  si  placuerit,  vos  meam  de- 
fensionem  in  aliquo  artis  loco  reponetis. 
199  Omnium  seditionum  genera,  vitia,  pericula  collegi, 
eamque  orationem  ex  omni  rei  publicae  nostrae  tem- 
porum  varietate  repetivi,  conclusique  ita,  ut  dicerem, 
etsi  omnes  semper  molestae  seditiones  fuissent,  iustas 
tamen  fuisse  non  nullas  et  prope  necessarias.  Tum 
illa,  quae  modo  Crassus  commemorabat,  egi :  neque 
reges  ex  hac  civitate  exigi,  neque  tribunos  plebis 
creari,  neque  plebiscitis  toties  consularem  potestatem 
minui,  neque  provocationem,  patronam  illam  civitatis 
ac  vindicem  libertatis,  populo  Romano  dari  sine  no- 
bilium  dissensione  potuisse  ;  ac,  si  illae  seditiones 
saluti  huic  civitati  fuissent,  non  continuo,  si  quis 
motus  populi  factus  esset,  id  C.  Norbano  in  nefario 
crimine  atque  in  fraude  capitali  esse  ponendum. 
Quodsi  unquam  populo  Romano  concessum  esset, 
ut  iure  concitatus  videretur,  id  quod  docebam  saepe 
esse  concessiun,  nuUam  illa  causam  iustiorem  fuisse. 
Tum  omnem  orationem  traduxi  et  converti  in  in- 
crepandam  Caepionis  fugam,  in  deplorandum  interi- 
timi  exercitus  :  sic  et  eorum  dolorem,  qui  lugebant 
suos,  oratione  refricabam,  et  animos  equitum  Ro- 
manorum,  apud  quos  tum  iudices  causa  agebatur,  ad 
342 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlviii.  198-199 

I  used  any  particular  technique  .''  What  I  did  I  will 
relate,  if  you  think  fit,  you  will  give  my  line  of 
defence  some  place  or  other  in  your  system. 
199  "  I  classified  all  the  types  of  civil  discord,  their 
weaknesses  and  dangers,  and  that  part  of  my  speech 
I  derived  from  all  the  vicissitudes  in  the  history  of 
our  own  community,  winding  up  with  the  assertion 
that  civil  discords,  though  always  troublesome,  had 
yet  sometimes  been  justifiable  and  well-nigh  un- 
avoidable.  Next  I  discussed  the  considerations 
lately  recalled  by  Crassus  ;  how  that  neither  the 
expulsion  of  kings  from  this  State,  nor  the  estabUsh- 
ment  of  tribunes  of  the  commons,  nor  the  frequent 
restriction  of  the  consuls'  power  by  decrees  of  the 
commons,  nor  the  bestowal  upon  the  Roman  People 
of  the  right  of  appeal,  that  famous  buttress  of 
the  State  and  defence  of  freedom,  could  any  of 
them  have  been  efFected  without  aristocratic  opposi- 
tion  ;  and  that,  if  those  particular  civil  discords  had 
been  beneficial  to  our  community,  the  mere  fact 
of  a  popular  movement  having  been  caused  must 
not  instantly  be  counted  against  Gaius  Norbanus 
for  heinous  wickedness  and  indeed  a  capital  ofFence. 
That  if  rightfulness  had  ever  been  conceded  to  an  in- 
citement  of  the  Roman  People  to  sedition, — a  con- 
cession  which  I  was  showing  to  have  been  frequent — , 
there  had  never  been  a  juster  cause  than  this  one. 
After  that  I  altered  my  course  and  turned  ray  entire 
speech  into  a  denunciation  of  the  running-away  of 
Caepio  and  a  lament  for  the  destruction  of  his  army  : 
in  this  way,  besides  chafing  anew  by  my  words  the 
sores  of  people  mourning  for  their  own  folk,  I  was 
kindling  the  feelings  of  the  Roman  Knights,  who 
constituted  the  Court  I  was  addressing,  into  fresh 

343 


CICERO 

Q.  Caepionis  odium,  a  quo  erant  ipsi  propter  iudicia 
abalienati,  renovabam. 

200  XLIX.  Quod  ubi  sensi  me  in  possessione  iudicii 
ac  defensionis  meae  constitisse,  quod  et  populi  bene- 
volentiam  mihi  conciliaram,  cuius  ius  etiam  cum 
seditionis  coniunctione  defenderam,  et  iudicum  ani- 
mos  totos  vel  calamitate  civitatis  vel  luctu  ac  desiderio 
propinquorum  vel  odio  proprio  in  Caepionem  ad 
causam  nostram  converteram,  tum  admiscere  huic 
generi  orationis  vehementi  atque  atroci  genus  illud 
alterum,  de  quo  ante  disputavi,  lenitatis  et  mansue- 
tudinis  coepi  :  me  pro  meo  sodali,  qui  mihi  in  hberum 
loco  more  maiorum  esse  deberet,  et  pro  mea  omni 
fama  prope  fortunisque  decernere ;  nihil  mihi  ad 
existimationem  turpius,  nihil  ad  dolorem  acerbius 
accidere  posse,  quam  si  is,  qui  saepe  aUenissimis  a 
me,  sed  meis  tamen  civibus,  saluti  existimarer  fuisse, 

201  sodaU  meo  auxiUum  ferre  non  potuissem.  Petebam  a 
iudicibus,  ut  illud  aetati  meae,  ut  honoribus,  ut  rebus 
gestis,  si  iusto,  si  pio  dolore  me  esse  afFectum  viderent, 
concederent ;  praesertim  si  in  aliis  causis  intellexis- 
sent  omnia  me  semper  pro  amicorum  pericuUs,  nihil 
unquam  pro  me  ipso  deprecatum.  Sic  in  iUa  omni 
defensione  atque  causa,  quod  esse  in  arte  positum 
videbatur,  ut  de  lege  Appuleia  dicerem,  ut  quid  esset 
minuere  maiestatem  expUcarem,  perquam  breviter 
perstrinxi  atque  attigi.    His  duabus  partibus  orationis, 

"  Caepio  in  106  b.c.  had  proposed  to  deprive  the  equites 
of  their  monopoly  of  the  jury  functions,  and  to  have  the 
tribunals  composed  of  senators  and  equites  in  equal  pro- 
portions.  »  See  Book  II,  §  107  n.  6. 

S44 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xlviii.  199— xUx.  201 

hatred  of  Quintus  Caepio,  from  whom  they  had  been 
estranged  already  over  the  composition  of  the 
criminal  Courts." 

200  XLIX.  "  But  when  I  felt  I  had  a  firm  hold  on  the 
Court  and  on  my  line  of  defence,  and  I  had  won  the 
goodwill  of  the  public,  whose  claims  I  had  upheld 
even  when  involved  with  civil  discord,  and  I  had 
turned  all  hearts  on  the  tribunal  in  favour  of  my 
cause,  by  reason  either  of  the  national  disaster,  or 
of  yearning  grief  for  kindred,  or  of  private  hatred  of 
Caepio,  then  I  began  to  blend  with  this  impetuous 
and  violent  type  of  oratory  that  other  mild  and  gentle 
type,  which  I  have  already  discussed,  pleading  that 
I  was  fighting  for  my  comrade,  who  by  ancestral 
tradition  should  stand  in  a  filial  relation  to  myself, 
and  also  (I  might  say)  for  my  own  fair  fame  and 
general  welfare  ;  no  happening  could  more  deeply 
disgrace  my  reputation,  or  cause  me  more  bitter 
sorrow,  than  for  it  to  be  thought  that  I,  so  often  the 
saviour  of  complete  strangers  to  myself,  provided 
only  they  were  my  fellow-citizens,  had  been  unable 

201  to  aid  my  own  comrade.  I  begged  the  Court,  should 
they  see  me  affected  by  justifiable  and  loyal  grief, 
to  excuse  this  in  consideration  of  my  years,  official 
career  and  achievements,  particularly  if,  in  the 
course  of  other  trials,  they  had  observed  that  I  always 
made  my  petitions  on  behalf  of  friends  in  jeopardy, 
never  for  myself.  Thus  all  through  that  speech  for 
the  defence,  and  indeed  the  trial  itself,  it  was  in 
the  fewest  possible  words  that  I  glanced  over  and 
lightly  touched  the  matters  which  seemed  dependent 
upon  scientific  treatment,  I  mean  my  discussion  of 
the  Statute  of  Appuleius,''  and  my  exposition  of  the 
nature  of  treason.     By  means  of  these  two  modes 

2i>5 


CICERO 

quarum  altera  concitationem  habet,alteracommenda- 
tionem,  quae  minime  praeceptis  artium  sunt  per- 
politae,  omnis  est  a  me  illa  causa  tractata,  ut  et 
acerrimus  in  Caepionis  invidia  renovanda  et  in  meis 
moribus  erga  meos  necessarios  declarandis  man- 
suetissimus  viderer.  Ita  magis  afFectis  animis  iudi- 
cum  quam  doctis,  tua,  Sulpici,  est  a  nobis  tum 
accusatio  victa. 

202  L.  Hic  Sulpicius  :  Vere  hercle,  inquit,  Antoni, 
ista  commemoras  ;  nam  ego  nihil  unquam  vidi,  quod 
tam  e  manibus  elaberetur,  quam  mihi  tum  est  elapsa 
illa  causa.  Cum  enim,  quem  ad  modum  dixisti,  tibi 
ego  non  iudicium,  sed  incendium  tradidissem,  quod 
tuum  principium,  di  immortales,  fuit!  Qui  timor! 
Quae  dubitatio  !  Quanta  haesitatio  tractusque  ver- 
borum  !  Ut  illud  initio,  quod  tibi  unum  ad  ignoscen- 
dum  homines  dabant,  tenuisti,  te  pro  homine  per- 
necessario,  quaestore  tuo,  dicere  !    Quam  tibi  primum 

203  munisti  ad  te  audiendum  viam  !  Ecce  autem,  cum 
te  nihil  aliud  profecisse  arbitrarer,  nisi  ut  homines 
tibi  civem  improbum  defendenti  ignoscendum  prop- 
ter  necessitudinem  arbitrarentur,  serpere  occulte 
coepisti,  nihildum  aliis  suspicantibus,  me  vero  iam 
pertimescente,  ut  illam  non  Norbani  seditionem,  sed 
Popuh  Romani  iracundiam  neque  eam  iniustam,  sed 
meritam  ac  debitam  fuisse  defenderes.  Deinde  qui 
locus  a  te  praetermissus  est  in  Caepionem  ?  Ut  tu 
illa  omnia  odio,  invidia,  misericordia  miscuisti !  Neque 
haec  solum  in  defensione,  sed  etiam  in  Scauro  ce- 

346 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xUx.  201—1.  203 

of  speech,  the  one  inflammatory,  the  other  eulogistic, 
and  neither  of  them  much  elaborated  by  rules  of  art, 
I  so  managed  the  whole  of  that  case  as  to  seem  most 
passionate  when  reviving  hatred  of  Caepio,  and 
mildest  when  describing  my  conduct  towards  my 
own  connexions.  So,  Sulpicius,  it  was  rather  by 
working  upon,  than  by  informing,  the  minds  of  the 
tribunal,  that  I  beat  your  prosecution  on  that 
occasion." 

202  L.  Here   Sulpicius   observed,    "  Upon   my   word,  Snipicius 
Antonius,  your  account  of  those  matters  is  true,  for  t^stifles  to 
never  did  I  see  anything  shp  through  the  fingers  in  suMeM^hi' 
the  way  that  verdict  slipped  that  day  through  mine.  *'^®  ^***' 
For  when  (as  you  told  us)  I  had  left  you  with  a  con- 
flagration  rather  than  a  case  to  dispose  of, — ye  Gods  1 

— what  an  opening  you  made  !  How  nervous,  how 
irresolute  you  seemed  !  How  stammering  and  halt- 
ing  was  your  deUvery  !  How  you  clung  at  the  outset 
to  the  sohtary  excuse  everyone  was  making  for  you 
— that  you  were  defending  your  own  famiUar  friend 
and  quaestor  !     So,  in  the  first  place,  did  you  prepare 

203  the  way  towards  getting  a  hearing  !  Then,  just  as 
I  was  deciding  that  you  had  merely  succeeded  in 
making  people  think  intimate  relationship  a  possible 
excuse  for  your  defending  a  wicked  citizen, — lo  and 
behold  ! — so  far  unsuspected  by  other  people,  but 
already  to  my  own  serious  alarm,  you  began  to 
wriggle  imperceptibly  into  your  famous  defence,  of 
no  factious  Norbanus,  but  of  an  incensed  Roman 
People,  whose  wrath,  you  urged,  was  not  wrongful, 
but  just  and  well-deserved.  After  that  what  point 
against  Caepio  did  you  miss  ?  How  you  leavened 
every  word  with  hatred,  maUce  and  pathos  !  And 
aU  this  not  only  in  your  speech  for  the  defence,  but 

347 


CICERO 

terisque  meis  testibus,  quorum  testimonia  non  re- 
fellendo,  sed  ad  eundem  impetum  populi  confugiendo 
refutasti.      Quae   cum   abs    te    modo  commemora- 

204  rentur,  equidem  nulla  praecepta  desiderabam ;  ipsam 
tamen  istam  demonstrationem  defensionum  tuarum 
abs  te  ipso  commemoratam  doctrinam  esse  non 
mediocrem  puto. 

Atqui,  si  ita  placet,  inquit  Antonius,  trademus 
etiam,  quae  nos  sequi  in  dicendo  quaeque  maxime 
spectare  solemus  ;  docuit  enim  iam  nos  longa  vita 
ususque  rerum  maximarum,  ut  quibus  rebus  animi 
hominum  moverentur  teneremus. 

205  LI.  Equidem  primum  considerare  soleo,  postuletne 
causa  ;  nam  neque  parvis  in  rebus  adhibendae  sunt 
hae  dicendi  faces  neque  ita  animatis  hominibus,  ut 
nihil  ad  eorum  mentes  oratione  flectendas  proficere 
possimus,  ne  aut  irrisione  aut  odio  digni  putemur,  si 
aut  tragoedias  agamus  in  nugis  aut  convellere  adoria- 

206  mur  ea,  quae  non  possint  commoveri.  lam^  quoniam 
haec  fere  maxime  sunt  in  iudicum  animis,  aut  qui- 
cumque  ilU  erunt,  apud  quos  agemus,  oratione  mo- 
lienda,  amor,  odium,  iracundia,  invidia,  misericordia, 
spes,  laetitia,  timor,  molestia,  sentimus  amorem  con- 
ciliari,  si  id  videare,  quod  sit  utile  ipsis,  apud  quos 
agas,  defendere,  aut  si  pro  bonis  viris  aut  certe  pro 
eis,  qui  iUis  boni  atque  utiles  sint,  laborare.  Namque 
haec  res  amorem  magis  conciUat,  iUa  virtutis  de- 
fensio  caritatem  ;  plusque  proficit,  si  proponitur  spes 
utiUtatis    futurae    quam    praeteriti    beneficii    com- 

207  memoratio.     Enitendum  est,  ut  ostendas  in  ea  re, 

'  lam.  Madvig^s  correction  for  the  inappropriate  Nam  o/ 
the  U88. 

"  Reading  aut  si  for  the  *«  aut  of  the  mss. 
S48 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  1.  203— li.  207 

also  in  your  handling  of  Scaurus  and  the  rest  of  my 
witnesses,  whose  evidence  you  rebutted  by  no  dis- 
proof,  but  by  fleeing  for  refuge  to  that  same  national 

204  outbreak.  When  just  now  you  were  reminding  us 
of  these  things,  I  certainly  felt  no  need  of  any 
maxims,  for  that  actual  reproduction,  in  your  own 
words,  of  your  methods  of  defence  is  to  my  mind  the 
most  instructive  of  teaching." 

"  For  all  that,"  answered  Antonius,  "  we  will,  if  Ruiesand 
you  please,  go  on  to  set  forth  the  principles  we  gener-  ^otiOTfar"^ 
ally  adopt  in  speaking,  and  the  points  we  chiefly  keep  oratwry. 
in  view  :  for  a  long  career  and  experience  in  the  most 
weighty  afFairs  have  taught  us,  by  this  time,  to  hold 
fast  to  the  ways  of  stirring  the  feelings  of  mankind. 

205  LI.  "  My  own  practice  is  to  begin  by  reflecting 
whether  the  case  calls  for  such  treatment ;  for  these 
rhetorical  fireworks  should  not  be  used  in  petty 
matters,  or  with  men  of  such  temper  that  our  elo- 
quence  can  achieve  nothing  in  the  way  of  influencing 
their  minds,  unless  we  would  be  deemed  fit  objects 
of  ridicule,  or  even  of  disgust,  as  indulging  in  heroics 
over  trifles,  or  setting  out  to  uproot  the  immovable. 

206  Now,  since  the  emotions  which  eloquence  has  to 
excite  in  the  minds  of  the  tribunal,  or  whatever  other 
audience  we  may  be  addressing,  are  most  commonly 
love,  hate,  wrath,  jealousy,  compassion,  hope,  joy, 
fear  or  vexation,  we  observe  that  love  is  won  if  you 
are  thought  to  be  upholding  the  interests  of  your 
audience,  or  <*  to  be  working  for  good  men,  or  at  any 
rate  for  such  as  that  audience  deems  good  and  useful. 
For  this  last  impression  more  readily  wins  love,  and 
the  protection  of  the  righteous  esteem  ;  and  the 
holding-out  of  a  hope  of  advantage  to  come  is  more 

207  efFective  than  the  recital  of  past  benefit.     You  must 

349 


CICERO 

quam  defendas,  aut  dignitatem  inesse  aut  utilitatem, 
eumque,  cui  concilies  hunc  amorem,  significes  nihil 
ad  utilitatem  suam  rettuUsse  ac  nihil  omnino  fecisse 
causa  sua.  Invidetur  enim  commodis  hominum  ip- 
sorum,  studiis  autem  eorum  ceteris  commodandi 
favetur. 

208  Videndumque  hoc  loco  est,  ne,  quos  ob  benefacta 
dihgi  volemus,  eorum  laudem  atque  gloriam,  cui 
maxime  invideri  solet,  nimis  efFerre  videamur.  Atque 
eisdem  his  ex  locis  et  in  alios  odium  struere  discemus 
et  a  nobis  ac  nostris  demovere  ;  eademque  haec 
genera  tractanda  sunt  in  iracundia  vel  excitanda  vel 
sedanda.  Nam  si,  quod  ipsis ,  qui  audiunt,  perniciosum 
aut  inutile  sit,  id  factum  augeas,  odiimi  creatur ; 
sin,  quod  aut  in  bonos  viros  aut  in  eos,  in  quos  minime 
quisque  debuerit,  aut  in  rem  publicam,  tum  excitatur, 
si  non  tam  acerbum  odium,  tamen  aut  invidiae  aut 

209  odii  non  dissimihs  offensio.  Item  timor  incutitur  aut 
ex  ipsorum  periculis  aut  ex  communibus  :  interior 
est  ille  proprius,  sed  hic  quoque  communis  ad  ean- 
dem  simiUtudinem  est  perducendus. 

LII.  Par  atque  una  ratio  est  spei,  laetitiae,  moles- 
tiae  ;  sed  haud  sciam  an  acerrimus  longe  sit  omniiun 
motus  invidiae  nec  minus  virium  opus  sit  in  ea 
comprimenda  quam  in  excitanda.  Invident  autem 
homines  maxime  paribus  aut  inferioribus,  cum  se 
reUctos  sentiunt,  illos  autem  dolent  evolasse ;   sed 

350 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  li.  207— lii.  209 

struggle  to  reveal  the  presence,  in  the  cause  you 
are  upholding,  of  some  merit  or  usefulness,  and  to 
make  it  plain  that  the  man,  for  whom  you  are  to  win 
this  love,  in  no  respect  consulted  his  own  interests 
and  did  nothing  at  all  from  personal  motives.  For 
men's  private  gains  breed  jealousy,  while  their  zeal 
for  others'  service  is  applauded. 

208  "  And  here  we  must  be  watchful,  not  to  seem  to 
extol  unduly  the  merits  and  renown — jealousy's 
favourite  target — of  those  whom  we  would  have 
beloved  for  their  good  works.  Then  too,  from  these 
same  commonplaces,  we  shall  learn  as  well  to  in- 
stigate  hatred  of  others  as  to  turn  it  away  from  our- 
selves  and  our  clients :  and  these  same  general  heads 
are  to  be  employed  in  kindUng  and  also  in  assuaging 
wrath.  For,  if  you  glorify  the  doing  of  something 
ruinous  or  unprofitable  to  your  particular  audience, 
hate  is  engendered  :  while,  if  it  be  something  done 
against  good  men  in  general,  or  those  to  whom  the 
particular  doer  should  never  have  done  it,  or  against 
the  State,  no  such  bitter  hate  is  excited,  but  a  disgust 

209  closely  resembhng  ill-will  or  hate.  Fear  again  is 
struck  from  either  the  perils  of  individuals  or  those 
shared  by  all :  that  of  private  origin  goes  deeper, 
but  universal  fear  ako  is  to  be  traced  to  a  similar 
source. 

LII.  "  The  treatment  of  hope,  joy  and  vexation  Prevaience 
is  similar  to  this,  and  identical  in  each  case,  but  I  »' J«aiousy 
rather  think  that  the  emotion  of  jealousy  is  by  far 
the  fiercest  of  all,  and  needs  as  much  energy  for  its 
repression  as  for  its  stimulation.  Now  people  are 
especially  jealous  of  their  equals,  or  of  those  once 
beneath  them,  when  they  feel  themselves  left  behind 
and  fret  at  the  others'  upward  flight ;   but  jealousy 

351 


CICERO 

etiam  superioribus  invidetur  saepe  vehementer  et 
eo  magis,  si  intolerantius  se  iactant  et  aequa- 
bilitatem  iuris  praestantia  dignitatis  aut  fortunae 
suae  transeunt ;  quae  si  inflammanda  sunt,  maxime 
dicendum  est  non  esse  virtute  parta,  deinde  etiam 
vitiis  atque  peccatis,  tum,  si  erunt  honestiora  atque 
graviora,  tamen  non  esse  tanta  illa  merita,  quanta 

210  insolentia  hominis  quantumque  fastidium.  Ad 
sedandum  autem,  magno  illa  labore,  magnis  pericuHs 
esse  parta  nec  ad  suum  commodum,  sed  ad  aliorum 
esse  collata;  eumque  si  quam^  gloriam  peperisse 
videatur,  tamenetsi  ea  non  sit  iniqua  merces  periculi, 
tamen  ea  non  delectari  totamque  abicere  atque 
deponere ;  omninoque  perficiendum  est,  quoniam 
plerique  sunt  invidi  maximeque  hoc  est  commune 
vitium  et  pervagatum,  invidetur  autem  praestanti 
florentique  fortunae,  ut  haec  opinio  minuatur  et 
illa   excellens   opinione    fortuna    cum   laboribus   et 

211  miseriis  permixta  esse  videatur.  lam  misericordia 
movetur,  si  is,  qui  audit,  adduci  potest,  ut  illa, 
quae  de  altero  deplorentur,  ad  suas  res  revocet, 
quas  aut  tulerit  acerbas  aut  timeat,  aut  in- 
tuens  ahum  crebro  ad  se  ipsum  revertatur.  Ita 
cum  singuli  casus  humanarum  miseriarum  graviter 
accipiuntur,  si  dicuntur  dolenter,  tum  affiicta  et 
prostrata  virtus  maxime  luctuosa  est.  Et,  ut  illa 
altera  pars  orationis,  quae  probitatis  commendatione 

^  Piderit  :  collataque  suatn. 

S5i 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  lii.  209-211 

of  theii  betters  also  is  often  furious,  and  all  the  more 
so  if  these  conduct  themselves  insufferably,  and 
overstep  their  rightful  claims  on  the  strength  of 
pre-eminent  rank  or  prosperity  ;  if  these  advantages 
are  to  be  made  fuel  for  jealousy,  it  should  before  all 
be  pointed  out  that  they  were  not  the  fruit  of  merit ; 
next  that  they  even  came  by  vice  and  wrongdoing, 
finally  that  the  man's  deserts,  though  creditable  and 
impressive   enough,  are  still  exceeded  by  his  arro- 

210  gance  and  disdain.  To  quench  jealousy,  on  the  other 
hand,  it  is  proper  to  emphasize  the  points  that  those 
advantages  were  the  fruit  of  great  exertion  and  great 
risks,  and  were  not  turned  to  his  own  profit  but  to 
that  of  other  people  ;  and  that,  as  for  any  renown 
he  himself  may  seem  to  have  won,  though  no  unfair 
recompense  for  his  risk,  he  nevertheless  finds  no 
pleasure  therein,  but  casts  it  aside  and  disclaims 
it  altogether  :  and  we  must  by  all  means  make  sure 
(since  most  people  are  jealous,  and  this  faiUng  is 
remarkably  general  and  widespread,  while  jealousy 
is  attracted  by  surpassingly  brilhant  prosperity)  that 
the  belief  in  such  prosperity  shall  be  weakened,  and 
that  what  was  supposed  to  be  outstanding  prosperity 
shall  be  seen  to  be  thoroughly  blended  with  labour 

211  and  sorrow.     Lastly  compassion  is  awakened  if  the  Appeais  to 
hearer  can  be  brought  to  apply  to  his  own  adversities,  compassioa 
whether  endured  or  only  apprehended,  the  lamenta- 

tions  uttered  over  someone  else,  or  if,  in  his  con- 
templation  of  another's  case,  he  many  a  time  goes 
back  to  his  own  experience.  Thus,  while  particular 
occasions  of  human  distress  are  deeply  felt,  if  de- 
scribed  in  moving  terms,  the  dejection  and  ruin  of 
the  righteous  are  especially  lamentable.  And,  just 
as  that  other  kind  of  style,  which  by  bearing  witness 

353 


CICERO 

boni  viri  debet  speciem  tueri,  lenis,  ut  saepe  iam 
dixi,  atque  summissa,  sic  haec,  quae  suscipitur  ab 
oratore  ad  commutandos  animos  atque  omni  ratione 
flectendos,  intenta  ac  vehemens  esse  debet. 

212  LIII.  Sed  est  quaedam  in  his  duobus  generibus, 
quorum  alterum  lene,  alterum  vehemens  esse  volu- 
mus,  difficilis  ad  distinguendum  similitudo,  Nam  et 
ex  illa  lenitate,  qua  concihamur  eis,  qui  audiunt, 
ad  hanc  vim  acerrimam,  qua  eosdem  excitamus, 
influat  oportet  ahquid,  et  ex  hac  vi  nonnunquam 
animi  ahquid  inflammandum  est  ilh  lenitati ;  neque 
est  uUa  temperatior  oratio  quam  illa,  in  qua  asperitas 
contentionis  oratoris  ipsius  humanitate  conditur, 
remissio  autem  lenitatis  quadam  gravitate  et  con- 
tentione  firmatur. 

213  In  utroque  autem  genere  dicendi,  et  iho,  in  quo  vis 
atque  contentio  quaeritur,  et  hoc,  quod  ad  vitam  et 
mores  accommodatur,  et  principia  tarda  sunt  et 
exitus  tamen  spissi  et  producti  esse  debent.  Nam 
neque  assihendum  statim  est  ad  genus  illud  orationis ; 
abest  enim  totum  a  causa,  et  homines  prius  ipsum 
illud,  quod  proprium  sui  iudicii  est,  audire  desiderant; 
nec  cum   in  eam  rationem  ingressus   sis,  celeriter 

214  discedendum  est.  Non  enim,  sicut  argumentum,  simul 
atque  positum  est,  arripitur,  alterumque  et  tertium 
poscitur,  ita  misericordiam  aut  invidiam  aut  iracun- 
diam,  simul  atque  intuleris,  possis  commovere.  Argu- 
mentum  enim  ratio  ipsa  confirmat,  idque,  simul  atque 

854, 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  lii.  211— liii.  214 

to  the  speakers  integrity  is  to  preserve  the  semblance 
of  a  man  of  worth,  should  be  mild  and  gentle  (as 
I  have  repeatedly  said  already),  so  this  kind,  assumed 
by  the  speaker  in  order  to  transform  men's  feelings 
or  influence  them  in  any  desired  way,  should  be 
spirited  and  emotional. 

212  LIII.  "  But  these  two  styles,  which  we  require  to  condiiatory 
be  respectively  mild  and  emotional,  have  something  „„^'^4^ 
in  common,  making  them  hard  to  keep  apart.     For  troatment  of 
from  that  mildness,  which  wins  us  the  goodwill  of  p^ggagOT. 
our  hearers,  some  inflow  must  reach  this  fiercest  of 
passions,  wherewith  we  inflame  the  same  people, 

and  again,  out  of  this  passion  some  Uttle  energy 
must  often  be  kindled  within  that  mildness  :  nor 
is  any  style  better  blended  than  that  wherein  the 
harshness  of  strife  is  tempered  by  the  personal 
urbanity  of  the  advocate,  while  his  easy-going  mild- 
ness  is  fortified  by  some  admixture  of  serious  strife, 

213  "  Now  in  both  styles  of  speaking,  the  one  demand- 
ing  passion  and  strife,  and  the  other  adapted  to  recom- 
mendation  of  the  speaker's  life  and  manners,  the 
opening  of  a  speech  is  unhurried,  and  none  the  less 
its  closing  should  also  be  lingering  and  long  drawn- 
out.  For  you  must  not  bound  all  of  a  sudden  into 
that  emotional  style,  since  it  is  whoUy  ahen  to  the 
merits  of  the  case,  and  people  long  to  hear  first  just 
what  is  peculiarly  within  their  own  cognizance, 
while,  once  you  have  assumed  that  style,  you  must 

214  not  be  in  a  hurry  to  change  it.  For  you  could  not 
awaken  compassion,  jealousy  or  wrath  at  the  very 
instant  of  your  onset,  in  the  way  that  a  proof  is 
seized  upon  as  soon  as  propounded,  and  a  second 
and  third  called  for.  This  is  because  the  hearer's 
mentality  corroborates  the  proof,  and  no  sooner  is 

S55 


CICERO 

emissum  est,  adhaerescit ;  illud  autem  genus  ora- 
tionis  non  cognitionem  iudicis,  sed  magis  perturba- 
tionem  requirit,  quam  consequi  nisi  multa  et  varia 
et  copiosa  oratione,  et  simili  contentione  actionis, 

215  nemo  potest,  Quare  qui  aut  breviter  aut  summisse 
dicunt,  docere  iudicem  possunt,  commovere  non 
possunt ;  in  quo  sunt  omnia. 

lam  illud  perspicuum  est,  omnium  rerum  in  con- 
trarias  partes  facultatem  ex  eisdem  suppeditari  locis. 
Sed  argumento  resistendum  est  aut  eis,  quae  com- 
probandi  eius  causa  sumuntur,  reprehendendis,  aut 
demonstrando,  id,  quod  concludere  illi  vehnt,  non 
effici  ex  propositis  nec  esse  consequens ;  aut,  si  ita  non 
refellas,  afFerendum  est  in  contrariam  partem,  quod 

216  sit  aut  gravius  aut  aeque  grave.  Illa  autem,  quae  aut 
conciliationis  causa  leniter,  aut  permotionis  vehe- 
menter  aguntur,  contrariis  commotionibus  auferenda 
sunt,  ut  odio  benevolentia,  misericordia  invidia 
tollatur. 

LIV.  Suavis  autem  est  et  vehementer  saepe  utilis 
iocus  et  facetiae  ;  quae,  etiamsi  alia  omnia  tradi 
arte  possunt,  naturae  sunt  propria  certe  neque  ullam 
artem  desiderant.  In  quibus  tu  longe  ahis  mea 
sententia,  Caesar,  excelhs,  quo  magis  mihi  etiam 
aut  testis  esse  potes  nuUam  esse  artem  sahs  aut, 
si    qua    est,     eam    tu     potissimum     nos     docebis. 

217  Ego  vero,  inquit  Caesar,  omni  de  re  facetius 
puto  posse  ab  homine  non  inurbano,  quara  de  ipsis 
facetiis  disputari.  Itaque  cum  quosdam  Graecos 
inscriptos   hbros   esse   vidissem   de   ridiculis,   non- 

356 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  liii.  214— Uv.  217 

it  uttered  than  it  is  sticking  in  his  memory,  whereas 
that  passionate  style  searches  out  an  arbitrator's 
emotional  side  rather  than  his  understanding,  and 
that  side  can  only  be  reached  by  diction  that  is  rich, 
diversified  and  copious,  with  animated  delivery  to 

215  match.  Thus  concise  or  quiet  speakers  may  inform 
an  arbitrator,  but  cannot  excite  him,  on  which 
excitement  everything  depends. 

"  By  this  time  it  is  plain  that  the  power  to  argue  Argument 
both  sides  of  every  question  is  abundantly  furnished  argumBnt''^ 
from  the  same  commonplaces.     But  your  opponents'  appeaito' 
proof  must  be  countered,  either  by  contradicting  the  exdtlng  the 
arguments  chosen  to  estabUsh  it,  or  by  showing  that  contrary. 
their  desired  conclusion  is  not  supported  by  their 
premisses  and  does  not  follow  therefrom  ;   or,  if  you 
do  not  so  rebut  it,  you  must  adduce  on  the  opposite 

216  side  some  proof  of  greater  or  equal  cogency.  Lastly 
appeals,  whether  mild  or  passionate,  and  whether 
for  winning  favour  or  stirring  the  feehngs,  must  be 
swept  aside  by  exciting  the  opposite  impressions, 
so  that  goodwill  may  be  done  away  with  by  hate, 
and  compassion  by  jealousy. 

LIV.  "  Jesting  too  and  shafts  of  wit  are  agreeable  Empioy- 
and  often  highly  efFective  :  but  these,  even  if  all  else  ™^°'^°^  ''**• 
can  be  taught  by  art,  are  assuredly  the  endowment 
of  nature  and  in  no  need  of  art.  To  my  mind,  Caesar, 
you  far  surpass  all  others  in  this  field,  so  that  you  are 
also  the  better  able  to  bear  me  witness  that  no  art 
of  pleasantry  exists,  or,  if  any  such  there  be,  you  will 

217  best  teach  it  to   us."     "  For  my  part,"  returned  wita 
Caesar,  "  I  hold  that  a  man  with  any  tincture  of  °**^^^^8i''5 
humour  in  him  can  discuss  anything  in  the  world  kinds. 
more  wittily  than  actual  witticisms.    Thus,  on  seeing 
sundry  Greek  books  entitled  Concerning  tke  Laughahle, 

857 


CICERO 

nullam  in  spem  veneram  posse  me  ex  eis  aliquid 
discere  ;  inveni  autem  ridicula  et  salsa  multa  Grae- 
corum  ;  nam  et  Siculi  in  eo  genere  et  Rhodii  et 
Byzantii  et  praeter  ceteros  Attici  excellunt ;  sed 
qui  eius  rei  rationem  quandam  conati  sunt  artemque 
tradere,  sic  insulsi  exstiterunt,  ut  nihil  aliud  eorum 

218  nisi  ipsa  insulsitas  rideatur.  Quare  mihi  quidem 
nuUo  modo  videtur  doctrina  ista  res  posse  tradi. 
Etenim  cum  duo  genera  sint  facetiarum,  alterum 
aequabiliter  in  omni  sermone  fusum,  altermn  pera- 
cutum  et  breve,  illa  a  veteribus  superior  cavillatio, 
haec   altera  dicacitas   nominata  est.     Leve  nomen 

219  habet  utraque  res !  quippe  leve  enim  est  totum  hoc 
risum  movere.  Verum  tamen,  ut  dicis,  Antoni,  mul- 
tum  in  causis  persaepe  lepore  et  facetiis  profici  vidi. 
Sed  cum  illo  in  genere  perpetuae  festivitatis  ars  non 
desideretur  (natura  enim  fingit  homines  et  creat 
imitatores  et  narratores  facetos,  adiuvante  et  voltu 
et  voce  et  ipso  genere  sermonis),  tum  vero  in  hoc 
altero  dicacitatis  quid  habet  ars  loci,  cum  ante  illud 
facete  dictum  emissum  haerere  debeat,  quam  cogitari 

220  potuisse  videatur  ?  Quid  enim  hic  meus  frater  ab 
arte  adiuvari  potuit,  cum  a  Philippo  interrogatus 
quid  latraret,  furem  se  videre  respondit  ?  Quid  in 
omni  oratione  Crassus  vel  apud  centumviros  contra 
Scaevolam  vel  contra  accusatorem  Brutum,  cum 
pro  Cn.  Planco  diceret  ?  Nam  id,  quod  tu  mihi 
tribuis,  Antoni,  Crasso  est  omnium  sententia  con- 
cedendum.     Non    enim    fere   quisquam    reperietur 


»  For  Philippus  see   Index  and   Book   I,  §  24,   aupra. 
'  Catulus '  of  course  is  Latin  for  a  little  dog. 

S58 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  liv.  217-220 

I  entertained  the  hope  of  being  able  to  learn  some- 
thing  from  them,  and  did  indeed  find  much  in  Greek 
Ufe  that  was  laughable  and  pungent,  the  inhabitants 
of  Sicily,  Rhodes,  Byzantium,  and  particularly  Athens 
having  distinguished  themselves  in  this  kind  of  thing ; 
all  however  who  tried  to  teach  anything  like  a  theory 
or  art  of  this  matter  proved  themselves  so  conspicu- 
ously  silly  that  their  very  silliness  is  the  only  laugh- 

218  able  thing  about  them.  That  is  why  I  think  that 
this  accomplishment  cannot  possibly  be  imparted  by 
teaching.  For,  there  being  two  sorts  of  wit,  one 
running  with  even  flow  all  through  a  speech,  while  the 
other,  though  incisive,  is  intermittent,  the  ancients 
called  the  former  '  irony  '  and  the  latter  '  raillery.' 

219  Each  of  these  has  a  trivial  name,  but  then  of  course 
all  this  business  of  laughter-raising  is  trivial.  For  all 
that,  Antonius,  as  you  remind  me,  I  have  very  often 
seen  much  done  in  Court  by  humour  and  flashes  of 
wit.  But,  while  Art  is  not  wanted  in  that  continuous 
sort  of  jocularity  (since  Nature  moulds  mankind,  and 
produces  mimics  and  witty  story-tellers,  helped  by 
their  features,  intonation  and  individual  style  of 
speaking),  what  room,  pray,  is  there  for  Art  in  railler}'^, 
that  other  sort,  wherein  the  shaft  of  wit  has  to  be 
sped  and  hit  its  mark,  with  no  palpable  pause  for 

220  thought  ?  For  what  help  could  my  brother  here  iiiustra- 
have  got  from  Art,  when  PhiUppus  "  inquired  of  him,  ^^°^^  °*  ^^^ 
'  What  are  you  barking  at,  Master  Puppy,'  and  he 
answered,  *  I  see  a  thief '  ?  Or  what  help  could 
Crassus  have  so  got,  all  through  his  reply  to  Scaevola 
before  the  Hundred  Commissioners,  or  his  defence  of 
Gnaeus  Plancus,  when  prosecuted  by  Brutus  ?     In 

fact,  Antonius,  the  tribute  you  pay  me  ought,  by 
unanimous  verdict,  to  be  yielded  to  Crassus.     For 

359 


CICERO 

praeter  hunc  in  utroque  genere  leporis  excellens, 
et  illo  quod  in  perpetuitate  sermonis,  et  hoc  quod  in 

221  celeritate  atque  dicto  est.  Nam  haec  perpetua 
contra  Scaevolam  Curiana  defensio  tota  redundavit 
hilaritate  quadam  et  ioco  ;  dicta  illa  brevia  non 
habuit.  Parcebat  enim  adversarii  dignitati,  in  quo 
ipse  conservabat  suam ;  quod  est  hominibus  facetis 
et  dicacibus  difficillimimi,  habere  hominum  rationem 
et  temporum  et  ea,  quae  occurrant,  cum  salsissime 

222  dici  possint,  tenere.  Itaque  nonnulli  ridiculi  homines 
hoc  ipsum  non  insulse  interpretantur  dicere  ^  Ennium, 
flammam  a  sapiente  facihus  ore  in  ardente  opprimi, 
quam  bona  dicta  teneat ;  haec  scilicet  bona  dicta, 
quae  salsa  sint ;  nam  ea  dicta  appellantur  proprio 
iam  nomine. 

LV.  Sed  ut  in  Scaevolam  continuit  ea  Crassus 
atque  in  illo  altero  genere,  in  quo  nuUi  aculei  con- 
timielianmi  inerant,  causam  illam  disputationemque 
lusit,  sic  in  Bruto,  quem  oderat  et  quem  dignum 
contumeha    iudicabat,    utroque    genere    pugnavit. 

223  Quam  multa  de  balneis,  quas  nuper  ille  vendiderat, 
quam  multa  de  amisso  patrimonio  dixit !  Atque 
illa  brevia,  cum  ille  diceret  se  sine  causa  sudare, 
*  minime  mirum,'  inquit,  '  modo  enim  existi  de 
balneis.'  Innumerabilia  talia  fuerunt,  sed  non  minus 
iucunda  illa  perpetua.    Cum  enim  Brutus  duo  lectores 

^  Piderit :  dicere  enim  aiunt. 

"  For  the  famous  'causa  Curiana,'  see  Book  I,  §  180, 
II,  §§  140  f. 

860 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  liv.  220— Iv.  223 

scarcely  a  single  other  speaker  is  to  be  found,  who  is 
outstanding  in  both  kinds  of  humour,  the  one  dis- 
played  all  through  a  continuous  discourse,  the  other 

221  in  instantaneous  bons-mots.  For  that  continuous 
speech,  on  behalf  of  Curius  "  and  in  reply  to  Scaevola, 
overflowed  throughout  with  unmistakable  mirth  and 
jocularity  ;  of  those  sudden  shafts  it  contained  none. 
For  the  speaker  was  sparing  his  opponent's  reputa- 
tion,  and  in  so  doing  was  maintaining  his  own,  because 
it  is  a  most  difficult  thing  for  men  given  to  wdt  and 
raillery  to  have  regard  to  personages  and  occasions, 
and  to  refrain  from  making  observations  which  sug- 
gest  themselves,  when  these  could  be  brought  out 

222  with  most  pungent  efFect.  So  true  is  this  that  sundry 
jesters  explain  it  (shrewdly  enough)  as  being  exactly 
what  Ennius  speaks  of,  when  he  says  that '  it  is  easier 
for  a  wise  man  to  stifle  a  flame  within  his  burning 
mouth  than  to  keep  words  of  worth  to  himself,' 
*  worth  '  in  this  passage  of  course  meaning  '  pun- 
gency,'  for  such  sayings  are  now  known  by  a  name 
of  their  own. 

LV.  "  But  although  against  Scaevola  Crassus  sup-  sidifui  use 
pressed  those  shafts,  and  in  fact  romped  through  his  crassus.^ 
argument  and  the  whole  of  the  trial  in  that  other 
mode,  which  involved  no  stinging  invective,  yet  when 
encountering  Brutus,  whom  he  detested  and  deemed 
deserving  of  invective,  he  fought  in  both  modes. 

223  Howmuch  he  had  to  say  about  the  baths  then  recently 
sold  by  his  adversary,  and  about  his  wasted  heritage  ! 
Those  repartees  too  !  as  when  Brutus  declared  him- 
self  to  be  sweating  all  for  nothing  and  the  other 
retorted  *  Likely  enough,  for  you  are  just  ousted  from 
your  sweating-room  !  '  Such  shots  were  countless, 
but  his  continuous  vein  was  just  as  pleasing.     For 

N  S61 


CICERO 

excitasset  et  alteri  de  colonia  Narbonensi  Crassi 
orationem  legendam  dedisset,  alteri  de  lege  Servilia, 
et  cum  contraria  inter  sese  de  re  publica  capita  con- 
tulisset,  noster  hic  facetissime  tres  patris  Bruti  de 

224  iure  civili  libellos  tribus  legendos  dedit.  Ex  libro 
primo :  '  Forte  evenit,  ut  in  Privernati  essemus.' 
'  Brute,  testificatur  pater  se  tibi  Privernatem  fundum 
reliquisse.'  Deinde  ex  libro  secundo :  *  In  Albano 
ERAMus  EGO  ET  Marcus  filius.'  '  Sapicns  videlicet 
homo  cum  primis  nostrae  civitatis  norat  hunc  gur- 
gitem  ;  metuebat,  ne,  cum  is  nihil  haberet,  nihil  esse 
ei  rehctum  putaretur.'  Tum  ex  libro  tertio,  in  quo 
finem  scribendi  fecit — tot  enim,  ut  audivi  Scaevolam 
dicere,  sunt  veri  Bruti  libri — '  In  Tiburti  forte  as- 
SEDiMus  EGO  ET  Marcus  fihus.'  '  Ubi  sunt  hi  fundi, 
Brute,  quos  tibi  pater  publicis  commentariis  con- 
signatos  reliquit  ?  Quod  nisi  puberem  te,  inquit,  iam 
haberet,  quartum  librum  composuisset  et  se  etiam  in 
balneis  lotum  cum  filio  scriptum  reliquisset.' 

225  Quis  est  igitur,  qui  non  fateatur,  hoc  lepore 
atque  his  facetiis  non  minus  refutatum  esse  Brutum 
quam  illis  tragoediis,  quas  egit  idem,  cum  casu  in 
eadem  causa  funere  efferretur  anus  lunia  ?    Pro  di 

"  For  a  boy  of  fourteen  or  more  to  bathe  in  his  father'8 
company  was  considered  indecorous. 

862 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Iv.  223-225 

after  Brutus  had  summoned  a  couple  of  readers,  and 
handed  them  a  speech  of  Crassus  apiece  to  recite, 
one  on  the  Narbonian  settlement  and  the  other  on 
the  Statute  of  ServiUus,  and  had  himself  noted  some 
inconsistencies  in  their  accounts  of  afFairs  of  State, 
our  friend  here  most  humorously  delivered  to  three 
of  these  people  for  recital  three  pamphlets  on  the 

224  common  law  by  Brutus  the  elder.  On  an  extract 
from  the  first  book,  *  It  chanced  that  we  were  in  the 
Privernian  district,'  his  comment  was,  *  Brutus,  your 
father  bears  witness  that  he  has  bequeathed  you  an 
estate  at  Privernum.'  Next,  at  the  citation  from  the 
second  book,  '  I  and  my  son  Marcus  were  on  the 
Alban  Hills,'  he  observed,  *  See  how  a  man  as  shrewd 
as  any  in  our  community  had  discerned  the  nature  of 
this  devouring  gulf ;  he  was  afraid  that,  when  he  had 
nothing  left,  it  might  be  thought  that  nothing  had 
been  bequeathed  to  him.'  Finally,  on  the  words  '  I 
and  my  son  Marcus  happened  to  sit  down  together 
on  Tiburtine  land  '  being  read  out  from  the  third  and 
concluding  book  (for  I  have  heard  Scaevola  say  that 
the  authentic  volumes  of  Brutus  are  three  in  num- 
ber),  Crassus  exclaimed,  *  Where  are  these  estates, 
Brutus,  which  your  father  registered  in  his  pubhc 
memoirs  as  bequeathed  to  you  ?  Why,'  he  went 
on,  '  had  you  not  already  turned  fourteen,  he  would 
have  put  together  a  fourth  book,  leaving  it  on  record 
that  he  had  also  washed  in  his  son's  company  at 
those  baths  !  '  " 

226  "  Who  then  would  deny  that  this  pleasantry  and 
these  witticisms  had  as  much  to  do  with  the  repulse 
of  Brutus  as  those  histrionics  gone  through  by  our 
same  friend  when,  during  the  same  trial,  it  happened 
that  the  aged  Junia  was  carried  forth  in  funeral  pro- 

363 


CICERO 

immortales,  quae  fait  illa,  quanta  vis  1  quam  inex- 
spectata !  quam  repentina !  cmn  coniectis  oculis, 
gestu  omni  ei  imminenti,  summa  gravitate  et  celeri- 
tate  verborum  *  Brute,  quid  sedes  ?  Quid  illam 
anum  patri  nuntiare  vis  tuo  ?  quid  illis  omnibus, 
quorum  imagines  duci  vides  ?  quid  maioribus  tuis  ? 
quid  L,  Bruto,  qui  hunc  populum  dominatu  regio 
liberavit  ?  Quid  te  agere  ?  Cui  rei,  cui  gloriae,  cui 
virtuti  studere  ?  Patrimonione  augendo  ?  At  id  non 
est   nobilitatis,  sed   fac    esse,  nihil   superest ;    Hbi- 

226  dines  totum  dissipaverunt.  An  iuri  civili  ?  est  pater- 
num.  Sed  dicet  te,  cum  aedes  venderes,  ne  in  rutis 
quidem  et  caesis  soUum  tibi  paternum  recepisse.  An 
rei  militari  ?  Qui  nunquam  castra  videris  !  An  elo- 
quentiae  ?  quae  nuUa  est  in  te,  et,  quicquid  est  vocis 
ac  linguae,  omne  in  istum  turpissimum  calumniae 
quaestum  contulisti !  Tu  lucem  aspicere  audes  ?  tu 
hos  intueri  ?  tu  in  foro,  tu  in  urbe,  tu  in  civium  esse 
conspectu  ?  Tu  illam  mortuam,  tu  imagines  ipsas  non 
perhorrescis  ?  quibus  non  modo  imitandis,  sed  ne 
collocandis  quidem  tibi  locum  ullum  reliquisti.' 

227  LVI.  Sed  haec  tragica  atque  divina ;  faceta  autem 
et  urbana  innumerabilia  ex  una  contione  meministis. 


"  In  Roman  Law  minerals  already  quarried  and  timber 
already  felled  were  deemed  to  be  excepted  from  the  sale  of  a 
farm,  unless  expressly  included. 

364, 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Iv.  225— Ivi.  227 

cession  ?  Ha  !  ye  deathless  gods  !  what  boundless 
vigour  he  displayed  !  and  how  sudden  and  unlooked- 
for  it  was  !  when,  with  piercing  gaze,  with  menace  in 
his  every  motion,  in  the  severest  tones,  and  in  a 
torrent  of  words  he  declaimed :  *  Brutus,  why  seated  ? 
What  news  would  you  have  that  venerable  dame 
carry  to  your  sire  ?  to  all  those  whose  busts  you 
behold  borne  along  ?  to  your  ancestors  ?  to  Lucius 
Brutus,  who  freed  this  community  from  the  tyranny 
of  the  kings  ?  What  shall  she  tell  them  you  are 
doing  ?  What  affairs,  what  glorious  deeds,  what 
worthy  ends  are  you  busied  with  ?  Is  it  increas- 
ing  your  heritage  ?  That  is  no  occupation  for  the 
nobly-born,  but — assuming  it  were  so — you  have 
nothing  left  to  increase  ;   sensuality  has  squandered 

226  every  shilling.  Are  you  cultivating  the  common  law, 
your  father's  field  ?  Why,  Junia  will  report  that, 
on  selling-up  your  home,  you  did  not  even  reserve 
his  arm-chair  for  yourself,  along  with  the  quarried 
minerals  and  felled  timber !  "  Are  you  foUowing  a 
military  career  ?  You,  who  will  never  set  eyes  on 
a  camp  !  Are  you  a  devotee  of  eloquence  ?  There 
is  no  spark  of  it  about  you,  and  any  power  you  had 
of  intonation  or  language  you  applied  to  making 
money  by  the  foulest  perversion  of  justice  !  Dare 
you  behold  the  Hght  of  day  ?  Or  look  upon  this 
assembly  ?  Or  show  yourself  in  Court,  or  within  the 
City,  or  before  the  eyes  of  your  fellow-citizens  ?  Do 
not  you  tremble  exceedingly  at  the  spectacle  of  that 
dead  lady  ?  and  of  those  same  busts,  you  who  have  ^  _ 
left  yourself  no  room  even  for  setting  them  up,  much 
less  for  emulating  their  originals  ?  ' 

227  LVI.  "  All  this  however  was  in  the  grand  and 
inspired  style,  but  you  also  recall  a  host  of  sparkling 

265 


CICERO 

Nec  enim  contentio  maior  unquam  fuit,  nec  apud 
populum  gravior  oratio,  quam  huius  contra  collegam 
in  censura  nuper,  neque  lepore  et  festivitate 
conditior. 

Quare  tibi,  Antoni,  utrumque  assentior,  et  multum 
facetias  in  dicendo  prodesse  saepe,  et  eas  arte  nullo 
modo  posse  tradi.  IUud  quidem  admiror,  te  nobis  in 
eo  genere  tribuisse  tantum,  et  non  huius  rei  quoque 
palmam,  ut  ceterarum,  Crasso  detulisse. 

228  Tum  Antonius  :  Ego  vero  ita  fecissem,  inquit,  nisi 
interdum  in  hoc  Crasso  paulum  inviderem  :  nam  esse 
quamvis  facetum  atque  salsum,  non  nimis  est  per  se 
ipsum  invidendum ;  sed,  cum  omnium  sit  venus- 
tissimus  et  urbanissimus,  omnium  gravissimum  et 
severissimum  et  esse,  et  videri,  quod  isti  contigit  uni, 
id  mihi  vix  ferendum  videbatur. 

229  Hic  cum  arrisisset  ipse  Crassus,  Attamen,  inquit 
Antonius,  cum  artem  esse  facetiarum,  luli,  ullam 
negares,  aperuisti  quiddam,  quod  praecipiendum 
videretur.  Haberi  enim  dixisti  rationem  oportere 
hominum,  rei,  temporis,  ne  quid  iocus  de  gravitate 
decerperet ;  quod  quidem  in  primis  a  Crasso  obser- 
vari  solet.  Sed  hoc  praeceptum  praetermittendarum 
est  facetiarum,  cum  eis  nihil  opus  sit ;  nos  autem 
quomodo  utamur,  cum  opus  sit,  quaerimus,  ut  in 
adversarium,  et  maxime,  si  eius  stultitia  poterit 
agitari,  in  testem  stultum,  cupidum,  levem,  si  facile 

■  i.e.  Gnaeus  Domitius  Ahenobarbus. 
366 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ivi.  227-229 

witticisms  from  a  single  harangue.  For  never  was 
there  a  more  spirited  effort,  or  a  speech  more  effec- 
tive  with  the  public,  than  that  of  our  friend  here,  not 
long  since,  against  his  colleague  "  in  the  censorship, 
or  one  better  tempered  with  charm  and  gaiety. 

"  And  so,  Antonius,  I  grant  both  your  points,  first 
the  great  and  frequent  utility  of  witticisms  in  oratory , 
secondly  the  absolute  impossibiUty  of  learning  these 
from  art.  One  thing  certainly  surprises  me,  and 
that  is  your  ascribing  so  much  success  in  this  sphere 
to  myself,  instead  of  awarding  the  prize  for  this,  as 
for  all  eke,  to  Crassus." 

"  I  should  certainly  have  done  so,"  answered 
Antonius,  "  were  I  not  now  and  then  a  little  envious 
of  Crassus  in  this  connexion  ;  for  merely  to  be  as 
witty  and  shrewd  as  you  please  need  not  excite  un- 
measured  envy,  but  that  the  most  attractive  and 
polished  of  all  speakers  should  at  the  same  time  be 
obviously  the  most  impressive  and  austere,  as  has 
been  the  lot  of  our  friend  alone, — this  did  seem 
rather  more  than  I  could  bear." 

Even  Crassus  smiled  at  this,  and  Antonius  went 
on,  "  However,  Julius,  though  you  denied  the  exist- 
ence  of  any  art  of  pleasantry,  you  did  just  start  some- 
thing  that  seemed  worth  teaching.  For  you  said 
that  regard  ought  to  be  paid  to  personages,  topics 
and  occasions,  so  that  the  jest  should  not  detract 
from  dignity  ;  Crassus  of  course  always  observes  this 
principle  as  strictly  as  anyone.  But  it  is  a  rule  for 
the  omission  of  uncalled-for  witticisms,  whereas  we 
seek  to  know  how  to  employ  witticisms  when  wanted, 
— against  an  enemy,  for  instance,  and  most  of  all,  if 
his  stupidity  can  be  ruffled,  against  a  stupid,  biased 
or  unreliable  witness,  when  people  seem  inclined  to 

367 


CICERO 

230  homines  audituri  videbuntur.  Omnino  probabiliora 
sunt,  quae  lacessiti  dicimus,  quam  quae  priores,  nam 
et  ingenii  celeritas  maior  est,  quae  apparet  in  respon- 
dendo,  et  humanitatis  est  responsio,  Videmur  enim 
quieturi  fuisse,  nisi  essemus  lacessiti,  ut  in  ista  ipsa 
contione  nihil  fere  dictum  est  ab  hoc,  quod  quidem 
facetius  dictum  videretur,  quod  non  provocatus 
responderit.  Erat  autem  tanta  gravitas  in  Domitio, 
tanta  auctoritas,  ut,  quod  esset  ab  eo  obiectum, 
lepore  magis  elevandum,  quam  contentione  frangen- 
dum  videretur. 

231  LVII.  Tum  Sulpicius :  Quid  igitur  ?  inquit,  pa- 
tiemur  Caesarem,  qui,  quanquam  Crasso  facetias 
concedit,  tamen  multo  in  eo  studio  magis  ipse  ela- 
borat,  non  exphcare  nobis  totum  genus  hoc  iocandi, 
quale  sit,  et  unde  ducatur  ;  praesertim  cum  tantam 
vim  et  utihtatem  salis  et  urbanitatis  esse  fateatur  ? 
Quid   si,    inquit    lulius,   assentior    Antonio    dicenti, 

232  nullam  esse  artem  saUs  ?  Hic  cum  Sulpicius  re- 
ticuisset :  Quasi  vero,  inquit  Crassus,  horum  ip- 
sorum,  de  quibus  Antonius  iamdiu  loquitur,  ars  ulla 
sit :  observatio  quaedam  est,  ut  ipse  dixit,  earum 
rerum,  quae  in  dicendo  valent ;  quae  si  eloquentes 
facere  posset,  quis  esset  non  eloquens  ?  Quis  enim 
haec  non  vel  facile,  vel  certe  ahquo  modo  posset 
ediscere  ?  Sed  ego  in  his  praeceptis  hanc  vim  et  hanc 
utihtatem  esse  arbitror,  non  ut  ad  reperiendum,  quid 
dicamus,  arte  ducamur,  sed  ut  ea  quae  natura,  quae 
studio,  quae  exercitatione  consequimur,  aut  recta  esse 
confidamus  aut   prava   intellegamus,  cum,  quo   re- 


S68 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ivi.  230— Ivii.  232 

230  give  him  a  ready  hearing.  The  things  we  say  when 
exasperated  are  altogether  more  persuasive  than 
those  we  say  in  our  first  attack,  as  greater  quick- 
ness  of  device  is  shown  in  retort,  and  to  retort  is 
human.  For  we  give  the  impression  that  we  should 
have  remained  quiet,  had  we  not  been  exasperated, 
just  as,  in  that  identical  harangue,  our  friend  here 
said  scarcely  anything  we  thought  particularly  witty, 
which  was  not  said  by  way  of  retort  to  a  challenge. 
Yet  there  was  such  an  air  of  worth  and  distinction 
about  Domitius,  that  it  seemed  more  fitting  to  make 
hght  of  his  charges  by  pleasantry  than  to  shatter 
them  by  force." 

231  LVII.  "  How  now  ?  "  interposed  Sulpicius,  "  shall  Practicai 
we  permit  Caesar,  who,  though  yielding  precedence  Judglng'' 
in  wit  to  Crassus,  yet  toils  far  harder  in  that  field  «ritticisms. 
himself,  to  deny  us  a  complete  exposition  of  this  type 

of  jesting,  its  nature  and  its  sources,  particularly  as 
he  recognizes  such  power  and  value  in  pleasantry  and 
humour  ?  "  "  But  suppose,"  said  Julius,  "  I  agree 
with  Antonius  that  no  art  of  pleasantry  exists  ?  " 

232  Sulpicius  remaining  silent,  Crassus  observed,  "  An 
art  of  these  things  which  Antonius  has  been  dis- 
cussing  all  this  time  !  a  practice  indeed  there  is,  as 
he  himself  told  us,  of  observing  sundry  conventions 
serviceable  to  speakers,  but,  if  this  practice  could 
impart  eloquence,  who  would  fail  to  be  eloquent  ? 
For  who  could  not  master  these  conventions,  either 
readily  or  at  any  rate  in  some  measure  ?  However 
I  hold  the  virtue  and  benefit  of  these  maxims  to  lie 
in  this  :  we  do  not  discover  what  to  say  by  artificial 
devices,  but,  after  we  have  learned  a  true  standard  of 
comparison,  they  assure  us  of  the  soundness,  or 
reveal  to  us  the  weakness,  of  whatever  resources  we 

S69 


CICERO 

233  ferenda  sint,  didicerimus.  Quare,  Caesar,  ego  quo- 
que  a  te  hoc  peto,  ut,  si  tibi  videtur,  disputes  de  hoc 
toto  iocandi  genere,  quid  sentias,  ne  qua  forte  dicendi 
pars,  quoniam  ita  voluistis,  in  hoc  tali  coetu,  atque  in 
tam  accurato  sermone  praeterita  esse  videatur.  Ego 
vero,  inquit  ille,  quoniam  coUectam  a  conviva,  Crasse, 
exigis,  non  committam,  ut,  si  defugerim,  tibi  causam 
aliquam  dem  recusandi,  quanquam  soleo  saepe  mirari 
eorum  impudentiam,  qui  agunt  in  scena  gestimi, 
spectante  Roscio  ;  quis  enim  sese  commovere  potest, 
cuius  ille  vitia  non  videat  ?  Sic  ego  nunc,  Crasso 
audiente,  primum  loquar  de  facetiis,  et  docebo  sus, 
ut  aiunt,  oratorem  eum,  quem  cum  Catulus  nuper 

234  audisset,  '  foenum  alios  aiebat  esse  oportere.'  Tum 
ille  :  locabatur,  inquit,  Catulus,  praesertim  cum 
ita  dicat  ipse,  ut  ambrosia  alendus  esse  videatur. 
Verum  te,  Caesar,  audiamus,  ut  ad  Antonii  reliqua 
redeamus.  Et  Antonius  :  Perpauca  quidem  mihi 
restant,  inquit ;  sed  tamen,  defessus  iam  labore 
atque  itinere  disputationis  meae,  requiescam  in 
Caesaris  sermone  quasi  in  aliquo  peropportuno  de- 
versorio. 

LVIII.  Atqui,   inquit   lulius,   non  nimis   Uberale 
hospitium  meum  dices  :    nam  te  in  viam,  simul  ac 

235  perpaulum  gustaris,  extrudam  et  eiciam.  Ac,  ne 
diutius  vos  demorer,  de  omni  isto  genere,  quid  sen- 
tiam,  perbreviter  exponam.     De  risu  quinque  sunt, 


"  Caesar  refers  to  his  forthcoming  talk  as  if  it  were  his 
contribution  to  a  feast. 

*  See  Book  I,  lix.-lxi. 

*  Said  to  have  tendered  advice  to  the  Goddess  of  Wisdom. 
Compare  the  English  proverb  as  to  a  grandcliild  giving  its 
ancestress  liints  on  egg-sucking. 

•*  As  seeming  but  brute  beasts  in  comparison  with  Crassus. 

870 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ivii.  233— Iviii.  235 

233  attain  by  native  talent,  study  or  practice.  And  so, 
Caesar,  I  too  beg  you,  if  you  think  proper,  to  discuss 
fuUy  this  type  of  jesting,  and  to  state  your  views, 
lest  haply  one  branch  of  oratory  should  be  thought 
to  have  been  passed  over,  with  your  approval,  in 
such  a  company  as  this,  and  in  a  conversation  so 
carefully  elaborated."  "  Assuredly,  Crassus,"  re- 
plied  Caesar,  "  seeing  that  you  are  coUecting  a 
boon  companion's  '  shot,' "  I  will  not  run  away 
and  so  give  you  any  occasion  for  complaint,  although 
I  am  generally  amazed  at  the  shamelessness  of  those 
who  strut  the  stage  under  the  very  eye  of  Roscius  ^  ; 
for  what  man  can  so  much  as  stir  without  that  artist 
noticing  his  weak  points  .''  Just  so  I,  with  Crassus 
in  my  audience,  am  now  going  to  discuss  witticisms 
for  the  first  time  and,  in  emulation  of  the  proverbial 
hog,"  to  instruct  that  orator  of  whom,  after  re- 
cently    hearing    him,    Catulus    declared    that    *  all 

234  others  ought  to  be  fed  on  hay.'"**  "  Catulus  was 
speakingin  jest,"  returned  Crassus,  "  and  the  more 
plainly  so  in  that  his  own  style  seems  to  entitle 
him  to  heavenly  sustenance.  But  let  us  hear  you, 
Caesar,  and  come  back  afterwards  to  what  Antonius 
has  still  in  hand."  "  In  fact  I  have  very  few  things 
left  to  say,"  observed  Antonius,  "  but  in  any  case 
I  am  already  worn-out  by  my  long  and  toilsome 
debate,  and  shall  repose,  while  Caesar  is  talking,  as 
though  in  a  most  convenient  roadside  inn." 

LVIII.  "  Well  then,"  said  Julius,  "  you  will  not  xiie 
call  my  hospitality  unduly  generous,  for  I  shall  thrust  ia»ghabie; 
you  forth  and  cast  you  out  upon  the  road,  directly 
236  you  have  taken  the  tiniest  taste  of  it.     And  now, 
to  delay  you  no  longer,  I  will  very  concisely  state 
my  views  on  that  subject  of  yours  in  general.     As 

371 


CICERO 

quae  quaerantur  :  unum,  quid  sit ;  alterum,  unde 
sit ;  tertium  sitne  oratoris,  velle  risum  movere ; 
quartum,  quatenus  ;  quintum,  quae  sint  genera 
ridiculi. 

Atque  illud  primum,  quid  sit  ipse  risus,  quo  pacto 
concitetur,  ubi  sit,  quomodo  exsistat,  atque  ita  re- 
pente  erumpat,  ut  eum  cupientes  tenere  nequeamus, 
et  quomodo  simul  latera,  os,  venas,  vultum,  oculos 
occupet,  viderit  Democritus  :  neque  enim  ad  hunc 
sermonem  hoc  pertinet ;  et,  si  pertineret,  nescire  me 
tamen  id  non  puderet  quod  ne  ilU  quidem  scirent,  qui 
pollicerentur. 
236  Locus  autem,  et  regio  quasi  ridicuU  (nam  id  pro- 
xime  quaeritur)  turpitudine  et  deformitate  quadam 
continetur  :  haec  enim  ridentur  vel  sola,  vel  maxime, 
quae  notant  et  designant  turpitudinem  ahquam  non 
turpiter. 

Est  autem,  ut  ad  illud  tertium  veniam,  est  plane 
oratoris  movere  risum  ;  vel  quod  ipsa  hilaritas  bene- 
volentiam  conciliat  ei,  per  quem  excitata  est ;  vel 
quod  admirantur  omnes  acumen  uno  saepe  in  verbo 
positum  maxime  respondentis,  nonnunquam  etiam 
lacessentis  ;  vel  quod  frangit  adversarium,  quod 
impedit,  quod  elevat,  quod  deterret,  quod  refutat : 
vel  quod  ipsum  oratorem  poHtum  esse  hominem 
significat,  quod  eruditum,  quod  urbanum,  maximeque 
quod  tristitiam  ac  severitatem  mitigat   et  relaxat, 

"  An  eminent  Greek  physicist  of  the  5th  century  b.c.  ; 
known  as  '  the  laughing  philosopher.' 

372 


236 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Iviii.  235-236 

regards  laughter  there  are  five  matters  for  considera- 
tion  :  first,  its  nature  ;  second,  its  source  ;  third, 
whether  willingness  to  produce  it  becomes  an  orator  ; 
fourth,  the  Umits  of  his  licence  ;  fifth,  the  classification 
of  things  laughable. 

"  Now  the  first  of  these  topics,  the  essential  nature  (i)  it» 
of  laughter,  the  way  it  is  occasioned,  where  it  is  "^ture; 
seated,  and  how  it  comes  into  being,  and  bursts  out 
so  unexpectedly  that,  strive  as  we  may,  we  cannot 
restrain  it,  and  how  at  the  same  instant  it  takes 
possession  of  the  lungs,  voice,  pulse,  countenance 
and  eyes, — all  this  I  leave  to  Democritus  «  :  for  it 
does  not  concern  the  present  conversation,  and,  even 
if  it  did,  I  should  still  not  be  ashamed  to  show  ignor- 
ance  of  something  which  even  its  professed  expositors 
do  not  understand. 

"  Then  the  field  or  province,  so  to  speak,  of  the  (2)  its 
laughable  (this  being  our  next  problem),  is  restricted  province; 
to  that  which  may  be  described  as  unseemly  or  ugly  ; 
for  the  chief,  if  not  the  only,  objects  of  laughter  are 
those   sayings   which   remark  upon   and  point   out 
something  unseemly  in  no  unseemly  manner. 

"  And  again,  to  come  to  our  third  topic,  it  clearly  (3)  ita 
becomes  an  orator  to  raise  laughter,  and  this  on  rhetoricai 
various  grounds  ;   for  instance,  merriment  naturally  ateneMT 
wins  goodvdll  for  its  author  ;   and  everyone  admires 
acuteness,  which  is  often  concentrated  in  a  single 
word,  uttered  generally  in  repelUng,  though  some- 
times  in  delivering  an  attack  ;    and  it  shatters  or 
obstructs  or  makes  light  of  an  opponent,  or  alarms 
or  repulses  him  ;    and  it  shows  the  orator  himself 
to  be  a  man  of  finish,  accomplishment  and  taste  ; 
and,  best  of  all,  it  reheves  duUness  and  tones  down 
austerity,  and,  by  a  jest  or  a  laugh,  often  dispels  dis- 

873 


CICERO 

odiosasque   res   saepe,   quas   argumentis   dilui    non 
facile  est,  ioco  risuque  dissolvit. 

237  Quatenus  autem  sint  ridicula  tractanda  oratori, 
perquam  diligenter  videndum  est,  id  quod  in  quarto 
loco  quaerendi  posueramus.  Nam  nec  insignis  im- 
probitas,  et  scelere  iuncta,  nec  rursus  miseria  insignis 
agitata  ridetur  :  facinorosos  enim  maiore  quadam  vi 
quam  ridiculi  vulnerari  volunt ;  miseros  illudi  nolunt 
nisi  se  forte  iactant.  Parcendum  est  autem  maxime 
caritati  hominum,  ne  temere  in  eos  dicas  qui 
diliguntur. 

238  LIX.  Haec  igitur  adhibenda  est  primum  in  iocando 
moderatio.  Itaque  ea  facillime  luduntur,  quae  neque 
odio  magno,  neque  misericordia  maxima  digna  sunt. 
Quam  ob  rem  materies  omnis  ridiculorum  est  in  istis 
vitiis  quae  sunt  in  vita  hominimi  neque  carorum 
neque  calamitosorum,  neque  eorum  qui  ob  facinus 
ad  supplicium  rapiendi  videntur  ;    eaque  belle  agi- 

239  tata  ridentur.  Est  etiam  deformitatis  et  corporis 
vitiorum  satis  bella  materies  ad  iocandum ;  sed 
quaerimus  idem,  quod  in  ceteris  rebus  maxime  quae- 
rendum  est,  quatenus.  In  quo  non  modo  illud  prae- 
cipitur,  ne  quid  insulse,  sed  etiam,  si  quid  perridicule 
possis,  vitandum  est  oratori  utrumque,  ne  aut  scurrilis 
iocus  sit,  aut  mimicus.  Quae  cuiusmodi  sint,  facilius 
iam  intellegemus,  cum  ad  ipsa  ridiculorum  genera 
venerimus. 

374 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Iviii.  236— lix.  239 

tasteful  suggestions  not  easily  weakened  by  reason- 
ings. 

237  "  But  the  limits  within  which  things  laughable  are  (4)  limitsof 
to  be  handled  by  the  orator,  that  fourth  question  ^*'^^^®* 
we  put  to  ourselves,  is  one  calling  for  most  careful 
consideration.     For  neither  outstanding  wickedness, 

such  as  involves  crime,  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  out- 
standing  wretchedness  is  assailed  by  ridicule,  for  the 
pubUc  would  have  the  villainous  hurt  by  a  weapon 
rather  more  formidable  than  ridicule ;  while  they 
dishke  mockery  of  the  wretched,  except  perhaps  if 
these  bear  themselves  arrogantly.  And  you  must 
be  especially  tender  of  popular  esteem,  so  that  you 
do  not  inconsiderately  speak  ill  of  the  well-beloved. 

238  LIX.  "  Such  then  is  the  restraint  that,  above  all  (5)  ita 
else,  must  be  practised  in  jesting.     Thus  the  things  cuL^sm^ed 
most  easily  ridiculed  are  those  which  call  for  neither 
strong  disgust  nor  the  deepest  sympathy.     This  is 

why  all  laughing-matters  are  found  among  those 
blemishes  noticeable  in  the  conduct  of  people  who 
are  neither  objects  of  general  esteem  nor  yet  full  of 
misery,  and  not  apparently  merely  fit  to  be  hurried  off 
to  execution  for  their  crimes  ;   and  these  blemishes, 

239  if  deftly  handled,  raise  laughter.  In  ughness  too 
and  in  physical  blemishes  there  is  good  enough  matter 
for  jesting,  but  here  as  elsewhere  the  hmits  of  Hcence 
are  the  main  question.  As  to  this,  not  only  is  there 
a  rule  excluding  remarks  made  in  bad  taste,  but  also, 
even  though  you  could  say  something  with  highly 
comical  effect,  an  orator  must  avoid  each  of  two 
dangers :  he  must  not  let  his  jesting  become 
buffoonery  or  mere  mimicking,  We  shall  more 
readily  understand  examples  of  each  kind  when  we 
come  to  the  actual  classification  of  things  laughable. 

875 


CICERO 

Duo  enim  sunt  genera  facetiarum,  quorum  alterum 

240  re  tractatur,  alterum  dicto.  Re,  si  quando  quid,  tan- 
quam  aliqua  fabella  narratur  ;  ut  olim  tu,  Crasse,  in 
Memmium,  '  comedisse  eum  lacertum  Largi,'  cum 
esset  cum  eo  Tarracinae  de  amicula  rixatus  :  salsa, 
at  tamen  a  te  ipso  ficta  tota  narratio.  Addidisti  clau- 
sulam,  tota  Tarracina  tum  omnibus  in  parietibus 
inscriptas  fuisse  litteras,  LLL,  MM  ;  cum  quaereres 
id  quid  esset,  senem  tibi  quendam  oppidanum  dixisse 
'  Lacerat     Lacertum     Largi     Mordax     Memmius.' 

241  Perspicitis,  hoc  genus  quam  sit  facetum,  quam  ele- 
gans,  quam  oratorium,  sive  habeas  vere,  quod  narrare 
possis,  quod  tamen  est  mendaciunculis  aspergen- 
dum,  sive  fingas.  Est  autem  haec  huius  generis 
virtus,  ut  ita  facta  demonstres,  ut  mores  eius,  de  quo 
narres,  ut  sermo,  ut  vultus  omnes  exprimantur,  ut  eis 

242  qui  audiunt,  tum  geri  illa  fierique  videantur.  In  re 
est  item  ridiculum,  quod  ex  quadam  depravata  imita- 
tione  sumi  solet ;  ut  idem  Crassus  :  '  Per  tuam 
nobilitatem,  per  vestram  familiam.'  Quid  aliud  fuit, 
in  quo  contio  rideret,  nisi  illa  vultus  et  vocis  imi- 
tatio  ?  '  Per  tuas  statuas '  vero  cum  dixit,  et  extento 
bracchio  paululum  etiam  de  gestu  addidit,  vehemen- 
tius  risimus,  Ex  hoc  genere  est  illa  Rosciana  imitatio 
senis  :  *  Tibi  ego,  Antipho,  has  sero,'  inquit.    Seniimi 


"  Gaius  Memmius,  a  turbulent  tribune  of  1 1 1  b.c,  against 
whose  ferocious  character  this  jest  of  Crassus  seems  to  be 
levelled. 

'  This  merriment  may  have  been  excited  by  an  attack  of 
Crassus  upon  Domitius  Ahenobarbus,  who  was  possibly 
disliked  for  his  excessive  family  pride. 

S76 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  lix.  239-242 

"  For  there  are  two  types  of  wit,  one  employed  upon  wit  of 

240  facts,  the  other  upon  words.     Upon  facts,  whenever  ^ft^^^fom; 
any  tale  is  told,  some  anecdote  for  instance,  just  as  thefomer 
you,  Crassus,  alleged  one  day,  in  a  speech  against  anMdote"^ 
Memmius,"  that  Memmius  '  had  made  a  mouthful  and  can- 
of  Largus's  arm,*  when  brawling  with  him  at  Tarra- 

cina  over  a  lady-love  ;  it  was  a  spicy  story,  but  every 
word  of  your  own  fabrication,  You  wound  up  by 
relating  that  the  letters  M.M.L.L.L.  were  inscribed 
on  every  wall  in  Tarracina,  and  that  some  ancient  in- 
habitant  answered,  when  you  asked  what  they  meant, 

241  *  Mordacious  Memmius  lacerates  Largus's  limb.'  You 
see  plainly  how  graceful,  choice  and  well  befitting  an 
orator  is  a  jest  of  this  sort,  whether  you  have  some 
truth  you  can  relate, — which  for  all  that  may  be 
sprinkled  with  fibs, — or  whether  you  are  only  fabri- 
cating.  Now  the  beauty  of  such  jesting  is,  that  you 
state  your  incidents  in  such  a  way,  that  the  character, 
the  manner  of  speaking  and  all  the  facial  expressions 
of  the  hero  of  your  tale,  are  so  presented  that  those 
incidents  seem  to  your  audience  to  take  place  and 
to  be  transacted  concurrently  with  your  description 

242  of  them.  Another  sort  of  jest  depending  on  facts, 
is  that  which  is  generally  derived  from  what  may  be 
called  vulgarized  mimicry,  as  when  on  another  occa- 
aion,  Crassus  was  adjuring  an  adversary  in  the  words, 
'  By  your  rank,  by  your  lineage ! '  What  else  had  the 
assembly  to  laugh  at  in  this  than  that  mimicry  of 
facial  expression  and  intonation  ?  But  when  he  went 
on  to  say,  '  By  your  statuary,'  and  lent  a  touch  of 
action  to  the  word  by  stretching  out  his  arm,  we 
laughed  quite  consumedly.*  To  this  class  belongs 
Roscius's  famous  representation  of  an  old  man,  when 
he  quavers  out,  *  For  you,  son  Antipho,  I*m  planting 

377 


CICERO 

est,  cum  audio.  Atqui  ita  est  totum  hoc  ipso  genere 
ridiculum,  ut  cautissime  tractandum  sit.  Mimorum 
est  enim  ethologorum,  si  nimia  est  imitatio,  sicut 
obscenitas.  Orator  surripiat  oportet  imitationem 
ut  is  qui  audiet,  cogitet  plura,  quam  videat ;  praestet 
idem  ingenuitatem  et  ruborem  suum,  verborum 
turpitudine  et  rerum  obscenitate  vitanda. 

243  LX.  Ergo  haec  duo  genera  sunt  eius  ridiculi,  quod 
in  re  positum  est ;  quae  sunt  propria  perpetuarum 
facetiarum,  in  quibus  describuntur  hominum  mores, 
et  ita  effinguntur,  ut  aut  re  narrata  aUqua,  quales 
sint,  intellegantur,  aut,  imitatione  brevi  iniecta,  in 
aliquo  insigni  ad  irridendum  vitio  reperiantur. 

244  In  dicto  autem  ridiculum  est  id,  quod  verbi,  aut 
sententiae  quodam  acumine  movetur.  Sed  ut  in  illo 
superiore  genere  vel  narrationis,  vel  imitationis, 
vitanda  est  mimorum  ethologorum  similitudo,  sic  in 
hoc  scurrihs  oratori  dicacitas  magnopere  fugienda  est. 
Qui  igitur  distinguemus  a  Crasso,  a  Catulo,  a  ceteris 
famiharem  vestrum,  Granium,  aut  Vargulam,  amicum 
meum  ?  Non  mehercule  in  mentem  mihi  quidem 
venit :  sunt  enim  dicaces  ;  Granio  quidem  nemo 
dicacior.     Hoc,  opinor,  primum,  ne,  quotienscumque 

245  potuerit  dictum  dici,  necesse  habeamus  dicere.  Pu- 
sillus   testis   processit.     '  Licet,'   inquit,   '  rogare  ?  ' 

"  From  a  lost  play. 
378 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  lix.  242— Ix.  245 

these.'  *  I  think  I  am  listening  to  testy  Eld  personi- 
fied.  However  this  particular  kind  of  laughing- 
matter  is  all  sueh  as  to  need  extreme  circumspection 
in  the  handUng  of  it.  For  if  the  caricature  is  too 
extravagant,  it  becomes  the  work  of  bufFoons  in 
pantomime,  as  also  does  grossness.  It  behoves  the 
orator  to  borrow  merely  a  suspicion  of  mimicry,  so 
that  his  hearer  may  imagine  more  than  meets  his 
eye  ;  he  must  also  testify  to  his  own  well-bred 
modesty,  by  avoiding  all  unseemly  language  and 
ofFensive  gestures. 

243  LX.  "  These  then  are  the  two  kinds  of  the  jesting  The  latter, 
that  is  founded  on  facts  ;   and  they  are  appropriate  ^  be  useT' 
to  continuous  irony,  wherein  the  characters  of  indi-  sparingiy, 
viduals  are  sketched  and  so  portrayed,  that  either 
through  the  relation  of  some  anecdote  their  real 
natures  are  understood,  or,  by  the  infusion  of  a  trifle 

of  mimicry,  they  are  found  out  in  some  fault  suffi- 
ciently  marked  to  be  laughed  at. 

244  "  As  regards  words,  however,  the  laughter  is 
awakened  by  something  pointed  in  a  phrase  or  re- 
flection.  But  just  as,  with  the  former  kind,  both  in 
narrative  and  in  mimicry,  all  hkeness  to  buffoons  in 
pantomime  is  to  be  avoided,  so  in  this  latter  case  the 
orator  must  scrupulously  shun  all  bufFoonish  raillery. 
How  then  shall  we  distinguish  from  Crassus,  from 
Catulus,  and  from  the  others,  your  famihar  acquaint- 
ance  Granius,  or  my  own  friend  Vargula  ?  Upon  my 
word,  I  have  never  considered  this  matter,  for  all  of 
them  are  witty,  none  indeed  more  so  than  Granius. 
The  first  point  to  make,  I  think,  is  that  we  should 
not  feel  bound  to  utter  a  witticism  every  time  an 

245  occasion  offers.  A  very  small  witness  once  came 
forward.      '  May  I  examine  him  ?  '    said  Phihppus. 

379 


CICERO 

Philippus.  Tum  quaesitor  properans :  *  Modo  bre- 
viter.'  Hic  ille  :  '  Non  accusabis  ;  perpusillum 
rogabo.'  Ridicule.  Sed  sedebat  iudex  L.  Aurifex, 
brevior  ipse,  quam  testis  etiam  :  omnis  est  risus  in 
iudicem  conversus  :  visum  est  totum  scurrile  ridi- 
culum.  Ergo  haec  quae  cadere  possunt  in  quos  nolis, 
quamvis  sint  bella,  sunt  tamen  ipso  genere  scurriUa. 

246  Ut  iste,  qui  se  vult  dicacem,  et  mehercule  est,  Appius, 
sed  nonnunquam  in  hoc  vitium  scurrile  delabitur. 
*  Cenabo,'  inquit,  '  apud  te,'  huic  lusco,  famihari 
meo,  C.  Sextio  ;  '  uni  enim  locum  esse  video.'  Est 
hoc  scurrile,  et  quod  sine  causa  lacessivit ;  et  tamen 
id  dixit  quod  in  omnis  luscos  conveniret ;  ea,  quia 
meditata  putantur  esse,  minus  ridentur.  Illud 
egregium  Sextii,  et  ex  tempore  :  '  Manus  lava,' 
inquit,  '  et  cena.' 

247  Temporis  igitur  ratio,  et  ipsius  dicacitatis  mode- 
ratio  et  temperantia  et  raritas  dictorum  distinguet 
oratorem  a  scurra,  et  quod  nos  cum  causa  dicimus, 
non  ut  ridicuH  videamur,  sed  ut  proficiamus  aUquid, 
ilH  totum  diem  et  sine  causa.  Quid  enim  est  Vargula 
assecutus,  cum  eum  candidatus  A.  Sempronius  cum 
Marco  suo  fratre  complexus  esset :  '  Puer,  abige 
muscas  ?  '  Risum  quaesivit,  qui  est,  mea  sententia, 
vel  tenuissimus  ingenii  fructus.     Tempus  igitur  di- 

"  Apparently  a  reflection  upon  the  seif-invited  guest's 
probity.  Compare  the  English  legal  maxim :  '  He  that 
cometh  to  Equity  must  come  with  clean  hands,' 

*  Musca  was  a  cognomen  of  the  gens  Sempronia,  and  is 
also  Latin  for  various  winged  insects.  Vargula  seems  to 
have  intended  a  subtle  comparison  between  humming  and 
biting  insects  and  cliattering  and  irritating  canvassers. 

380 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ix.  245-^247 

The  president  of  the  Court,  who  was  in  a  hurry, 
answered,  '  Only  if  you  are  short.'  *  You  will  not 
complain,*  returned  Philippus,  *  for  I  shall  be  just 
as  short  as  that  man  is.'  Quite  comical ;  but  there 
on  the  tribunal  sat  Lucius  Aurifex,  and  he  was  even 
tinier  than  the  witness  :  all  the  laughter  was  directed 
against  Lucius,  and  the  joke  seemed  merely  buf- 
foonish.  And  so  those  shafts  which  may  hght  upon 
unintended  victims,  however  featly  they  may  be 
winged,   are   none   the  less   essentially  those   of  a 

2il6  buffoon.  For  instance,  that  Appius,  who  tries  to  be 
witty,  and  egad  !  succeeds,  though  occasionally  slip- 
ping  into  this  faihng  of  buffoonery,  said  to  my  one- 
eyed  friend  here,  Gaius  Sextius,  '  I  will  sup  with 
you,  for  I  see  you  have  room  for  another  one.'  This 
is  the  joke  of  a  buffoon,  for  he  attacked  unprovoked, 
and  even  so  only  said  what  would  apply  to  every 
one-eyed  individual.  Jokes  of  that  sort,  as  they 
seem  to  be  thought  out  in  advance,  win  but  little 
laughter.  The  retort  of  Sextius  was  brilliant  and 
spontaneous  :  '  Wash  your  hands,'  says  he,  '  before 
supper.'" 

247  "  Regard  then  to  occasions,  control  and  restraint  of 
our  actual  raillery,  and  economy  in  bon-mots,  wiil 
distinguish  an  orator  from  a  buffoon,  as  also  will  the 
fact  that  we  people  speak  with  good  reason,  not  just 
to  be  thought  funny,  but  to  gain  some  benefit,  while 
those  others  are  jesting  from  morning  to  night,  and 
without  any  reason  at  all.  Thus,  when  Aulus  Sem- 
pronius  was  on  canvassing  bent,  along  with  Marcus 
his  brother,  and  embraced  Vargula,  what  good  did 
it  do  Vargula  to  shout  '  Boy,  drive  away  these 
buzzers  ?  '  ^  His  object  was  to  get  a  laugh — to  my 
mind  the  very  poorest  return  for  cleverness.     The 

381 


CICERO 

cendi  prudentia  et  gravitate  moderabimur :  quarum 
utinam  artem  aliquam  haberemus  !  sed  domina  na- 
tura  est. 

248  LXI.  Nunc  exponamus  genera  ipsa  summatim, 
quae  risum  maxime  moveant.  Haec  igitur  sit  prima 
partitio,  quod  facete  dicatur,  id  alias  in  re  habere 
alias  in  verbo  facetias  :  maxime  autem  homines 
delectari,  si  quando  risus  coniuncte  re  verboque 
moveatur.  Sed  hoc  mementote,  quoscumque  locos 
attingam,  unde  ridicula  ducantur,  ex  eisdem  locis  fere 
etiam  graves  sententias  posse  duci.  Tantum  interest, 
quod  gravitas  honestis  in  rebus  severe,  iocus  in  tur- 
piculis  et  quasi  deformibus  ponitur,  velut  eisdem 
verbis  et  laudare  frugi  servum  possumus,  et,  si  est 
nequam,  iocari.  Ridiculum  est  illud  Neronianum 
vetus  in  furaci  servo,  *  Solum  esse,  cui  domi  nihil  sit 
nec  obsignatum,  nec  occlusum  '  :  quod  idem  in  bono 

249  servo  dici  solet,  sed  hoc  eisdem  etiam  verbis.  Ex 
eisdem  autem  locis  nascuntur  omnia.  Nam  quod  Sp. 
Carvilio  graviter  claudicanti  ex  vulnere  ob  rem- 
publicam  accepto,  et  ob  eam  causam  verecundanti  in 
publicum  prodire,  mater  dixit,  '  Quin  prodis,  mi 
Spuri  ?  quotienscumque  gradum  facies,  totiens  tibi 
tuarum  virtutum  veniet  in  mentem  '  :  praeclarum  et 
grave  est.  Quod  Calvino  Glaucia  claudicanti,  '  Ubi 
est  vetus  illud  :  num  claudicat  ?  at  hic  clodicat,' 
hoc   ridiculum   est ;    et  utrumque    ex  eo,  quod  in 

"  Clodicare,  plebeian  and  rustic  form  of  elaudicare,  au 
being  vulgarly  pronounced  o. 

382 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ix.  247— Ixi.  249 

right  occasion  therefore  for  speaking  out  we  shall 
fix  by  our  own  wisdom  and  discretion :  would  that 
we  had  some  theory  of  the  use  of  these  qualities  ! 
though  intuition  is  the  sovereign  directress. 

248  LXI.  "  Now  let  us  summarize  the  essential  natures  ciassiflca- 
of  the  chief  sources  of  laughter.     Let  our  first  dis-  verbai 
tinction,  then,  be  this,  that  a  witty  saying  has  its  witticisms. 
point  sometimes  in  facts,  sometimes  in  words,  though 
people    are    most    particularly    amused    whenever 
laughter  is  excited  by  the  union  of  the  two.     But 
remember  this,  that  whatever  subjects  I  may  touch 

upon,  as  being  sources  of  laughing-matters,  may 
equally  well,  as  a  rule,  be  sources  of  serious  thoughts.  . 
The  only  difference  is  that  seriousness  is  bestowed 
austerely  and  upon  things  of  good  repute,  jesting 
upon  what  is  a  trifle  unseemly,  or,  so  to  speak,  un- 
couth  ;  for  example,  we  can,  in  identical  terms,  praise 
a  careful  servant,  and  make  fun  of  one  who  is  good- 
for-nothing.  There  is  humour  in  that  old  remark 
of  Nero's  about  a  thievish  servant,  '  that  he  was 
the  only  member  of  the  household  against  whom 
nothing  was  sealed  up  or  locked  away,'  a  description 
frequently  applied  to  a  trusty  servant  also,  and  that 

249  too  word  for  word.  In  fact  all  kinds  of  remarks  are 
derived  from  identical  sources.  For  his  mother's 
words  to  Spurius  Carvihus,  who  was  sadly  lame  from 
a  wound  received  on  national  service,  and  for  that 
reason  shy  of  walking  abroad,  '  No  no,  my  Spurius, 
go  out !  and  let  every  step  you  take  remind  you 
of  your  gallantry,'  are  noble  and  dignified.  But 
what   Glaucia  said  to   Calvinus,   who   was   hmping, 

Where  is  that  old  saying — Can  he  be  hobbUng  ? 
Nay,  but  he  is  wobbling,'"  is  merely  absurd.  Yet 
both  observations  were  derived  from  what  the  con- 

383 


CICERO 

claudicatione  animadverti  potuit,  est  ductum.  '  Quid 
hoc  Naevio  ignavius  ?  '  severe  Scipio.  At  in  male 
olentem,  *  Video  me  a  te  circumveniri,'  subridicule 
Philippus.  At  utrumque  genus  continet  verbi  ad 
litteram  immutati  similitudo. 

250  Ex  ambiguo  dicta  vel  argutissima  putantur,  sed 
non  semper  in  ioco,  saepe  etiam  in  gravitate  versan- 
tur.  Africano  illi  superiori,  coronam  sibi  in  convivio 
ad  caput  accommodanti,  cum  ea  saepius  rumperetur, 
P.  Licinius  Varus,  '  Noli  mirari,'  inquit,  '  si  non  con- 
venit :  caput  enim  magnum  est '  :  laudabile  et 
honestum.  At  ex  eodem  genere  est :  *  Calvus  satis 
est,  quod  dicit  parum.'  Ne  multa  :  nullum  genus 
est  ioci,  quo  non  ex  eodem  severa  et  gravia  sumantur. 

251  Atque  hoc  etiam  animadvertendum  est,  non  esse 
omnia  ridicula  faceta.  Quid  enim  potest  esse  tam 
ridiculum,  quam  sannio  est  ?  Sed  ore,  vultu,  imi- 
tandis  moribus,  voce,  denique  corpore  ridetur  ipso. 
Salsum  hunc  possum  dicere,  atque  ita,  non  ut  eius- 
modi  oratorem  esse  velim,  sed  ut  mimum. 

LXII.  Quare  primum  genus  hoc,  quod  risum  vel 
maxime  movet,  non  est  nostrum  :  morosum,  super- 
stitiosum,  suspiciosum,  gloriosum,  stultum  ;  naturae 
ridentur  ipsae  :   quas  personas  agitare  solemus,  non 

"  Professor  Wilkins  and  others  would  sharpen  the  pun 
upon  this  name  by  substituting  the  less  common  form 
Navius. 

■"  This  alleged  joke  seems  to  require  the  coinage  of  a 
word  hircumveniri,  hircus  being  Latin  not  only  for  "  goat," 
but  also  for  the  very  rank  odour  characteristic  of  that  animal. 

"  Caput  is  Latin  for  (1)  a  human  cranium,  (2)  the  Head 
of  e.ff.  a  body  politic. 

<*  Baldness  may  be  natural  or  metaphorical :  the  exact 
point  of  this  pleasantry  seems  to  have  eluded  the  com- 
mentators. 

384 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixi.  249— Ixii.  251 

templation  of  lameness  might  suggest.  Scipio's  pun, 
*  Is  there  an  idler  knave  than  this  Naevius  ?  ' ",  was 
intended  foi  austerity.  But  there  was  a  spark  of 
humour  in  the  remark  of  PhiUppus  to  a  malodorous 
individual,  *  I  perceive  that  you  are  stinking  me 
out.'  ^  Yet  both  kinds  of  pun  Ue  in  the  verbal  echo 
that  survives  the  change  in  a  letter. 

250  "  Bons-mots    prompted   by    an   equivocation   are  (i)  The 
deemed  the  very  wittiest,  though  not  always  con- *™^'^°"^ ' 
cerned  with  jesting,  but  often  even  with  what  is  im- 
portant.  What  PubUus  Licinius  Varus  said  to  the  great 
Africanus  the  elder,  when  he  was  adjusting  a  garland 

to  his  head  at  a  banquet,  and  it  tore  again  and  again, 
was  praiseworthy  and  creditable  :  '  Don't  be  aston- 
ished,'  said  he,  '  if  it  does  not  fit,  for  it  is  on  a  Head 
of  vast  capacity.' "  Yet  from  the  same  category 
comes,  '  He  is  bald  enough,  seeing  that  he  is  bald 
in  diction.'**  So,  to  bore  you  no  further,  there  is 
no  source  of  laughing-matters  from  which  austere 
and  serious  thoughts  are  not  also  to  be  derived. 

251  "  There  is  also  this  to  be  noted,  that  all  is  not 
witty  that  is  laughable.  For  can  there  be  anything 
so  droU  as  a  pantaloon  }  Yet  it  is  for  his  face,  his 
grimaces,  his  mimicry  of  mannerisms,  his  intonation, 
and  in  fact  his  general  bearing,  that  he  is  laughed 
at.  Humorous  I  am  able  to  caU  him,  but  humorous 
for  a  low  comedian,  and  not  in  the  sense  in  which  I 
would  have  an  orator  humorous. 

LXII.  "  Accordingly  this  kind  of  wit,  though  rais- 
ing  as  much  laughter  as  any,  is  not  at  aU  our  kind : 
it  caricatures  peevishness,  fanaticism,  mistrust,  pom- 
posity  and  folly,  characters  which  are  laughed  at  for 
their  own  sakes,  masks  which  we  do  not  put  on,  but 

385 


CICERO 

252  sustinere.  Alterum  genus  est  in  imitatione  admodum 
ridiculum,  sed  nobis  furtim  tantum  uti  licet,  si  quando, 
et  cursim ;  aliter  enim  minime  est  liberale.  Tertium, 
oris  depravatio,  non  digna  nobis.  Quartum,  obsce- 
nitas,  non  solum  non  foro  digna,  sed  vix  convivio 
liberorum.  Detractis  igitur  tot  rebus  ex  hoc  oratorio 
loco  facetiae  reliquae  sunt,  quae  aut  in  re,  ut  ante 
divisi,  positae  videntur  esse  aut  in  verbo.  Nam  quod, 
quibuscumque  verbis  dixeris,  facetum  tamen  est,  re 
continetur  ;  quod  mutatis  verbis  salem  amittit,  in 
verbis  habet  leporem  omnem. 

253  Ambigua  sunt  in  primis  acuta  atque  in  verbo  posita, 
non  in  re  ;  sed  non  saepe  magnum  risiun  movent, 
magisque  ut  belle  et  litterate  dicta  laudantur  :  ut  in 
illum  Titium,  qui,  cum  studiose  pila  luderet,  et  idem 
signa  sacra  noctu  frangere  putaretur,  gregalesque, 
cum  in  Campum  non  venisset,  requirerent,  excusa- 
vit  Vespa  Terentius,  quod  eum  *  bracchium  fregisse,' 
diceret ;  ut  illud  Africani,  quod  est  apud  Lucihum  : 

Quid  Decius  ?  Nuculam  an  confixum  vis  facere  ?  inquit. 

Ut   tuus   amicus,  Crasse,  Granius,  '  non   esse  sex- 
264  tantis.'     Et  si  quaeritis,  is,  qui  appellatur  dicax,  hoc 


"  Was  it  his  own  or  a  holy  statue's  ? 

*  The  commentators  are  at  fault  here,  for  want  of  the 
Lucilian  context. 

•  Was  he  worth  less  or  far  more  ? 

SS6 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixi.  252-254 

252  attack.  Another  kind,  quite  comical,  consists  in 
mimicry,  but  this  we  may  employ  only  by  stealth,  if 
at  all,  and  but  momentarily,  as  fuller  use  of  it  does 
not  befit  the  well-bred.  A  third  kind  is  grimacing, 
which  is  beneath  our  dignity.  A  fourth  is  indecency, 
not  only  degrading  to  a  pubUc  speaker,  but  hardly 
sufFerable  at  a  gentlemen's  dinner-party.  When  all 
these  modes,  then,  are  withheld  from  this  branch 
of  oratory,  the  residue  of  wit  depends  apparently 
either  on  the  facts  or  on  the  language,  in  accordance 
with  the  distinction  I  have  already  drawn.  For  the 
joke  which  still  remains  witty,  in  whatever  words  it 
is  couched,  has  its  germ  in  the  facts  ;  that  which 
loses  its  pungency,  as  soon  as  it  is  difFerently  worded, 
-^owes  all  its  humour  to  the  language. 

235-  "  The  play  upon  equivocal  words  is  particularly 
clever,  and  depends  on  language,  not  on  facts  ;  but 
it  seldom  raises  any  considerable  laughter,  being 
chiefly  praised  as  evidence  of  elegant  scholarship  : 
take,  for  example,  that  hit  at  the  notorious  Titius, 
who  was  devoted  to  ball-play  and  also  under  sus- 
picion  of  mutilating  the  holy  statues  by  night : 
when  his  associates  missed  him,  as  he  had  not  come 
to  the  Playing  Fields,  Vespa  Terentius  apologized 
for  his  absence  on  the  plea,  *  He  has  broken  an 
arm  '  <» :  or  again,  take  the  words  of  Africanus, 
preserved  in  LuciUus, 

"  What  of  Decius?    Do  you  wish  to  have  Nucula  spitted?" 
said  he.  *  ! 

Or  you,  Crassus,  may  take  what  your  friend  Granius 

254  said,  '  The  man  is  not  worth  a  farthing.'*'     And,  if 

you  wish  to  know,  the  jester  who  deals  in  so-called 

*  raillery  '  will  chiefly  shine  in  this  kind  of  thing, 

387 


CICERO 

genere  maxime  excellet,  sed  risus  movent  alia 
maiores.  Ambiguum  per  se  ipsum  probatur  id  qui- 
dem,  ut  ante  dixi,  vel  maxime  ;  ingeniosi  enim 
videtur  vim  verbi  in  aliud  atque  ceteri  accipiant, 
posse  ducere ;  sed  admirationem  magis  quam  risum 
movet,  nisi  si  quando  incidit  in  aliud  genus  ridiculi. 

265  LXIII.  Quae  genera  percurram  equidem.  Sed 
scitis  esse  notissimum  ridiculi  genus,  cum  aliud 
exspectamus,  aliud  dicitur.  Hic  nobismet  ipsis 
noster  error  risum  movet.  Quod  si  admixtum  est 
etiam  ambiguum,  fit  salsius  :  ut  apud  Novium  videtur 
esse  misericors  ille,  qui  iudicatum  duci  videns,  per- 
contatur  ita  :  *  quanti  addictus  ? '  '  Mille  nummum.' 
Si  addidisset  tantummodo  :  *  Ducas  licet '  ;  esset 
illud  genus  ridiculi  praeter  exspectationem,  sed  quia 
addidit :  *  Nihil  addo,  ducas  licet,'  addito  ambiguo, 
altero  genere  ridiculi,  fuit,  ut  mihi  quidem  videtur, 
salsissimus.  Hoc  tum  est  venustissimum,  cum  in 
altercatione  arripitur  ab  adversario  verbum,  et  ex  eo, 
ut  a  Catulo  in  Philippum,  in  eum  ipsum  aliquid,  qui 

266  lacessivit,  infligitur.  Sed  cum  plura  sint  ambigui 
genera,  de  quibus  est  doctrina  quaedam  subtilior, 
attendere  et  aucupari  verba  oportebit  :  in  quo,  ut  ea 


"  The  piquant  equivocation  must  lurk  in  '  nihil  addo,' 
which  may  mean, '  I  say  no  more,'  or  (at  an  auction)  '  I  bid 
no  more.' 

*  See  the  anecdote  related  gupra,  Book  II,  liv. 

388 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixii.  254— Ixiii.  256 

though  other  kinds  raise  louder  laughter.  Indeed 
the  play  upon  words  wins  really  vast  applause  on  its 
own  merits,  as  I  said  before,  for  the  power  to  divert 
the  force  of  a  word  into  a  sense  quite  different  from 
that  in  which  other  folk  understand  it,  seems  to 
indicate  a  man  of  talent ;  yet  the  jest  arouses  wonder 
rather  than  laughter,  except  when  it  also  falls  within 
some  other  category  of  the  laughable. 

255  LXIII.  "  These  categories  I  will  certainly  run  over.  (2)  The 
You  know  already,  however,  that  the  most  familiar  "^^^^^p^ 
of  these  is  exemplified  when  we  are  expecting  to  SoKiav); 
hear  a  particular  phrase,  and  something  different  is 
uttered.    In  this  case  our  own  mistake  even  makes  us 

laugh  ourselves.  But,  if  there  be  also  an  admixture 
of  equivocation,  the  jest  is  rendered  more  pungent : 
as,  in  that  play  of  Novius,  the  man  is  apparently 
moved  by  compassion  when,  on  seeing  a  condemned 
debtor  taken  away,  he  earnestly  inquires  the  amount 
of  the  judgement.  He  is  told, '  A  thousand  sesterces.* 
Had  he  then  gone  on  to  say  merely,  '  You  may  take 
him  away,'  his  rejoinder  would  have  belonged  to  the 
unexpected  kind,  but  what  he  actually  said  was,  *  No 
advance  from  me  ;  you  may  take  him  away,'  whereby 
he  brought  in  an  element  of  equivocation,  a  different 
category  of  the  laughable,  the  result,  in  my  opinion 
at  any  rate,  being  piquancy  in  perfection."  This 
playing  on  words  is  most  dehghtful  when,  during  a 
wrangle,  a  word  is  snatched  from  an  antagonist  and 
used  to  hurl  a  shaft  at  the  assailant  himself,  as  was 

256  done  by  Catulus  against  Philippus.''  But  since 
equivocation  is  of  numerous  kinds,  and  the  teaching 
as  to  these  is  somewhat  abstruse,  we  shall  have  to 
be  watchful  and  lie  in  wait  for  the  words  :  in  this 
way,  while  avoiding  the  feebler  retorts  (for  we  must 

389 


CICERO 

quae  sint  frigidiora,  vitemus  (etenim  cavendum  est, 
ne  arcessitum  dictum  putetur),  permulta  tamen  acute 
dicemus. 

Alterum  genus  est,  quod  habet  parvam  verbi  im- 
mutationem,  quod  in  littera  positum  Graeci  vocant 
Trapovoixaa-iav,  ut  '  Nobiliorem,  mobiliorem  '  Cato  ; 
aut,  ut  idem,  cum  cuidam  dixisset :  '  Eamus  deam- 
bulatum  '  :  et  ille  :  '  Quid  opus  fuit  de  ?  '  '  Immo 
vero,'  inquit,  '  quid  opus  fuit  te  ?  '  aut  eiusdem  re- 
sponsio  illa :  '  Si  tu  et  adversus  et  aversus  impudicus 
267  es.'  Etiam  interpretatio  nominis  habet  acumen, 
cum  ad  ridiculum  convertas,  quam  ob  rem  ita  quis 
vocetur ;  ut  ego  nuper  Nummium  divisorem,  ut 
Neoptolemum  ad  Troiam,  sic  illum  in  Campo  Martio 
nomen  invenisse.  Atque  haec  omnia  verbo  con- 
tinentur. 

LXIV.  Saepe  etiam  versus  facete  interponitur,  vel 
ut  est,  vel  paululum  immutatus,  aut  ahqua  pars 
versus,  ut  Statius  Scauro  stomachanti :  ex  quo  sunt 
nonnuUi,  qui  tuam  legem  de  civitate  natam,  Crasse, 
dicant : 

St,  tacete,  quid  hoc  clamoris  ?  quibus  nec  mater,  nec  pater, 
Tanta  confiaentia  ?  auferte  istam  enim  superbiam. 

Nam  in  Caelio  sane  etiam  ad  causam  utile  fuit  tuum 
illud,  Antoni,  cum   ille   a   se   pecuniam   profectam 

"  Fulvius  Nobilior,  consul  in  189  b.c.  Cato  was  evidently 
attributing  to  him  a  certain  instability  of  character. 

*  Pyrrhus,  son  of  Achilles,  received  the  name  of  Neoptole- 
mus,  as  being  '  a  new-comer  to  the  (Trojan)  war.'  Caesar 
facetiously  derives  the  name  '  Nummius '  from  the  coins 
(nummi)  which  its  bearer  had  distributed,  in  the  course  of 
his  duties  as  bribery  agent  at  elections, 

"  During  the  consulship  of  Crassus  and  Q.  Mucius 
Scaevola  in  95  b.c.  the  Lex  Licinia  Mucia  d4  '^edigundis 

390 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixiii.  256— Ixiv.  257 

see  to  it  that  our  bon-mot  be  not  thought  forced), 
we  shall  still  find  ourselves  delivering  very  many  a 
pointed  remark. 

"  Another  category,  which  uses  a  slight  change  in  (3)  piay 
spelling,  the  Greeks  call  '  assonance,'  when  the  o^ameTf' 
variation  is  in  a  letter  or  two  ;  for  example,  one 
surnamed  '  the  Noble  '  <»  was  referred  to  by  Cato  as 
'  the  Mobile,'  or  again  Cato  said  to  a  certain  man, 
'  Let  us  go  for  a  deambulation,'  and,  on  the  other 
asking, '  What  need  of  the  "  de —  ?  ",'  Cato  rejoined, 
'  Nay,  rather,  what  need  of  thee  ?  '  or  take  that  other 
answer  of  the  same  Cato's, '  Whether  you  turn  hither 
257  or  thither,  you  are  filthy.'  There  is  point  also  in  the 
explanation  of  a  name,  when  you  make  fun  of  the 
reason  for  a  man  being  called  as  he  is,  as  I  said 
the  other  day  of  Nummius,  the  voters'  paymaster, 
that  he  had  found  a  name  in  the  Election  Field,*  as 
Neoptolemus  had  done  at  Troy.  Now  all  such  jests 
hinge  upon  a  word. 

LXIV.  "  Often  too  a  verse,  or  some  part  of  one,  is  (4)  quota- 
wittily  introduced,  either  just  as  it  stands  or  very  ^e^ses^or 
slightly  varied,  as  when  Statius  quoted  to  an  angry  proverbs ; 
Scaurus  that  passage  from  which,  Crassus,  some  people 
would   have   it    that   your   own    Nationality    Act " 
originated  : — 

Hist !     Silence  !     Why  this  din  ?     Not  overbold 
Should  be  the  parentless  !     Have  done  with  pride ! 

Doubtless,  too,  in  the  affair  of  Caelius,  that  jest  of 
yours,  Antonius,  helped  your  cause,  when  he  gave 
evidence  of  having  parted  with  money  and,  as  he 

civibus  was  passed,  apparently  to  prevent  the  asurpation  of 
Roman  civic  rights  by  Latins  and  Italians.  The  lines  cited 
seem  to  impute  illegitimacy  to  the  person  or  persons  to 
whom  they  were  addressed. 

S91 


CICERO 

diceret  testis  et  haberet  filium  delicatiorem,  abeunte 
iam  illo, 

Sentin  senem  esse  tactum  triginta  minis  ? 

258  In  hoc  genus  coniciuntur  proverbia,  ut  illud  Sci- 
pionis,  cum  Asellus  omnes  provincias  stipendia 
merentem  se  peragrasse  gloriaretur,  '  Agas  asellum,' 
et  cetera.  Quare  ea  quoque,  quoniam  mutatis  verbis 
non  possunt  retinere  eandem  venustatem,  non  in  re, 
sed  in  verbis  posita  ducantur. 

259  Est  etiam  in  verbo  positum  non  insulsum  genus  ex 
eo,  cum  ad  verbum,  non  ad  sententiam  rem  accipere 
videare  :  ex  quo  uno  genere  totus  est  Tutor,  mimus 
vetus,  oppido  ridiculus.  Sed  abeo  a  mimis  ;  tantum 
genus  huius  ridiculi  insigni  ahqua  et  nota  re  notari 
volo.  Est  autem  ex  hoc  genere  illud,  quod  tu,  Crasse, 
nuper  ei,  qui  te  rogasset,  num  tibi  molestus  esset 
futurus,  si  ad  te  bene  ante  lucem  venisset :  '  Tu 
vero,'  inquisti,  *  molestus  non  eris.'  '  lubebis  igitur 
te,'  inquit,  '  suscitari  ?  '     Et  tu  :  '  Certe  negaram  te 

260  molestum  futurum.'  Ex  eodem  hoc  vetus  illud  est, 
quod  aiunt  Maluginensem  illum  Scipionem,  cum 
ex  centuria  sua  renuntiaret  Acidinum  consulem 
praecoque  dixisset,  '  Dic  de  L.  Manho  ' ;    '  Virum 

<»  Antonius  being  prosecuted  by  Duronius  on  a  charge  of 
corrupt  practices,  Caelius  perhaps  testified  that  he  supplied 
funds  through  his  profligate  son  for  use  in  bribery  on  behalf 
of  Antonius,  whose  defence  may  have  insinuated  that  the 
son  obtained  this  money  by  a  false  pretence,  and  converted 
it  to  his  own  use. 

*  Asellus  is  Latin  for  a  Httle  ass.  The  innuendo  may  be 
that  the  boasted  travels  of  Ti.  Claudius  Asellus  were  solely 
attributable  to  compulsory  military  activity.  The  complete 
saw  is  plausibly  said  to  have  been  Agas  asellum  ;  cursum 
nnn  docebitur. 
392 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixiv.  257-260 

had  a  rather  voluptuous  son,  you  remarked,  on  his 
leaving  the  witness-box, 

Seest  thou  the  ancient,  tapped  for  thirty  pounds  ?  " 

268  "  Old  saws  fall  into  this  category,  that  for  instance 
appHed  by  Scipio,  when  Asellus  was  bragging  that 
his  miUtary  service  had  taken  him  all  over  every 
province  ;  whereupon  Scipio  quoted  '  You  may 
drive  the  ass's  colt,'  and  the  rest  of  it.''  It  foUows 
moreover  that  such  jests,  since  they  must  lose  their 
charm  directly  the  terms  of  expression  are  varied, 
should  be  regarded  as  depending  on  language,  not 
on  facts. 

269  "  There  is  another  kind  of  joke,  depending  upon  (5)  words 
language  and  quite  humorous,  which  proceeds  from  ifteraiiy; 
your  seeming  to  understand  an  expression  hterally, 

and  not  in  the  sense  intended :  The  Guardian, 
an  ancient  and  exceedingly  droll  farce,  was  entirely 
made  up  of  this  sort  of  thing.  But  no  more  of  farces ; 
I  merely  wish  this  type  of  laughing-matter  to  be 
illustrated  by  some  prominent  and  familiar  example. 
This  too  is  the  origin,  Crassus,  of  your  recent  reply 
to  the  person  who  had  asked  you  whether  he 
would  be  a  nuisance  to  you,  if  he  were  to  visit  you 
well  before  dayhght :  '  No,'  you  answered,  '  you 
will  not  be  a  nuisance.'  Upon  this  he  said,  '  Then 
you  will  give  orders  to  call  you  ?  '  And  you  re- 
joined,  '  Surely  I  said  you  would  not  be  a  nuisance.' 
260  From  this  same  source  comes  that  old  pleasantry 
attributed  to  the  famous  Scipio  Maluginensis,  when 
announcing  the  vote  of  his  own  division  to  be  for 
Acidinus  as  consul  ;  upon  the  crier  demanding, 
'  What  of  Lucius  Manhus  ?  '  Scipio  repHed,  '  I  take 


CICERO 

bonum/  inquit,  *  egregiumque  civem  esse  arbitror.' 
Ridicule  etiam  illud  L.  Nasica  censori  Catoni,  cum 
ille :  *  Ex  tui  animi  sententia  tu  uxorem  habes  ?  ' 
*  Non  hercule,'  inquit,  *  ex  mei  animi  sententia.* 
Haec  aut  frigida  sunt,  aut  tum  salsa,  cum  aliud 
est  exspectatum.  Natura  enim  nos,  ut  ante  dixi, 
noster  delectat  error  :  ex  quo,  cum  quasi  decepti 
sumus  exspectatione,  ridemus. 

261  LXV.  In  verbis  etiam  illa  sunt,  quae  aut  ex  im- 
mutata  oratione  ducuntur,  aut  ex  unius  verbi  trans- 
latione,  aut  ex  inversione  verborum.  Ex  immuta- 
tione,  ut  olim,  Rusca  cum  legem  ferret  annalem, 
dissuasor  M.  Servilius  :  '  Dic  mihi,'  inquit,  *  M.  Pinari, 
num,  si  contra  te  dixero,  mihi  male  dicturus  es,  ut 

262  ceteris  fecisti  ?  '  '  Ut  sementem  feceris,  ita  metes,' 
inquit.  Ex  translatione  autem,  ut,  cum  Scipio  ille 
maior  Corinthiis  statuam  poUicentibus  eo  loco,  ubi 
aliorum  essent  imperatorum,  *  turmales  '  dixit  '  dis- 
plicere.'  Invertuntur  autem  verba,  ut,  Crassus  apud 
M.  Perpernam  iudicem  pro  Aculeone  cum  diceret, 
aderat  contra  Aculeonem  Gratidiano  L.  Aelius 
Lamia,  deformis,  ut  nostis  ;     qui  cum  interpellaret 

"  At  the  consular  elections  in  the  Comitia  Centuriata, 
voting  being  by  centuries,  the  choice  of  each  century  was 
reported  to  the  presiding  consul  by  its  own  spokesman. 
Scipio,  acting  as  one  of  these  spokesmen,  thought  it  humorous 
wilfully  to  mistake  the  official  question,  as  to  his  century'8 
decision  on  the  candidature  of  L.  Manlius  Acidinus,  for  an 
inquiry  into  his  own  personal  opinion  of  the  candidate. 

*  Bachelors  were  assessable  to  a  special  tax.     It  is  relatcd 

S94 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixiv.  260— Ixv.  262 

him  for  an  honest  man  and  a  capital  fellow-citizen.'  * 
Laughable  again  was  the  response  of  Lucius  Nasica 
to  the  interrogatory  of  Cato  the  censor,  *  On  your 
conscience,  are  you  satisfied  that  you  are  a  married 
man  ?  '  '  Married  for  certain,'  returned  Nasica, '  but 
verily  not  to  my  entire  satisfaction  !  '  *  Such  jokes 
may  fall  flat,  being  humorous  only  when  some 
difFerent  answer  was  expected.  For,  as  I  said  before, 
our  own  mistake  naturally  diverts  us,  so  that,  when 
balked,  as  it  were,  of  what  we  expected,  we  fall  to 
laughing. 

261  LXV.  "  Jests  dependent  upon  language  further  (6)  aiiegory 
include  such  as  are  derived  from  allegory,  from  the  I^o^p.^"'"' 
figurative  use  of  a  single  word,  or  from  the  ironical 
inversion  of  verbal  meanings.     Allegory  as  a  source 

was  illustrated  by  Rusca  long  ago,  in  moving  his 
Limit  of  Age  Bill,"  when  Marcus  Servilius,  an 
opponent  of  the  measure,  said  to  him,  '  Tell  me, 
Marcus  Pinarius,  if  I  speak  against  you,  are  you 
going  to  revile  me  as  you  have  done  the  others  ?  * 

262  Rusca's  reply  was,  *  You  shall  reap  your  sowing.* 
Figurative  use  of  one  word  occurred,  for  example, 
when  great  Scipio  the  elder  told  the  Corinthians, 
who  were  promising  him  a  statue  among  those  of 
the  other  commanders-in-chief,  that  '  he  had  no 
liking  for  statues  in  troops.*  And  meanings  were 
ironically  inverted  when  Crassus  was  representing 
Aculeo  before  Marcus  Perperna  as  arbitrator,  and 
Lucius  AeUus  Lamia,  a  cripple  as  you  know,  was  for 
Gratidianus  against  Aculeo,  and  kept  on  interrupting 

that  an  unappreciative  censor  requited  this  untimely 
pleasantry  with  temporary  disfranchisement  of  the  joker. 

'  Designed  to  fix  a  minimum  age  for  candidates  for  any 
political  office. 

395 


CICERO 

odiose  :  '  Audiamus,'  inquit,  *  pulchellum  puerura,' 
Crassus.  Cum  esset  arrisum,  '  Non  potui  mihi,' 
inquit  Lamia,  *  formam  ipse  fingere ;  ingenium  potui.' 
Tum  hic,  '  Audiamus,'  inquit,  '  disertum.'  Multo 
etiam  arrisum  est  vehementius. 

Sunt  etiam  illa  venusta,  ut  in  gravibus  sententiis, 
sic  in  facetiis.  Dixi  enim  dudum,  materiam  aliam  esse 
ioci,  aham  severitatis  ;    gravium  autem  et  iocorum 

263  unam  esse  rationem.  Ornant  igitur  in  primis  orati- 
onem  verba  relata  contrarie,  quod  idem  genus  saepe 
est  etiam  facetum,  ut  Servius  ille  Galba,  cum  iudices 
L.  Scribonio  tribuno  plebis  ferret  familiares  suos,  et 
dixisset  Libo,  '  Quando  tandem,  Galba,  de  triclinio 
tuo  exibis  ?  '  '  Cum  tu,'  inquit,  '  de  cubiculo  aheno.' 
A  quo  genere  ne  illud  quidem  plurimum  distat,  quod 
Glaucia  Metello,  *  Villam  in  Tiburte  habes,  cortem  in 
Palatio.' 

264  LXVL  Ac  verboriun  quidem  genera,  quae  essent 
faceta,  dixisse  me  puto  ;  rerum  plura  sunt,  eaque 
magis,  ut  dixi  ante,  ridentur  ;  in  quibus  est  narratio, 
res  sane  difficilis  ;  exprimenda  enim  sunt  et  ponenda 
ante  oculos  ea  quae  videantur  et  verisimilia,  quod  est 
proprium  narrationis,  et  quae  sint,  quod  ridiculi  pro- 


•  See  Book  II,  Ixi.,  supra. 

•  Although  authority  is  scanty,  it  seems  that,  in  certain 
criminal  proceedings,  the  defendant  had  the  right  to  propose 
a  number  of  his  judges,  limited  by  a  sufficient  right  of 
challenge  and  exclusion  on  the  part  of  the  prosecution. 

'  Libo  w£is  his  intending  prosecutor  on  a  charge  of  mis- 
government. 

**  Libo  evidently  had  a  reputation  for  gallantry,  in  the 
unenviable  sense. 

•  The  two  properties  would  normally  adjoin  each  other. 
Glaucia  seems  to  refiect  upon  the  manners  and  morals  of 

896 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixv.  262— Ixvi.  264 

vexatiously,  until  Crassus  said, '  Let  us  hear  the  Uttle 
beauty.'  When  the  laughter  at  this  had  subsided, 
Lamia  retorted,  '  I  could  not  mould  my  own  bodily 
shape  ;  my  talents  I  could.'  Thereupon  Crassus 
remarked,  '  Let  us  hear  the  eloquent  speaker.' 
At  this  the  laughter  was  far  more  uproarious. 

"  Such  jests  are  delightful,  whether  the  underlying  (T)  anti- 
thought  be  grave  or  gay.     For  I  said  before  °  that,  ^ressl^ns^ 
though  the  fields  of  jesting  and  austerity  Ue  wide 
apart,  yet  the  methods  of  seriousness  and  jesting 

263  are  identical.  So  the  opposition  of  verbal  contra- 
dictories  is  one  of  the  chief  embelUshments  of  diction, 
and  this  same  device  is  often  witty  as  well,  as  was 
shown  by  the  well-known  Servius  Galba,  when  he 
was  tendering  to  Lucius  Scribonius,  tribune  of  the 
commons,  a  Ust  of  his  own  cronies  to  serve  on  the 
tribunal,^  and  Libo "  had  commented,  '  Galba, 
whenever  wiU  you  go  outside  your  own  dining- 
room  ?  '  '  As  soon  as  ever  you  come  away  from 
other  people's  bedrooms  '  was  the  reply.''  To  this 
kind  of  pleasantry  Glaucia's  words  to  Metellus  bear 
some  resemblance  :  *  You  have  your  country-house 
at  Tibur,  your  cattle-pen  on  the  Palatine.'  * 

264  LXVI.  "  And  now  I  think  I  have  had  my  say  re-  Wittiness 
garding  the  types  of  pleasantry  which  depend  upon  (S"!»**^'' 
language.     Those  dependent  upon  facts  are  more  246  ff.) : 
numerous,  and  provoke  heartier  laughter,  as  I  said  wTeties, 
before  ;  they  include  narrative,  a  really  difficult  sub-  especiaiiy— 
ject.     For  it  must  describe,  and  present  to  the  mind's 

eye,  such  things  as  bear  the  semblance  of  truth,  this 
being  the  peculiar  function  of  narrative,  and  such 
also  as  are  a  trifle  unseemly,  this  being  the  pecuUar 

the  clients  and  hangers-on  who  thronged  the  town-house  of 
Metellus. 

397 


CICERO 

prium  est,  subturpia  :  cuius  exemplum,  ut  brevis- 
simum,  sit  sane  illud,  quod  ante  posui,  Crassi  de 
Memmio.     Et  ad  hoc  genus  ascribamus  etiam  nar- 

265  rationes  apologorum ;  trahitur  etiam  aUquid  ex 
historia,  ut,  cum  Sex.  Titius  se  Cassandram  esse 
diceret,  '  Multos,'  inquit  Antonius,  '  possum  tuos 
Aiaces  Oileos  nominare.' 

Est  etiam  ex  similitudine,  quae  aut  collationem 
habet  aut  tanquam  imaginem  :  collationem,  ut  ille 
Gallus  olim  testis  in  Pisonem,  cum  innumerabilem 
Magio  praefecto  pecuniam  dixisset  datam,  idque 
Scaurus  tenuitate  Magii  redargueret  :  *  Erras,' 
inquit,  '  Scaure  ;  ego  enim  Magium  non  conservasse 
dico,  sed  tanquam  nudus  nuces  legeret,  in  ventre 
abstulisse ' ;  ut  ille  M.  Cicero  senex,  huius  viri 
optimi,  nostri  familiaris,  pater,  nostros  homines 
similes  esse  Syrorum  venalium  :  ut  quisque  optime 
Graece  sciret,  ita  esse  nequissimum. 

266  Valde  autem  ridentur  etiam  imagines,  quae  fere  in 
deformitatem,  aut  in  aliquod  vitium  corporis  du- 
cuntur  cum  simihtudine  turpioris  :  ut  meum  illud  in 
Helvium  Manciam  '  lam  ostendam  cuiusmodi  sis  ' ; 
cum  ille  '  Ostende,  quaeso,'  demonstravi  digito 
pictum  Gallum  in  Mariano  scuto  Cimbrico  sub  Novis, 

"  See  Book  II,  lix.,  supra, 

*  He  meant  that  his  prophecies  of  public  disasters  at  Rome 
had  met  with  no  more  credit  than  those  of  Cassandra,  King 
Priam's  daughter,  at  Troy,  though  they  had  proved  as  con- 
sistently  true.  After  the  fall  of  Troy  the  prophetess  was 
outraged  by  this  Ajax.  I  follow  Conington  on  Aeneid  i.  46 
in  treating  Oileos  as  a  Greek  genitive  sing^lar,  not  an  accusa- 
tive  plural. 

'  The  allegation  is  that  the  money  has  been  squandered 
in  self-indulgence,  after  being  received  by  Magius  on  behalf 
of  Piso,  who  is  on  trial  for  extortion. 

898 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixvi.  264-266 

function  of  joking  ;  as  the  shortest  possible  example 
of  this  you  may  very  well  take  Crassus's  tale  about 
Memmius,"  which  I  cited  before.     To  this  class  we 

265  may  also  refer  the  stories  in  the  fables.  Material  is 
derived  too  from  history,  as  when  Sextus  Titius  was 
describing  himself  as  a  Cassandra,''  and  Antonius 
commented,  '  I  can  name  many  who  played  Ajax, 
the  son  of  Oileus,  to  your  Cassandra.' 

"  Another  source  of  such  pleasantry  is  resemblance,  comparison, 
involving  either  comparison  or  something  Uke  por- 
traiture.  Comparison  is  illustrated  by  that  Gallus, 
who  once  upon  a  time  gave  evidence  against  Piso 
that  Piso's  heutenant  Magius  had  received  vast  sums 
of  money,  which  testimony  Scaurus  was  for  con- 
tradicting  by  proving  the  straitened  circumstances  of 
Magius,  whereupon  Gallus  observed,  *  You  are 
missing  the  point,  Scaurus,  for  I  do  not  assert  that 
Magius  still  has  this  fund,  but  that  he  has  tucked  it 
away  in  his  paunch,  like  a  naked  man  who  goes 
nutting.'  "  To  take  another  instance,  the  eminent 
Marcus  Cicero  the  elder,  father  of  the  best  man  of 
our  time,  our  own  friend,  said  that  our  contemporaries 
were  hke  the  Syrian  slave-market :  '  the  better  know- 
ledge  they  had  of  Greeks,  the  more  worthless  were 
their  respective  characters.' 

266  "  Caricatures  also  provoke  loud  laughter :  as  a  rule  caricature, 
they  are  levelled  against  ughness  or  some  physical 
defect,  and  involve  comparison  with  something  a  little 
unseemly  ;   an  example  was  that  remark  of  mine  to 
Helvius  Mancia,  '  I  will  now  show  what  manner  of 

man  you  are,'  to  which   he  answered,  '  Pray  show 

me,'  whereupon  I  pointed  out  with  my  finger  a  Gaul 

depicted  on  the  Cimbrian  shield  of  Marius,**  which 

*  A  shield  captured  by  Marius  in  the  Gallic  War,  101  b.c. 

S99 


CICERO 

distortum,  eiecta  lingua,  buccis  fluentibus  ;  risus  est 
commotus  :  nihil  tam  Manciae  simile  visum  est ;  ut 
cum  Tito  Pinario  mentum  in  dicendo  intorquenti 
*  tum  ut  diceret,  si  quid  vellet,  si  nucem  fregisset.' 

267  Etiam  illa  quae  minuendi  aut  augendi  causa  ad 
incredibilem  admirationem  efFeruntur :  velut  tu, 
Crasse,  in  concione,  '  ita  sibi  ipsum  magnum  videri 
Memmium  ut  in  forum  descendens  caput  ad  for- 
nicem  Fabii  demitteret.'  Ex  quo  genere  etiam 
illud  est  quod  Scipio  apud  Numantiam,  cum 
stomacharetur  cum  C.  Metello,  dixisse  dicitur, 
'  si  quintum  pareret  mater  eius,  asinum  fuisse 
parituram.' 

268  Arguta  est  etiam  significatio  cum  parva  re  et 
saepe  verbo  res  obscura  et  latens  illustratur  :  ut, 
cum  C.  Fabricio  P.  Cornehus,  homo,  ut  existima- 
batur,  avarus  et  furax,  sed  egregie  fortis,  et  bonus 
imperator,  gratias  ageret  quod  se  homo  inimicus 
consulem  fecisset,  bello  praesertim  magno  et  gravi  : 
'  Nihil  est  quo  mihi  gratias  agas,'  inquit,  '  si  malui 
compilari  quam  venire  '  ;   ut  Asello  Africanus,  obi- 


"  Standing  on  the  north-eastern  side  of  the  Forum. 

*  The  triumphal  arch  commemorating  the  success  of 
Fabius  over  the  Allobroges  was  the  loftiest  so  far  erected  in 
Rome. 

'  Her  four  sons,  of  whom  Gaius  was  the  youngest, 
apparently  exhibited,  in  order  of  seniority,  a  diminuendo  of 
inteUigence. 

^  Famous  opponent  of  Pyrrhus  and  eminent  type  of  the 
old  Roman  morality. 

•  Better  an  extortionate  magistrate  than  an  incompetent 

400 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixvl.  266-268 

hung  below  the  New  Shops,*  with  the  body  twisted, 
the  tongue  protruding  and  the  cheeks  baggy  :  this 
raised  laughter,  for  nothing  so  like  Mancia  was  ever 
seen.  Another  instance  was  my  telling  Titus 
Pinarius,  who  kept  twisting  his  chin  when  he  was 
speaking,  that  the  time  for  his  observations,  if  he 
wished  to  say  anything,  would  come  when  he  had 
finished  cracking  his  nut. 

267  ' '  Then  again  there  are  those  intentional  understate-  under- "  ■ 
ments  or  overstatements  which  are  exaggerated  to  ^ta^^sment, 
a  degree  of  the  astonishing  that  passes  belief,  such 

as  your  own  assertion,  Crassus,  made  in  a  speech 
before  a  public  assembly,  that  Memmius  thought 
himself  so  exalted  an  individual  that,  on  his  way 
down  into  the  Market  Place,  he  lowered  his  head  in 
order  to  pass  under  the  Arch  of  Fabius.*  To  this 
category  also  belongs  the  taunt  said  to  have  been 
uttered  by  Scipio  at  Numantia,  when  he  was  in  a  rage 
with  Gaius  Metellus,  that '  if  the  mother  of  Metellus 
should  bear  a  fifth  time,  she  would  be  found  to  have 
borne  an  ass.'" 

268  ' '  And  a  clever  hint  may  be  dropped  when  some  hard 
and  unintelligible  saying  is  illuminated  by  some  small 
detail,  often  by  a  word,  as  when  Publius  Cornelius, 
regarded  as  a  covetous  and  dishonest  man,  but  con- 
spicuously  brave  and  a  competent  military  com- 
mander,  thanked  Gaius  Fabricius  **  for  having  (though 
no  friend  of  his)  procured  his  election  as  consul,  and 
that  too  in  the  course  of  an  important  and  trouble- 
some  war.  '  No  need  to  thank  me,'  replied  the 
other, '  for  choosing  to  be  plundered  rather  than  sold 
into  bondage.' «      Compare  with  this  the  retort  of 

general,  who  would  probably  lead  his  followers  to  defeat, 
capture  and  the  ancient  fate  of  prisoners  of  war. 

401 


CICERO 

cienti  lustrum  illud  infelix,  '  Noli,'  inquit,  '  mirari ;  is 
enim  qui  te  ex  aerariis  exemit  lustrum  condidit  et 
taurum  immolavit.'  [Tanta  suspicio  est  ut  religione 
civitatem  obstrinxisse  videatur  Mummius  quod 
Asellum  ignominia  levarit.] 

269  LXVII.  Urbana  etiam  dissimulatio  est,  cum  alia 
dicuntur  ac  sentias,  non  illo  genere  de  quo  ante  dixi, 
cum  contraria  dicas,  ut  Lamiae  Crassus,  sed  cum 
toto  genere  orationis  severe  ludas,  cum  aliter  sen- 
tias  ac  loquare  :  ut  noster  Scaevola  Septumuleio  illi 
Anagnino,  cui  pro  C.  Gracchi  capite  erat  aurum 
repensum,  roganti  ut  se  in  Asiam  praefectum  duceret, 
*  Quid  tibi  vis,'  inquit,  '  insane  ?  tanta  malorum  est 
multitudo  civium  ut  tibi  ego  hoc  confirmem,  si  Romae 
manseris,  te  paucis  annis  ad  maximas  pecunias  esse 

270  venturum.'  In  hoc  genere  Fannius  in  Annahbus  suis 
Africanum  hunc  AemiUanum  dicit  fuisse  egregium  et 
Graeco  eum  verbo  appellat  eipoiva  ;  sed,  uti  ferunt 
qui  melius  haec  norunt,  Socratem  opinor  in  hac  ironia 
dissimulantiaque  longe  lepore  et  humanitate  omnibus 
praestitisse.  Genus  est  perelegans  et  cum  gravitate 
salsum,  cumque   oratoriis   dictionibus   tum   urbanis 

271  sermonibus  accommodatum.  Et  hercule  omnia  haec 
quae  a  me  de  facetiis  disputantur  non  maiora  foren- 
sium  actionum  quam  omnium  sermonum  condimenta 


•  Africanus,  as  censor,  in  reciting  the  valedictory  prayers 
at  the  census,  had  taken  a  serious  liberty  with  the  ritual  text. 

•  Africanus,  as  censor,  had  degraded  Asellus  to  the  class 
of  voteless  taxpayers,  but  his  colleague  Mummius  had  refused 
his  necessary  concurrence,  and  had  thereby  restored  the 
status  quo  of  Asellus.  Africanus  suggests  that  this  action  of 
Mummius  left  a  taint  upon  the  community. 

•  The  bracketed  passage  is  commonly  regarded  as  a  gloss. 
'  See  Book  II,  Ixv.,  supra. 

402 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixvi.  268— Ixvii.  271 

Africanus,  when  Asellus  taxed  him  with  that  unfor- 
tunate  purification  of  his."  '  Do  not  be  surprised/ 
said  Africanus,  *  for  he  who  delivered  you  from  dis- 
franchisement  completed  the  purification  by  sacrifi- 
cing  the  bull.'  *  [So  strong  is  mistrust  that  Mummius 
is  thought  to  have  laid  the  community  under  a  re- 
hgious  obligation  by  having  relieved  Asellus  from 
degradation.] " 

269  LXVII.  "  Irony  too  gives  pleasure,  when  your  words  irony, 
differ  from  your  thoughts,  not  in  the  way  of  which  I 
spoke  earlier,  when  you  assert  exactly  the  contradic- 
tory,  as  Crassus  did  to  Lamia,"*  but  when  the  whole 
tenor  of  your  speech  shows  you  to  be  solemnly  jesting, 
what  you  think  difFering  continuously  from  what  you 

say  ;  as  our  friend  Scaevola  observed  to  the  notorious 
Septumuleius  of  Anagnia  (to  whom  its  weight  in  gold 
had  been  paid  for  the  head  of  Gaius  Gracchus),  when 
he  prayed  to  be  taken  into  Asia  as  his  lieutenant, 
'  Madman,'  said  Scaevola,  *  what  would  you  have  ? 
There  is  such  a  host  of  wicked  citizens  in  Rome  that 
I  guarantee  you,  if  you  remain  there,  the  attainment, 

270  within  a  few  years,  of  enormous  wealth.'  Fannius  in 
his  '  Chronicles  '  records  that  Africanus  (the  one 
named  Aemilianus)  was  outstanding  in  this  kind  of 
thing,  and  describes  him  by  the  Greek  word  *  dis- 
sembler,'  but,  upon  the  evidence  of  those  who  know 
these  subjects  better  than  I  do,  my  opinion  is  that 
Socrates  far  surpassed  all  others  for  accomplished  wit 
in  this  strain  of  irony  or  assumed  simphcity.  This  is 
a  choice  variety  of  humour  and  blended  with  aus- 
terity,  and  suited  to  public  speaking  as  well  as  to 

271  the  conversation  of  gentlemen.  And  I  vow  that  all 
this  discourse  of  mine  concerning  types  of  pleasantry 
is  as  excellent  sauce  for  general  talk  as  for  legal 

403 


CICERO 

sunt.  Nam  sicut  quod  apud  Catonem  est — qui  multa 
rettulit,  ex  quibus  a  me  exempli  causa  multa  ponun- 
tur — per  mihi  scitum  videtur,  C.  Publicium  solitum 
dicere,  *  P.  Mummium  cuivis  tempori  hominem  esse.' 
Sic  profecto  res  se  habet  nuUum  ut  sit  vitae  tempus 
in  quo  non  deceat  leporem  humanitatemque  versari. 
Sed  redeo  ad  cetera. 

272  Est  huic  finitimum  dissimulationi  cum  honesto 
verbo  vitiosa  res  appellatur :  ut  cum  Africanus 
censor  tribu  movebat  eum  centurionem  qui  in  Pauli 
pugna  non  adfuerat,  cum  ille  se  custodiae  causa 
diceret  in  castris  remansisse  quaereretque  cur  ab  eo 
notaretur,  '  Non  amo,'  inquit,  *  nimium  diligentes.' 

273  Acutum  etiam  illud  est  cum  ex  alterius  oratione 
aliud  excipias  atque  ille  vult ;  ut  Salinatori  Maximus 
cum  Tarento  amisso  arcem  tamen  Livius  retinuis- 
set  multaque  ex  ea  proelia  praeclara  fecisset,  cum 
ahquot  post  annos  Maximus  id  oppidum  recepisset, 
rogaretque  eum  SaUnator  ut  meminisset  opera  sua  se 
Tarentum  recepisse  ;  'Quidni,'  inquit,  '  meminerim .? 
nunquam  ego  recepissem  nisi  tu  perdidisses.' 

274  Sunt  etiam  illa  subabsurda,  sed  eo  ipso  nomine 
saepe  ridicula,  non  solum  mimis  perapposita,  sed 
etiam  quodammodo  nobis  : 


"  The  victory  over  Perseus  at  Pydna  in  168  b.c. 
*  Quintus  Fabius  Maximus. 

'  Marcus  Livius  Salinator,  this  cognomen  being  probably 
a  mistake  of  Cicero's  for  Macatus. 

404) 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixvii.  271-274 

advocacy.  For  that  phrase  of  Cato,  who  has  re- 
corded  many  such,  several  of  which  I  cite  in  illustra- 
tion,  seems  to  me  thoroughly  fine,  where  he  says 
that  Gaius  Publicius  was  fond  of  describing  Publius 
Mummius  as  '  a  man  for  any  occasion  whatever.' 
So  certain  is  it,  in  the  present  connexion,  that  there 
is  no  occasion  in  life  on  which  accomplished  wit  may 
not  fittingly  be  displayed.  But  I  return  to  what 
remains  for  my  notice. 

272  "  A  jest  very  closely  resembles  this  ironical  type 
when  something  disgraceful  is  called  by  an  honour- 
able  epithet,  as  happened  when  Africanus  as  censor 
removed  from  his  tribe  that  centurion  who  failed  to 
appear  at  the  battle  <*  fought  under  Paulus,  though 
the  defaulter  pleaded  that  he  had  stayed  in  camp  on 
guard,  and  sought  to  know  why  he  was  degraded  by 
the  censor  :  '  I  am  no  lover  of  the  over-cautious,'  was 

273  the  answer  of  Africanus.  There  is  point  too  in  taking 
some  part  of  another's  words  in  a  sense  differing  from 
that  which  he  intended,  as  Maximus  *  did  with 
Salinator "  when,  after  the  loss  of  Tarentum,  Livius 
had  nevertheless  held  the  citadel,  and  made  a  number 
of  brilliant  sallies  from  it,  and  Fabius,  several  years 
later,  recaptured  the  town  itself,  whereupon  Livius 
begged  him  to  remember  that  the  recapture  of 
Tarentum  had  been  due  to  his  own  achievement. 
'  To  be  sure,  I  shall  remember  that,'rejoined  Fabius. 
'  I  could  never  have  recaptured  the  place  had  you  not 
lost  it.' 

274  "  Then  there  are  jokes  which  are  somewhat  absurd,  arcicai 
but  for  that  very  reason  often  comical,  and  which  '^"^' 
are  appropriate   not   only   to   actors   in   farce,  but 

ako  in  some  degree  to  us  orators  :  examples  of 
these  are  : 

405 


CICERO 

.  .  .  Homo  fatuus 

Postquam  rem  habere  coepit  est  emortuus. 

Et 

.  .  .  Quid  est  tibi 

Ista  mulier  ?  —  Uxor.  —  Similis  me  dius  fidius. 

Et 

Quamdiu  ad  aquas  fuit,  nunquam  est  emortuus. 

LXVIII.  Genus  hoc  levius,  et,  ut  dixi,  mimicum, 
sed  habet  nonnunquam  aliquld  etiam  apud  nos  loci, 
ut  vel  non  stultus  quasi  stulte  cum  sale  dicat  aliquid  : 
ut  tibi,  Antoni,  Mancia,  cum  audisset  te  censorem  a 
M.    Duronio   de    ambitu   postulatum,  '  Aliquando,' 

275  inquit,  *  tibi  tuum  negotium  agere  licebit.'  Valde 
haec  ridentur,  et  hercule  omnia,  quae  a  prudentibus 
[quasi]  per  dissimulationem  [non  intellegendi]  sub- 
absurde  salseque  dicuntur.  Ex  quo  genere  est  etiam 
non  videri  intellegere  quod  intellegas  ;  ut  Pontidius, 
'  Qualem  existimas  qui  in  adulterio  deprehenditur  ? ' 
— '  Tardum.'  Ut  ego,  qui  in  delectu,  Metello, 
cum  excusationem  oculorum  a  me  non  acciperet  et 

276  dixisset,  '  Tu  igitur  nihil  vides  ?  ' — '  Ego  vero,'  in- 
quam,  '  a  porta  Esquilina  video  villam  tuam.'  Ut 
illud  Nasicae,  qui  cum  ad  poetam  Ennium  venisset 
eique   ab   ostio  quaerenti   Ennium  ancilla   dixisset 

"  Apparently  a  warning  that  luxury  and  avarice  are  likely 
to  engender  disease. 

*  The  innuendo  seems  to  be,  *  If  you  two  are  not  married, 
you  ought  to  be.' 

*  Perhaps  a  hint  to  '  let  well  alone.'  Compare  the  epitaph 
to  be  read  sixty  years  ago  in  a  Devon  churchyard  : 

'  Here  lies  I  and  my  two  daughters, 
AU  through  drinking  the  Cheltenham  waters  ; 
If  we'd  have  stuck  to  Epsom  salts, 
We'd  never  have  come  to  these  here  vaults.* 

406 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixvii.  274— Ixviii.  276 

The  silly  man, 
As  soon  as  he  was  growing  rich  he  died." 

Or 

And  what  to  thee 
Is  yonder  dame  ? — My  wife ! — Like  one,  Faith  help  me '.  * 

Also 

As  long  as  at  the  waters  he  remained, 
He  never  died." 

LXVIII.  "  A  jest  of  this  sort  is  rather  trivial,  and,  assumed 
as  I  said,  fit  for  farces,  but  now  and  then  even  we  si™P"c'ty, 
orators  find  room  for  one  of  them,  with  the  result  that 
even  a  man  who  is  no  fool  says  something  in  the 
manner  of  a  fool,  but  not  without  humour,  as  Mancia 
did  to  yourself,  Antonius,  on  hearing  that  you  were 
being  prosecuted  by  Marcus  Duronius  for  corrupt 
practices  during  your  censorship  ;  '  At  last,'  said  he, 
*  you  will  be  able  to  attend  to  business  of  your  own.* 

275  These  jokes  provoke  hearty  laughter,  and  so  most  as- 
suredly  does  everything  that  is  said  ironically  by  the 
wise,and  somewhat  absurdly,but  notwithout  humour. 
Another  jest  from  this  class  is  pretending  not  to 
understand  what  you  understand  perfectly,  as  when 
Pontidius,  being  asked  his  opinion  of  the  man  who  is 
taken  in  adultery,  repHed  :  '  He  is  a  slowcoach,'  or  as 
when,  at  a  muster  of  troops,  Metellus  rejected  the 
excuse  I  pleaded  of  weak  eyesight,  and  said  to  me, 

276  '  Can  you  then  see  nothing  ?  ',  and  I  repHed  *  On  the 
contrary,  I  can  see  your  country-mansion  from  the 
Esquiline  Gate.'**  Another  instance  was  that  re- 
joinder  of  Nasica's  :  he  had  called  upon  the  poet 
Ennius  and,  when  he  inquired  for  him  at  his  front- 

'  Said  to  be  a  reflection  on  the  ostentatious  size  and 
splendour  of  the  mansion. 

407 


CICERO 

domi  non  esse,  Nasica  sensit  illam  domini  iussu 
dixisse  et  illum  intus  esse  ;  paucis  post  diebus  cum 
ad  Nasicam  venisset  Ennius  et  eum  a  ianua  quaereret, 
exclamat  Nasica  se  domi  non  esse  ;  tum  Ennius  : 
'  Quid  ?  ego  non  cognosco  vocem,'  inquit,  *  tuam  ?  ' 
Hic  Nasica  :  *  Homo  es  impudens.  Ego  cum  te 
quaererem,  ancillae  tuae  credidi  te  domi  non  esse  ; 
tu  mihi  non  credis  ipsi  ?  ' 

277  Est  bellum  illud  quoque  ex  quo  is  qui  dixit  irride- 
tur  in  eo  ipso  genere  quo  dixit :  ut,  cum  Q.  Opimius 
consularis,  qui  adolescentulus  male  audisset,  festivo 
homini  Egilio,  qui  videretur  mollior  nec  esset,  dixis- 
set, '  Quid  tu,  Egiha  mea  ?  quando  ad  me  venis  cum 
tua  colu  et  lana  ?  ' — *  Non  pol,'  inquit,  '  audeo,  nam 
me  ad  famosas  vetuit  mater  accedere.' 

278  LXIX.  Salsa  sunt  etiam  quae  habent  suspicionem 
ridicuH  absconditam,  quo  in  genere  est  SicuU  illud, 
cui  cum  famiharis  quidam  quereretur  quod  diceret 
uxorem  suam  suspendisse  se  de  ficu,  '  amabo  te,* 
inquit,  '  da  mihi  ex  ista  arbore  quos  seram  surculos.' 
In  eodem  genere  est  quod  Catulus  dixit  cuidam 
oratori  malo  :  qui  cum  in  epilogo  misericordiam  se 
movisse  putaret,  postquam  assedit,  rogavit  hunc 
videreturne  misericordiam  movisse ;  *  ac  magnam  qui- 

408 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixviii.  276— Ixix.  278 

door,  had  been  told  by  the  housemaid  that  her  master 
was  not  at  home,  which  reply  Nasica  perceived  to 
have  been  given  by  the  master's  order,  he  being  in 
fact  in  the  house.  A  few  days  later  Ennius  called  at 
Nasica's,  and  asked  for  him  at  the  entrance,  where- 
upon  Nasica  called  out  that  he  was  not  at  home. 
'  What  ?  ',  cries  Ennius, '  Do  I  not  know  your  voice  ?  * 
To  which  Nasica  rejoined,  *  You  are  a  shameless 
fellow  ;  when  I  asked  for  you,  I  believed  your  maid 
when  she  said  you  were  not  at  home  ;  do  you  not 
believe  me  when  I  tell  you  the  same  thing  at  first 
hand  ?  ' 

277  "  It  is  dehghtful  too  when  a  jester  is  requited  in  the 
identical  vein  in  which  he  himself  bantered,  as  when 
Quintus  Opimius,  a  past  consul,  but  of  bad  repute  in 
his  early  manhood,  said  to  a  wit  named  Egilius,  who 
looked  rather  effeminate  but  was  not  so  in  fact, '  Well 
now,  my  dear  Egilia,  when  are  you  coming  to  visit  me 
with  your  distaff  and  wool  ?  '  '  Really  I  dare  not 
come,'  replied  the  other,  '  for  mother  told  me  never 
to  go  near  women  of  ill  fame.' 

278  LXIX.  "  Other  witticisms  are  those  that  suggest  hinted 
a  joke  that  is  not  quite  on  the  surface  ;  to  this  group  '"''^*®'^'» 
belongs  the  quip  of  the  Sicilian  to  whom  a  friend 

was  lamenting  because,  as  he  told  him,  his  wife  had 
hanged  herself  from  a  fig-tree,  and  who  replied, 
*  Do  please  let  me  have  some  cuttings  from  that 
tree  of  yours  to  plant.'  In  the  same  group  is  the 
remark  made  by  Catulus  to  a  poor  speaker  who, 
after  resuming  his  seat  with  the  impression  that  his 
concluding  remarks  had  aroused  the  audience's  pity, 
inquired  of  Catulus  whether  he  thought  he  had 
been  successful  in  arousing  pity ;  '  Oh  yes,  and 
plenty  of  it,'  was  the  reply,  *  for  I  can't  imagine 

409 


CICERO 

dem,'  inquit,  'neminem  enim  puto  esse  tam  durum 

279  cui  non  oratio  tua  miseranda  visa  sit.'  Me  quidem 
hercule  valde  illa  movent  stomachosa  et  quasi  sub- 
morosa  ridicula — non  cum  a  moroso  dicuntur  ;  tum 
enim  non  sal  sed  natura  ridetur  ;  in  quo,  ut  mihi 
videtvu:,  persalsum  illud  est  apud  Novium : 

•  Quid  ploras,  pater  ?  ' 
*  Mirum  ni  cantem  !  condemnatus  sum.' 

Huic  generi  quasi  contrarium  est  ridiculi  genus 
patientis  ac  lenti,  ut,  cum  Cato  percussus  esset  ab 
eo   qui   arcam  ferebat,   cum   ille   diceret,  '  Cave  !  * 

280  rogavit  numquid  aliud  ferret  praeter  arcam.  Est 
etiam  stultitiae  salsa  reprehensio,  ut  ille  Siculus, 
cui  praetor  Scipio  patronum  causae  dabat  hospitem 
suum,  hominem  nobilem,  sed  admodum  stultum  : 
*  Quaeso,'  inquit,  '  praetor,  adversario  meo  da  istum 
patronum,  deinde  mihi  neminem  dederis.'  Movent 
illa  etiam  quae  coniectura  explanantur  longe  aliter 
atque  sunt  sed  acute  atque  concinne  :  ut,  cum 
Scaurus  accusaret  Rutilium  ambitus  cum  ipse  con- 
sul  esset  factus,  ille  repulsam  tulisset,  et  in  eius 
tabulis  ostenderet  htteras  A.  F.  P.  R.  idque  diceret 
esse  '  AcTUM  fide  P.  Rutilii,'  Rutihus  autem  '  Ante 
FACTUM,  posT  RELATUM,'  C.  Canius  cqucs  Romanus, 
cum  Rufo  adesset,  exclamavit^  neutrum  ilUs  htteris 

*  Rackham :  exclamat. 

"  No  Scipio  is  known  to  us  to  have  been  praetor  in  Sicily. 

*  Apparently  the  presiding  magistrate  assigned  such 
assistance  to  a  litigant  who  was  a  provincial  and  presumably 
ignorant  o£  Roman  law. 

410 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixix.  278-280 

anybody  could  be  so  hard-hearted  as  not  to  have 

279  thought  your  speech  a  pitiable  performance.'  For 
my  own  part  I  vow  I  am  also  much  amused  by  those 
pettish  and  rather  ill-tempered  jests — but  not  when 
they  are  spoken  by  an  ill-tempered  person,  for  then 
it  is  not  his  wit  but  his  character  that  we  laugh  at ; 
and  this  point  to  my  mind  is  very  neatly  put  in  the 
Unes  in  Novius  : 

*  Sire,  why  dost  thou  lament  ?  ' 
*  'Twere  strange  did  I  not  sing,  who  am  under  sentence  !  * 

A  kind  of  jest  that  is  just  the  opposite  of  this  is  the 
tolerant  and  gentle  sort — for  example,  Cato's  when 
he  had  been  jostled  by  a  man  carrying  a  box,  who 
said  '  Look  out,'  and  he  asked  '  What,  are  you  carry- 

280  ing  something  else  beside  that  box  ?  '  There  is  also 
a  neat  way  of  reproving  folly,  for  instance  the  remark 
of  the  Sicilian  to  whom  Scipio  "  when  praetor  was 
assigning  as  counsel  in  a  law-suit  his  host,  a  person 
of  position  but  rather  stupid  :  '  Pray,  Mr.  Praetor, 
assign  that  gentleman  as  counsel  ^  to  my  opponent, 
and  then  I  will  not  ask  you  to  assign  any  counsel  to 
me.'  Also  efFective  are  conjectural  explanations  of 
a  document  that  are  completely  at  variance  with 
the  real  meaning  but  are  cleverly  and  wittily  put : 
as  for  instance,  in  the  prosecution  of  Rutilius  by 
Scaurus  on  the  charge  of  corrupt  practices  in  the 
election  to  the  consulship  which  Scaurus  himself  had 
won  and  Rutilius  had  lost,  when  Scaurus  called  atten- 
tion  to  the  entry  A.F.P.R.  in  Rutilius's  election 
accounts,  and  said  that  they  stood  for  '  Acting  for 
Pubilius  Rutilius,'  whereas  Rutilius  said  they  meant 
*  AUocated  formerly,  posted  up  recently,'  Sir  Gaius 
Canius,  who  appeared  for  Rufus,  called  out  that  both 

411 


CICERO 

declarari ;     '  Quid    ergo  ?  '     inquit    Scaurus  ;     '  Ae- 
milius  fecit,  plectitur  Rutilius.* 

281  LXX.  Ridentur  etiam  discrepantia.  '  Quid  huic 
abest  nisi  res  et  virtus  ?  '  Bella  etiam  est  familiaris 
reprehensio  quasi  errantis  ;  ut  cum  obiurgavit 
Albium  Granius  quod,  cum  eius  tabuhs  quiddam  ab 
Albucio  probatum  videretur,  et  valde  absoluto  Scae- 
vola  gauderet  neque  intellegeret  contra  suas  tabulas 

282  esse  iudicatum.  Huic  similis  est  etiam  admonitio  in 
consiho  dando  familiaris,  ut,  cum  patrono  malo 
cum  vocem  in  dicendo  obtudisset  suadebat  Granius 
ut  mulsum  frigidum  biberet  simul  ac  domum  re- 
disset,   *  Perdam,'    inquit,   '  vocem,   si    id   fecero ' ; 

283  '  Melius  est,'  inquit,  '  quam  reum.'  Bellum  etiam 
est  cum  quid  cuique  sit  consentaneum  dicitur  ;  ut, 
cum  Scaurus  nonnuUam  haberet  invidiam  ex  eo  quod 
Phrygionis  Pompei  locupletis  hominis  bona  sine 
testamento  possederat,  sederetque  advocatus  reo 
Bestiae,  cum  funus  quoddam  duceretur,  accusator 
C.    Memmius ;    '  Vide,'   inquit,    '  Scaure,    mortuus 

284  rapitur,  si  potes  esse  possessor.'  Sed  ex  his  omnibus 
nihil  magis  ridetur  quam  quod  est  praeter  exspecta- 
tionem,  cuius  innumerabilia  sunt  exempla,  vel  Appii 
maioris  illius,  qui  in  senatu  cum  ageretur  de  agris 

"  Probably  the  grandfather  of  Cicero's  enemy  P.  Clodius. 
412 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixix.  280— Ixx.  284 

these  interpretations  of  the  initials  were  wrong. 
*  What  do  they  mean  then  ? '  said  Scaurus.  *  Aemilius 
filched.     Punish  Rutilius.' 

281  LXX.  "  A  laugh  is  also  scored  by  sentences  that  do  unexpected 
not  hang  together  :  '  What  does  this  gentleman  lack  *"™^' 

— except  cash  and  character  ?  '  Another  pretty  turn 
is  a  friendly  criticism  of  an  impHed  mistake,  as  when 
Granius  reproved  Albius  because,  when  Albucius  was 
held  to  have  proved  a  statement  on  the  evidence 
of  Albius's  accounts,  Albius  was  not  only  much  de- 
lighted  by  Scaevola's  acquittal  but  actually  failed  to 
see  that  a  verdict  had  been  given  against  his  own 

282  accounts.  Also  similar  to  this  is  giving  a  friendly 
hint  by  way  of  advice  :  for  instance,  when  Granius 
was  recommending  an  incompetent  advocate  who  in 
the  course  of  a  speech  had  talked  himself  hoarse  to 
have  a  drink  of  chilled  wine  and  honey  as  soon  as  he 
got  home,  he  answered  '  If  I  do  that,  I  shall  ruin  my 
voice,'  and  Granius  retorted  '  Better  ruin  your  voice 

283  than  ruin  your  client.'  It  is  also  a  neat  turn  to  point 
out  what  goes  with  anybody's  individual  character- 
istics  ;  as  for  instance,  when  Scaurus  was  somewhat 
under  a  cloud  for  having  taken  possession  of  the 
estate  of  a  wealthy  person  named  Pompeius  Phrygio 
who  had  died  intestate,  and  was  appearing  in  court 
as  an  assessor  on  behalf  of  a  defendant  named  Bestia, 
a  funeral  happened  to  pass  by,  and  Gaius  Memmius 
who  was  for  the  prosecution  said,  '  Look,  Scaurus, 
there's  a  dead  man  being  bundled  out  of  the  way — if 

284  only  you  can  get  possession.'  But  of  all  these  devices 
nothing  causes  more  amusement  than  an  unexpected 
turn,  of  which  there  are  countless  instances — for 
example,  the  remark  of  old  Appius  senior,**  who 
when  there  was  a  debate  in  the  Senate  about  the 

413 


CICERO 

publicis  et  de  lege  Thoria  et  premeretur  Lucilius 
ab  eis  qui  a  pecore  eius  depasci  agros  publicos 
dicerent,  '  Non  est/  inquit,  '  Lucilii  pecus  illud  ; 
erratis  '  —  defendere     Lucilium     videbatur  — '  ego 

285  liberum  puto  esse  :  qua  libet  pascitur.'  Placet 
etiam  mihi  illud  Scipionis  illius  qui  Tib.  Gracchura 
perculit :  cum  ei  M.  Flaccus  multis  probris  obiectis 
P.  Mucium  iudicem  tulisset, '  Eiero,'  inquit, '  iniquus 
est '  ;  cum  esset  admurmuratum,  '  Ah,*  inquit, 
*  P.  C,  non  ego  mihi  illum  iniquum  eiero,  verum 
omnibus.'  Ab  hoc  vero  Crasso  nihil  facetius  :  cum 
laesisset  testis  Silus  Pisonem  quod  se  in  eum  audisse 
dixisset,  '  Potest  fieri,'  inquit,  '  Sile,  ut  is  unde  te 
audisse  dicis,  iratus  dixerit.'  Annuit  Silus.  '  Potest 
etiam,  ut  tu  non  recte  intellexeris.'  Id  quoque  toto 
capite  annuit,  ut  se  Crasso  daret.  '  Potest  etiam 
fieri,'  inquit, '  ut  omnino,  quod  te  audisse  dicis,  nun- 
quam  audieris.'  Hoc  ita  praeter  exspectationem 
accidit  ut  testem  omnium  risus  obrueret.  Huius 
generis  est  plenus  Novius,  cuius  iocus  est  familiaris 
'  Sapiens  si  algebis,  tremes.'     Et  aha  permulta. 

286  LXXI.  Saepe  etiam  facete  concedas  adversario  id 


"  Presumably  the  poet,  c/.  §  25. 
414 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixx.  284— Ixxi.  286 

lands  in  public  ownership  and  the  Lex  Thoria,  and 
LuciUus  "  was  being  attacked  by  raembers  who  asserted 
that  his  herd  was  being  grazed  on  the  lands  in  ques- 
tion,  said  '  No,  that  herd  does  not  belong  to  Lucilius  ; 
you  are  making  a  mistake  ' — this  sounded  as  if  he 
were  speaking  in  Lucilius's  defence — '  My  own  view 
is  that  it  is  a  herd  that's  got  free — it  grazes  freely 

285  where  it  pleases.'  I  also  like  the  remark  of  the 
Scipio  who  made  away  with  Tiberius  Gracchus  : 
when  Marcus  Flaccus  after  a  great  many  damaging 
objections  had  been  made  had  carried  Publius  Mucius 
as  a  member  of  the  jury,  Scipio  said  '  I  challenge 
him  on  oath  :  he  is  prejudiced  ! ' ;  at  this  there  was 
a  murmur,  but  Scipio  continued,  *  Ah,  gentlemen, 
I  don't  challenge  him  as  prejudiced  against  myself, 
but  as  prejudiced  against  everybody.'  From  this 
point  of  view  however  nothing  could  be  wittier  than 
the  remark  of  Crassus  :  serious  damage  had  been 
done  to  the  case  of  a  certain  Piso  by  a  witness  named 
Silus,  who  had  said  that  he  had  heard  something 
against  him  ;  '  It  may  be  the  case,  Silus,'  said  Crassus, 
'  that  the  person  whose  remark  you  say  you  heard 
was  speaking  in  anger.'  Silus  nodded  assent.  '  It 
is  also  possible  that  you  misunderstood  him.'  To 
this  also  Silus  nodded  very  emphatic  assent,  so 
putting  himself  into  Crassus's  hands.  '  It  is  also 
possible,'  he  continued,  '  that  what  you  say  you 
heard,  you  never  really  heard  at  all.'  This  was  so 
entirely  unexpected  a  turn  that  the  witness  was 
overwhelmed  by  a  burst  of  laughter  from  the  whole 
court.  Novius  is  full  of  quips  of  this  sort  :  everyone 
knows  his  jape, '  Even  a  philosopher  like  you,  if  he  is 
cold,  will  shiver,'  and  a  great  many  more. 

286  LXXI.  "  Also  you  may  often  humorously  yield  to  personai 

^l^  retorts. 


CICERO 

ipsum  quod  tibi  ille  detrahit :  ut  C.  Laelius,  cum  ei 
quidam  malo  genere  natus  diceret  indignum  esse  suis 
maioribus,  '  At  hercule,*  inquit,  '  tu  tuis  dignus.' 
Saepe  etiam  sententiose  ridicula  dicuntur,  ut  M. 
Cincius,  quo  die  legem  de  donis  et  muneribus  tulit, 
cum  C.  Cento  prodisset  et  satis  contumeliose 
*  Quid   fers,  Cinciole  ?  '   quaesisset,  '  Ut  emas,'  in- 

287  quit,  '  Gai,  si  uti  velis.'  Saepe  etiam  salse  quae  fieri 
non  possunt  optantur  :  ut  M.  Lepidus,  cum  ceteris 
in  campo  exercentibus  in  herba  ipse  recubisset : 
'  Vellem  hoc  esset,'  inquit,  '  laborare.'  Salsum  est 
etiam  quaerentibus  et  quasi  percontantibus,  lente 
respondere  quod  nolint :  ut  censor  Lepidus  cum 
M.  Antistio  Pyrgensi  equum  ademisset,  amicique 
cum  vociferarentur  et  quaererent  quid  ille  patri  suo 
responderet  cur  ademptum  sibi  equum  diceret  cum 
optimus  colonus,  parcissimus,  modestissimus,  frugaUs- 
simus  esset  :  '  Me  istorum,'  inquit,  '  nihil  credere.' 

288  CoUiguntur  a  Graecis  alia  nonnulla,  exsecrationes, 
admirationes,  minationes,  sed  haec  ipsa  nimis  mihi 
videor  in  multa  genera  descripsisse  ;  nam  illa  quae 
verbi  ratione  et  vi  continentur  certa  fere  ac  definita 
sunt   quae  plerumque,  ut  ante  dixi,  laudari  magis 

289  quam  rideri  solent ;  haec  autem  quae  sunt  in  re  ipsa 

"  The  praenomen,  like  a  Christian  name,  has  a  note  of 
familiarity  which  might  be  compHmentary,  but  here  is  con- 
temptuous,  and  is  a  retort  to  the  diminutive  Cinciole,  which 
also  has  a  touch  of  contempt,  as  has  the  question  Quidfers? 
which  suggests  '  What  do  you  offer  for  sale  ?  '      '  §254. 

416 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxi.  286-289 

you»  opponent  the  very  point  that  he  is  trying  to 
make  against  you  :  for  instance  Gaius  Laelius,  when 
some  low-born  person  told  him  he  was  not  worthy  of 
his  ancestors,  retorted  '  But  you  are  worthy  of  yours, 
I  swear  you  are  !  '  Also  jests  at  the  other's  expense 
are  often  expressed  in  an  epigrammatic  form  :  for 
instance,  on  the  day  when  Marcus  Cincius  carried  a 
bill  deahng  ynth.  gifts  and  presentations,  Gaius  Cento 
came  forward  and  asked  in  a  rather  insulting  manner, 
'  What  are  you  putting  forward,  my  good  Cincius  ?  ' 
And  Cincius  replied  '  That  if  you  want  to  use  a  thing, 

287  Gaius,"  you  should  pay  for  it ! '  Also  it  is  often 
witty  to  wish  for  things  that  are  impossible  :  as,  for 
instance,  when  Marcus  Lepidus  was  sprawHng  on  the 
grass  himself  while  everybody  else  was  doing  exer- 
cises  in  the  field,  he  said  '  I  wish  that  hard  work 
were  what  I  am  doing.'  Also  when  people  ask  you 
something  and  keep  on  repeating  the  question  it  is 
witty  gently  to  give  the  very  reply  they  don't  want : 
for  example  when  the  censor  Lepidus  had  taken  a 
horse  from  Marcus  Antistius  of  Pyrgi  and  Antistius's 
friends  made  an  outcry  and  kept  asking  him  what 
answer  he  should  give  his  father  to  explain  why  his 
horse  had  been  taken  away  from  him,  a  first-class 
farmer,  and  an  extremely  economical  and  moderate 
and  thrifty  person,  he  said  his  answer  would  be  '  I 

288  don't  accept  any  of  that ! '  The  Greeks  include  some 
other  varieties,  execration,  astonishment,  threats, 
but  I  feel  I  have  overdone  my  classification  of  these 
witticisms  already  ;  for  the  notions  contained  in  the 
meaning  and  force  of  a  word  are  usually  clear  and 
definite,  and  most  of  them,  as  I  said  before,''  usually 

289  excite  more  applause  than  ridicule  ;  whereas  the 
points  comprised  in  the  actual  fact  and  meaning, 

417 


CICERO 

et  sententia  partibus  sunt  innumerabilia,  generibus 
pauca  ;  exspectationibus  enim  decipiendis  et  naturis 
aliorum  irridendis  [ipsorum  ridicule  indicandis]^  et 
similitudine  turpioris  et  dissimulatione  et  subabsurda 
dicendo  et  stulta  reprehendendo  risus  moventur,  ita- 
que  imbuendus  est  is  qui  iocose  volet  dicere  quasi 
natura  quadam  apta  ad  haec  genera  et  moribus,  ut 
ad  cuiusque  modi  genus  ridicuh  vultus  etiam  accom- 
modetur  ;  qui  quidem  quo  severior  est  et  tristior,  ut 
in  te,  Crasse,  hoc  illa  quae  dicuntur  salsiora  videri 
solent. 

290  Sed  iam  tu,  Antoni,  qui  hoc  deversorio  sermonis  mei 
libenter  acquieturum  te  esse  dixisti,  tanquam  in 
Pomptinum  deverteris,  neque  amoenum  neque  salu- 
brem  locum,  censeo  ut  satis  diu  te  putes  requiesse  et 
iter  reliquum  conficere  pergas. 

Ego  vero,  atque  hilare  quidem  a  te  acceptus, 
inquit,  et  cum  doctior  per  te,  tum  etiam  audacior 
factus  iam  ad  iocandum  ;  non  enim  vereor  ne  quis 
me  in  isto  genere  leviorem  iam  putet,  quoniam  qui- 
dem  tu  Fabricios  mihi  auctores,  et  Africanos,  Maxi- 

291  mos,  Catones,  Lepidos  protulisti.  Sed  habetis  ea 
quae  vultis  ex  me  audire,  de  quibus  quidem  accura- 
tius  dicendum  et  cogitandum  fuit :  nam  cetera 
faciUora  sunt,  atque  ex  eis  quae  dicta  sunt  reliqua 

1  tecl.  Wilkin». 
418 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxi.  289-291 

though  falling  into  innumerable  divisions,  only  be- 
long  to  a  few  main  classes  ;  what  excites  laughter 
is  disappointing  expectations  and  ridicuhng  other 
people's  characters  and  imitating  a  baser  person 
and  dissembhng  and  saying  things  that  are  rather 
silly  and  criticizing  points  that  are  fooHsh,  and  con- 
sequently  a  person  who  wants  to  speak  humorously 
must  be  equipped  with  a  disposition  and  character 
that  is  suited  to  artifices  of  this  kind,  so  that  even  his 
expression  of  countenance  may  be  adapted  to  each 
kind  of  variety  of  the  ridiculous  ;  and  indeed  the 
sterner  and  gloomier  a  man's  expression  is,  as  in 
your  case,  Crassus,  the  more  humorous  as  a  rule  his 
remarks  are  considered. 

290  "  Well,  Antonius,  you  said  you  would  be  glad  of  a 
rest  at  this  house  of  entertainment,  which  is  what 
my  discourse  is,~but  you  must  imagine  the  resort  you 
have  visited  to  be  in  the  Pomptine  marshes,  not  a 
very  agreeable  or  very  salubrious  locahty,  so  I  advise 
you  to  decide  that  you  have  had  a  sufficient  rest  and 
to  push  on  to  complete  the  remainder  of  your 
journey." 

"  Yes,  I  will,  and  that  after  being  amusingly  enter-  Antonius 
tained  by  you,  and  having,  thanks  to  you,  become  (^^^§^216) 
not  only  a  better  scholar  but  also  a  more  reckless  as  to 
jester  ;   for  now  Tm  not  afraid  of  anybody  thinking  hebegins 
me  too  frivolous  in  that  Une,  inasmuch  as  you  have  ^^*V^^ 
suppUed  me  with  such  authorities  as  Fabricius,  and  points  of 

291  also  Africanus,  Maximus,  Cato  and  Lepidus.     But  case^and  his 
now  you  have  got  the  points  you  wanted  to  hear  opponents'. 
from  me,  points  which  did  in  fact  require  more  careful 
statement  and  consideration,  inasmuch  as  all  the 

others  are  easier,  and  the  points  that  remain  aU 
spring  directly  out  of  those  that  have  been   put. 

419 


CICERO 

nascuntur  omnia.  LXXII.  Ego  enim  cum  ad  causam 
sum  aggressus  atque  omnia  eogitando  quoad  facere 
potui  persecutus,  cum  et  argumenta  causae  et  eos 
locos  quibus  animi  iudicum  conciliantur  et  illos  quibus 
permoventur  vidi  atque  cognovi,  tum  constituo  quid 
habeat  causa  quaeque  boni,  quid  mali ;  nulla  enim 
fere  potest  res  in  dicendi  disceptationem  aut  contro- 
versiam    vocari    quae    non    habeat    utrumque,  sed 

292  quantum  habeat  id  refert ;  mea  autem  ratio  in 
dicendo  haec  esse  solet,  ut  boni  quod  habeat  id 
amplectar,  exornem,  exaggerem,  ibi  commorer,  ibi 
habitem,  ibi  haeream,  a  malo  autem  vitioque  causae 
ita  recedam  non  ut  me  id  fugere  appareat  sed  ut 
totum  bono  illo  ornando  et  augendo  dissimulatum 
obruatur  ;  et,  si  causa  est  in  argumentis,  firmissima 
quaeque  maxime  tueor,  sive  plura  sunt  sive  aUquod 
unum  ;  sin  autem  in  conciliatione  aut  in  permotione 
causa  est,  ad  eam  me  potissimum  partem  quae 
maxime  movere    animos  hominum  potest  confero. 

293  Summa  denique  huius  generis  haec  est,  ut  si  in 
refellendo  adversario  firmior  esse  oratio  quam  in 
confirmandis  nostris  rebus  potest,  omnia  in  illum 
tela  conferam,  sin  nostra  probari  facilius  quam  illa 
redargui  possunt,  abducere  animos  a  contraria  de- 

294  fensione  et  ad  nostram  coner^  deducere.  Duo  denique 
illa  quae  facillima  videntur,  quoniam  quae  difficiliora 

^  Rackham :  conor. 
420 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxii.  291-294 

LXXII.  For  my  part  when  I  am  launched  on  a  case 
and  have  to  the  best  of  my  ability  passed  all  the  facts 
under  consideration,  having  discerned  and  ascer- 
tained  the  arguments  that  belong  to  the  case  and 
also  the  topics  calculated  to  win  the  favour  of  the 
court  and  those  adapted  to  arouse  its  emotions,  I 
then  decide  what  are  the  good  and  what  the  bad 
points  in  the  case  of  each  of  the  parties,  as  it  is  almost 
impossible  for  any  matter  to  be  brought  under  dis- 
cussion  or  dispute  which  does  not  contain  both — the 
thing  that  matters  is  horv  much  of  them  it  contains  ; 

292  but  my  own  method  in  a  speech  usually  is  to  take 
the  good  points  of  my  case  and  elaborate  these,  em- 
bellishing  and  enlarging  and  Hngering  and  dwelhng 
on  and  sticking  to  them,  while  any  bad  part  or  weak- 
ness  in  my  case  I  leave  on  one  side,  not  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  give  the  appearance  of  running  away 
from  it  but  so  as  to  disguise  it  and  entirely  cover  it 
up  by  embellishing  and  amplifying  the  good  point 
referred  to  ;  and  if  the  case  is  one  that  turns  on 
arguments,  I  maintain  all  the  strongest  among  them 
in  the  fullest  measure,  whether  they  are  several  or 
only  one,  or  if  it  is  a  matter  of  winning  favour  or 
arousing  feeling,  I  concentrate  particularly  on  the 
part  of  the  case  that  is  most  capable  of  influencing 

293  men's  minds.  In  short,  the  chief  thing  in  a  case  of 
this  kind  is,  if  my  speech  can  be  stronger  in  refuting 
our  opponent  than  in  proving  our  own  points,  for  me 
to  concentrate  all  my  shafts  upon  him,  but  if  on  the 
contrary  our  points  can  be  more  easily  proved  than 
his  can  be  refuted,  to  aim  at  drawing  ofF  their  atten- 
tion  from  our  opponent's  defence  and  directing  it  to 

294  our  own.  Finally  there  are  two  lines  that  appear 
extremely  easy — as  the  more  difficult  ones  are  beyond 

421 


CICERO 

sunt  non  possum,  mihi  pro  meo  iure  sumo  :  unum  ut 
molesto  aut  difRcili  argumento  aut  loco  nonnunquam 
omnino  nihil  respondeam,  quod  forsitan  aliquis  iure 
irriserit — quis  enim  est  qui  id  facere  non  possit  ? 
sed  tamen  ego  de  mea  nunc,  non  de  aliorum  facultate 
disputo,  confiteorque  me  si  quae  premat  res  vehe- 
mentius  ita  cedere  solere  ut  non  modo  non  abiecto, 
sed  ne  reiecto  quidem  scuto  fugere  videar,  sed  ad- 
hibere  quamdam  in  dicendo  speciem  atque  pompam 
et  pugnae  similem  fugam  ;  consistere  vero  in  meo 
praesidio  sic  ut  non  fugiendi  hostis  sed  capiendi  loci 
295  causa  cessisse  videar  ;  alterum  est  illud  quod  ego 
maxime  oratori  cavendum  et  providendum  puto 
quodque  me  soUicitare  summe  solet :  non  tam  ut 
prosim  causis  elaborare  soleo  quam  ut  ne  quid 
obsim ;  non  quin  enitendum  sit  in  utroque,  sed 
tamen  multo  est  turpius  oratori  nocuisse  videri  causae 
quam  non  profuisse.  LXXIII.  Sed  quid  hoc  loco  vos 
inter  vos,  Catule  ?  An  haec  ut  sunt  contemnenda 
contemnitis  ? 

Minime,  inquit  ille,  sed  Caesar  de  isto  ipso  quiddam 
velle  dicere  videbatur. 
422 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxii.  294— Ixxiii.  295 

my  power — which  I  adopt  as  being  entitled  to  do  so  : 
one  is  that,  when  I  encounter  a  troublesome  or  diffi- 
cult  argument  or  topic,  occasionally  I  make  no  reply 
to  it  at  all :  a  method  on  which  somebody  will  per- 
haps  justly  pour  ridicule — for  who  is  there  who  would 
not  be  capable  of  adopting  it  ?  but  all  the  same  it  is 
my  own  capacity  and  not  that  of  other  people  which 
I  am  now  discussing,  and  I  frankly  confess  that  I 
make  it  a  practice,  if  some  matter  presses  rather  too 
forcibly  upon  me,  to  retire,  but  in  such  a  manner  as 
not  to  look  as  if  I  were  running  away  even  with  my 
shield  slung  behind  my  back,  much  less  after  throw- 
ing  it  away,  but  to  exhibit  a  certain  seemHness  and 
dignity  in  my  delivery,  and  to  execute  a  retreat 
that  looks  Uke  a  fight ;  and  when  I  come  to  a  halt 
to  stand  on  my  guard  in  such  a  manner  as  to  appear 
to  have  given  ground  for  the  sake  of  taking  up  a 
certain  position,  not  for  the  sake  of  escaping  the 
95  enemy ;  the  other  Une  is  one  which  I  for  my  part 
think  a  speaker  should  only  adopt  with  very  great 
caution  and  preparation,  and  which  regularly  causes 
me  an  extreme  amount  of  trouble  :  my  practice  is 
not  to  devote  my  efforts  to  further  the  advancement 
of  my  cases  but  to  avoid  doing  them  any  damage ; 
not  but  what  it  is  proper  to  use  every  efFort  in 
achieving  both,  but  it  is  much  more  damaging  to  a 
speaker's  reputation  to  be  deemed  to  have  done  harm 
to  his  case  than  not  to  be  thought  to  have  advanced 
it.  LXXIII.  But  what  are  you  whispering  among 
yourselves  at  this  point,  Catulus  ?  Do  you  despise 
these  things  as  they  deserve  to  be  despised  ?  " 

"  By  no  means,"  he  said,  "  but  we  thought  that 
Caesar  wanted  to  say  something  on  just  the  point 
you  are  treating." 

42S 


CICERO 

Me   vero   libente,  inquit   Antonius,   dixerit   sive 
refellendi  causa  sive  quaerendi. 

296  Tum  lulius  :  Ego  mehercule,  inquit,  Antoni, 
semper  is  fui  qui  de  te  oratore  sic  praedicarem,  unum 
te  in  dicendo  mihi  videri  tectissimum,  propriumque 
hoc  esse  laudis  tuae,  nihil  a  te  unquam  esse  dictum 
quod  obesset  ei  pro  quo  diceres  ;  idque  memoria 
teneo,  cum  mihi  sermo  cum  hoc  ipso  Crasso  multis 
audientibus  esset  institutus  Crassusque  plurimis 
verbis  eloquentiam  laudaret  tuam,  dixisse  me  cum 
ceteris  tuis  laudibus  hanc  esse  vel  maximam,  quod 
non    solum    quod    opus    esset    diceres    sed    etiam 

297  quod  non  opus  esset  non  diceres  :  tum  illum  mihi 
respondere  memini,  cetera  in  te  summe  esse  lau- 
danda,  illud  vero  improbi  esse  hominis  et  perfidiosi, 
dicere  quod  alienum  esset  et  noceret  ei  pro  quo  quis- 
que  diceret ;  quare  non  sibi  eum  disertum  qui  id  non 
faceret  videri  sed  improbum,  qui  faceret.  Nunc,  si 
tibi  videtur,  Antoni,  demonstres  velim  quare  tu  hoc 
ita  magnum  putes,  nihil  in  causa  mali  facere,  ut  nihil 
tibi  in  oratore  maius  esse  videatur. 

298  LXXIV.  Dicam  equidem,  Caesar,  inquit,  quid 
intellegam,  sed  et  tu,  et  vos  omnes  hoc,  inquit, 
mementote,  non  me  de  perfecti  oratoris  divinitate 
quadam  loqui  sed  de  exercitationis  et  consuetudinis 
meae  mediocritate.  Crassi  quidem  responsum  excel- 
424 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxiii.  295— Ixxiv.  298 

"  Oh,  as  for  me,"  said  Antonius,  "  I  should  be  de- 
lighted  for  him  to  speak,  whether  with  the  object 
of  refuting  me  or  of  asking  me  a  question." 

296  "  For  my  own  part,  Antonius,"  rejoined  Julius,  "  I 
declare  I  have  always  taken  the  Une  of  maintaining, 
in  regard  to  your  powers  as  a  speaker,  that  in  my 
view  you  were  quite  exceptionally  guarded  in  your 
utterances,  and  that  it  was  your  special  distinction 
that  nothing  had  ever  fallen  from  you  that  would 
damage  the  cUent  you  were  defending  ;  and  I  clearly 
remember  that  when  I  was  engaged  in  a  debate  with 
Crassus  here,  before  a  large  audience,  and  Crassus 
extolled  your  eloquence  at  great  length,  what  I  said 
was  that  together  with  all  your  other  claims  to  dis- 
tinction  the  greatest  one  was  that  you  not  only  said 
the  proper  thing  but  also  avoided  saying  what  was 

297  not  the  proper  thing  ;  and  thereupon  I  remember 
Crassus  rejoining  that  while  all  your  other  quaUties 
were  most  deserving  of  praise,  to  say  something 
untoward  and  damaging  to  one's  cUent  showed  com- 
plete  lack  of  principle  and  of  loyalty,  and  consequently 
he  did  not  consider  a  man  to  be  a  good  speaker  if 
he  did  not  do  so  but  an  unprincipled  person  if  he  did. 
At  this  point,  Antonius,  if  agreeable  to  you,  I  should 
Uke  you  to  explain  for  what  reason  you  put  so  high 
a  value  on  this  avoidance  of  doing  any  damage  to 
one's  case  that  you  think  it  to  be  a  speaker's  most 
important  quaUfication . ' ' 

298  LXXIV.  "  I  will  teU  you  what  my  own  view  is, 
Caesar,"  he  said,  "  but  I  must  request  you  and  all 
the  rest  of  the  company  to  bear  in  mind  that  I  am 
not  speaking  of  the  inspired  genius  of  a  consummate 
orator  but  of  the  moderate  level  attained  by  practice 
and  habituation  in  my  own  case.     The  answer  given 

p  425 


CICERO 

lentis  cuiusdam  est  ingeni  ac  singularis  ;  cui  quidem 
portenti  simile  esse  visum  est  posse  aliquem  inveniri 
oratorem  qui  aliquid  mali  faceret  dicendo  obessetque 

299  ei  quem  defenderet ;  facit  enim  de  se  coniecturam, 
cuius  tanta  vis  ingeni  est  ut  neminem  nisi  consulto 
putet  quod  contra  se  ipsum  sit  dicere  ;  sed  ego  non 
de  praestanti  quadam  et  eximia  sed  prope  de  vulgari 
et  communi  vi  nunc  disputo,  Ita  apud  Graecos 
fertur  incredibili  quadam  magnitudine  consili  atque 
ingeni  Atheniensis  ille  fuisse  Themistocles  ;  ad  quem 
quidam  doctus  homo  atque  in  primis  eruditus  ac- 
cessisse  dicitur  eique  artem  memoriae,  quae  tum 
primum  proferebatur,  pollicitus  esse  se  traditurum  ; 
cum  ille  quaesisset  quidnam  illa  ars  efficere  posset, 
dixisse  illum  doctorem  ut  omnia  meminisset ;  et 
ei  Themistoclem  respondisse  gratius  sibi  illum  esse 
facturum    si    se     oblivisci    quae    vellet    quam    si 

300  meminisse  docuisset.  Videsne  quae  vis  in  homine 
acerrimi  ingeni,  quam  potens  et  quanta  mens  fuerit  ? 
qui  ita  responderit  ut  intellegere  possemus  nihil  ex 
illius  animo  quod  semel  esset  infusum  unquam 
effluere  potuisse,  cum  quidem  ei  fuerit  optabilius 
oblivisci  posse  potius  quod  meminisse  noUet  quam 
quod  semel  audisset  vidissetve  meminisse.  Sed 
neque  propter  hoc  Themistocli  responsum  memoriae 
nobis  opera  danda  non  est  neque  illa  mea  cautio  et 
4.26 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxiv.  298-300 

by  Crassus  is  of  course  the  verdict  of  a  quite  out- 
standing  and  unrivalled  intellect — of  course  he  deems 
it  miraculous  that  any  speaker  could  be  found  whose 
oratory  would  actually  damage  and  prejudice  the 

299  case  of  his  cHent.  This  is  because  he  judges  from 
himself,  being  a  person  of  such  a  strong  intellect 
that  he  cannot  imagine  anybody  saying  anything  to 
his  o\vn  detriment,  unless  he  did  so  on  purpose.  But 
I  am  not  at  the  moment  talking  about  some  out- 
standing  and  exceptional  ability  but  about  ordinary 
average  capacity.  For  instance,  we  are  told  that  the 
famous  Athenian  Themistocles  was  endowed  with 
wisdom  and  genius  on  a  scale  quite  surpassing  belief , 
and  it  is  said  that  a  certain  learned  and  highly  accom- 
pUshed  person  went  to  him  and  ofFered  to  impart  to 
him  the  science  of  mnemonics,  which  was  then  being 
introduced  for  the  first  time  ;  and  that  when  Themis- 
tocles  asked  what  precise  result  that  science  was 
capable  of  achieving,  the  professor  asserted  that  it 
would  enable  him  to  remember  everything  ;  and 
Themistocles  replied  that  he  would  be  doing  him  a 
greater  kindness  if  he  taught  him  to  forget  what  he 

300  wanted  than  if  he  taught  him  to  remember.  Do 
you  observe  what  mental  force  and  penetration  the 
man  possessed,  what  power  and  range  of  intellect  ? 
inasmuch  as  his  answer  brings  home  to  us  that 
nothing  that  had  once  been  introduced  into  his  mind 
had  ever  been  able  to  pass  out  of  it,  inasmuch  as  he 
would  rather  have  been  able  to  forget  something  that 
he  did  not  wish  to  remember  than  to  remember 
everything  that  he  had  once  heard  or  seen.  But  this 
reply  of  Themistocles  must  not  cause  us  to  neglect 
the  training  of  the  memory,  and  the  exceptional 
intellectual    powers  of  Crassus  must  not  make  us 

427 


CICERO 

timiditas  in  causis  propter  praestantem  prudentiam 
Crassi  neglegenda  est ;  uterque  enim  istorum  non 
mihi  attulit  aliquam  sed  suam  significavit  faculta- 

301  tem.  Etenim  permulta  sunt  in  causis  in  omni  parte 
orationis  circumspicienda  ne  quid  ofFendas,  ne  quo 
irruas  :  saepe  aliqui  testis  aut  non  laedit  aut  minus 
laedit  nisi  lacessatur;  orat  reus,  urgent  advocati  ut 
invehamur,  ut  maledicamus,  denique  ut  interroge- 
mus :  non  moveor,  non  obtempero,  non  satisfacio — 
neque  tamen  ullam  assequor  laudem,  homines  enim 
imperiti    facilius  quod  stulte   dixeris  reprehendere 

302  quam  quod  sapienter  tacueris  laudare  possunt.  Hic 
quantum  fit  maU  si  iratum,  si  non  stultum,  si  non 
levem  testem  laeseris  !  Habet  enim  et  voluntatem 
nocendi  in  iracundia  et  vim  in  ingenio  et  pondus  in 
vita.  Nec,  si  hoc  Crassus  non  committit,  ideo  non 
multi  et  saepe  committunt ;  quo  quidem  mihi  turpius 
videri  nihil  solet  quam  quod  ex  oratoris  dicto  aliquo 
aut  responso  aut  rogato  sermo  ille  sequitur :  '  Oc- 
cidit.'     *  Adversariumne  ?  '     *  Immo  vero,'  aiunt,  *  se 

303  et  eum  quem  defendit.'  LXXV.  Hoc  Crassus  non 
putat  nisi  perfidia  accidere  posse,  ego  autem  saepis- 
sime  video  in  causis  aUquid  mah  facere  homines 
minime  malos.  Quid,  illud  quod  supra  dixi,  solere 
me  cedere,  et,  ut  planius  dicam,  fugere  ea  quae 
428 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxiv.  300— Ixxv.  303 

ignore  the  caution  and  nervousness  in  pleading  a 
case  that  I  assigned  to  myself ;  for  neither  Themis- 
tocles  nor  Crassus  attributed  any  competence  to  me, 

301  but  indicated  competence  of  their  own,     The  fact  is  Precaution 
that  in  actions  at  law  there  are  a  great  many  precau-  ^^aging 
tions  that  you  have  to  take  in  every  part  of  your  one's  own 
speech  so  as  not  to  make  a  sHp  and  run  your  head  '^^^' 
against  some  obstacle  :  frequently  a  witness  does  no 
damage,  or  less  damage,  if  he  is  not  challenged  ;  the 
defendant  implores  us  and  his  supporters  urge  us  to 
attack  him,  to  abuse  him,  and  finally  to  cross-examine 

him,  but  I  pay  no  attention,  I  won't  give  way  to  them 
or  obhge  them — though  all  the  same  I  do  not  get 
any  praise  for  this,  as  ill-informed  persons  are  more 
capable  of  criticizing  one*s  fooHsh  assertions  than 

302  one's  wise  omissions.  In  this  department,  how  much 
harm  is  done  if  you  fall  foul  of  a  witness  who  has  lost 
his  temper,  and  is  no  fool,  and  a  person  of  considera- 
tion  !  His  anger  suppHes  him  with  the  wish  to  injure 
you,  his  abiUty  with  the  power  to  do  so,  and  his  past 
record  with  influence.  And  even  if  Crassus  does  not 
make  this  mistake,  it  does  not  follow  that  it  is  not 
made  by  many  people  and  frequently  ;  and  for  my 
part  I  always  think  nothing  more  disgraceful  than 
when  some  statement  or  reply  or  question  made  by 
a  speaker  is  foUowed  by  the  remark  '  He's  done  for 
it !  '     '  Done  for  his  opponent  ?  '     *  Oh  no,'  they  say, 

303  *  done  for  himself  and  his  client.'  LXXV.  Crassus 
holds  the  view  that  this  can  only  happen  through 
treachery,  but  I  myself  quite  often  see  definite  harm 
done  in  law-suits  by  persons  who  are  not  in  the  least 
malicious.  Come,  in  regard  to  what  I  said  previously, 
that  I  make  a  practice  of  giving  way  on,  or  to  put 
it  more  plainly  running  away  from,  points  that  tell 

429 


CICERO 

valde  causam  meam  premerent,  cum  id  non  faciunt 
alii  versanturque  in  hostium  castris  ac  sua  praesidia 
dimittunt,  mediocriteme  causis  nocent  cum  aut 
adversariorum  adiumenta  confirmant  aut  ea  quae 

304  sanare  nequeunt  exulcerant  ?  Quid,  cum  personarum 
quas  defendunt  rationem  non  habent,  si  quae  sunt  in 
eis  invidiosa  non  mitigant  extenuando  sed  laudando 
et  efFerendo  invidiosiora  faciunt,  quantum  est  in  eo 
tandem  mali  ?  Quid,  si  in  homines  caros  iudicibusque 
iucundos  sine  ulla  praemunitione  orationis  acerbius 
et    contumeliosius    invehare,   nonne    a    te    iudices 

305  abalienes  ?  Quid,  si  quae  vitia  aut  incommoda 
sunt  in  aliquo  iudice  uno  aut  pluribus,  ea  tu  in 
adversariis  exprobrando  non  intellegas  te  in  iudices 
invehi,  mediocrene  peccatum  est  ?  Quid,  si  cum 
pro  altero  dicas,  Htem  tuam  facias  aut  laesus 
efferare  iracundia,  causam  relinquas,  nihilne  noceas  ? 
In  quo  ego  non  quo  Hbenter  male  audiam  sed  quia 
causam  non  hbenter  reUnquo  nimium  patiens  et 
lentus  existimor  ;  ut  cum  te  ipsum,  Sulpici,  obiur- 
gabam  quod  ministratorem  peteres,  non  adversarium ; 
ex  quo  etiam  illud  assequor,  ut  si  quis  mihi  maledicat 

306  petulans  aut  plane  insanus  esse  videatur.  In  ipsis 
autem  argumentis  si  quid  posueris  aut  aperte  falsum 
aut  ei  quod  dixeris  dicturusve  sis  contrarium  aut 
430 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxv.  303-306 

heavily  against  my  case  :  well,  when  other  people 
do  not  do  this,  and  roam  about  inside  the  enemy's 
camp  and  disband  their  own  forces,  is  the  damage 
they  do  to  their  cases  inconsiderable — when  they 
either  strengthen  their  opponents'  supports  or  aggra- 

304  vate  sores  which  they  are  unable  to  heal .?  Come, 
when  they  take  no  account  of  the  characters  of  the 
people  they  are  defending,  if  they  do  not  mitigate 
any  unpopular  traits  in  them  by  minimizing  their 
importance  but  increase  their  unpopularity  by  prais- 
ing  and  parading  them,  how  much  harm  pray  is  there 
in  this  ?  Come,  if  without  any  preparatory  forti- 
fication  of  your  position  you  deliver  a  rather  bitter 
and  insulting  attack  on  persons  held  in  esteem  and 
popular  with  the  court,  do  you  not  set  the  bench 

305  against  you  ?  Come,  if  you  taunt  your  opponents 
with  vices  or  faiUngs  that  are  present  in  one  or  in 
several  of  the  judges  without  reahzing  that  you  are 
delivering  an  attack  on  the  bench,  is  it  a  trifling 
mistake  that  you  have  committed  ?  Come,  if  when 
speaking  on  behalf  of  a  client  you  make  yourself 
morally  responsible,  or  when  provoked  lose  your 
temper  and  let  yourself  go,  losing  sight  of  your  case, 
are  you  not  doing  any  harm  ?  This  is  a  matter  in 
which  I  myself  am  considered  too  tolerant  and  gentle, 
not  because  I  Uke  being  abused  but  because  I  do  not 
like  abandoning  my  case — for  instance,  when  I 
taunted  you  yourself,  Sulpicius,  for  attacking  your 
assistant  and  not  your  opponent ;  and  this  method 
also  secures  me  the  result  that  if  somebody  abuses 
me,  he  appears  to  be  making  a  wanton  attack,  or 

306  else  to  be  quite  ofF  his  head.  Then  if  your  actual 
arguraents  include  something  that  is  obviously  un- 
true,  or  inconsistent  with  what  you  have  said  or  are 

431 


CICERO 

genere  ipso  remotum  ab  usu  iudiciorum  ac  foro, 
nihilne  noceas  ?  Quid  multa  ?  Omnis  cura  mea 
solet  in  hoc  versari  semper — dicam  enim  saepius — 
si  possim,  ut  boni  efficiam  aliquid  dicendo,  sin  id 
minus,  ut  certe  ne  quid  mali. 

307  LXXVI,  Itaque  nunc  illuc  redeo,  Catule,  in  quo 
tu  me  paulo  ante  laudabas,  ad  ordinem  collocationem- 
que  rerum  ac  locorum ;  cuius  ratio  est  duplex, 
altera  quam  afFert  natura  causarum,  altera  quae 
oratorum  iudicio  et  prudentia  comparatur  :  nam  ut 
aliquid  ante  rem  dicamus,  deinde  ut  rem  exponamus, 
post  ut  eam  probemus  nostris  praesidiis^  confirmandis, 
contrariis  refutandis,  deinde  ut  concludamus  atque 

308  ita  peroremus,  hoc  dicendi  natura  ipsa  praescribit ;  ut 
vero  statuamus  ea  quae  probandi  et  docendi  causa 
dicenda  sunt  quemadmodum  componamus,  id  est  vel 
maxime  proprium  oratoris  prudentiae.  Multa  enim 
occurrunt  argumenta,  multa,  quae  in  dicendo  pro- 
futura  videantur  ;  sed  eorum  partim  ita  levia  sunt 
ut  contemnenda  sint,  partim,  etiam  si  quid  habent 
adiumenti,  sunt  nonnunquam  eiusmodi  ut  insit  in  eis 
aliquid   viti,   neque   tanti   sit    illud    quod  prodesse 

309  videatur  ut  cum  ahquo  malo  coniungatur  ;  quae 
autem  utilia  sunt  atque  firma,  si  ea  tamen,  ut  saepe 
fit,  valde  multa  sunt,  ea  quae  ex  eis  aut  levissima 

*  [praesidiis]  Vassis. 
432 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxv.  306— Ixxvi.  309 

going  to  say,  or  intrinsically  out  of  keeping  with  the 
practice  of  the  courts  and  with  public  hfe,  would  you 
be  doing  no  harm  ?  In  short,  the  whole  of  my  efforts 
are  always  regularly  devoted  to  this — for  I  will  go 
on  repeating  it — if  possible  to  do  some  good  by  speak- 
ing,  or  if  that  is  not  possible,  at  all  events  not  to 
do  any  harm. 

307  LXXVI.  "  Accordingly  I  now  return  to  the  point  Arr»iig«. 
in  respect  of  which,  Catulus,  you  were  praising  me  ™®°*' 
just  now,  the  question  of  the  order  and  arrangement 

of  one's  facts  and  topics.  In  respect  of  this  there  are 
two  rules  of  procedure,  one  arising  from  the  nature 
of  the  cases  and  the  other  contributed  by  the  discre- 
tion  and  the  wisdom  of  the  speakers  :  for  to  make 
some  prefatory  remarks,  then  to  set  out  our  case, 
afterwards  to  prove  it  by  estabhshing  our  own  points 
with  arguments  in  their  favour  and  refuting  our 
adversary's  points,  then  to  wind  up  our  case  and  so 
to  come  to  our  conclusion — this  is  the  procedure 

308  enjoined  by  the  very  nature  of  oratory  ;  but  to  decide 
how  to  arrange  the  statements  that  have  to  be  made 
for  the  purpose  of  estabhshing  and  explaining  our 
case — that  is  in  the  highest  degree  a  task  for  pro- 
fessional  skill.  For  many  arguments  occur  to  us,  and 
many  considerations  that  appear  hkely  to  be  of  use 
to  us  in  speaking  ;  but  some  of  these  are  so  un- 
important  as  not  to  deserve  notice,  and  some,  even 
if  they  ofFer  some  amount  of  assistance,  are  occasion- 
ally  of  such  a  nature  that  they  contain  some  flaw  and 
that  the  amount  of  assistance  they  seem  to  provide 
is  not  of  such  value  as  to  be  used  in  conjunction  with 

309  a  definitely  detrimental  point ;  while  if  nevertheless, 
as  frequently  happens,  there  are  numerous  advan- 
tages  and  strong  arguments,  in  my  judgement  those 

433 


CICERO 

sunt  aut  aliis  gravioribus  consimilia,  secerni  arbitror 
oportere  atque  ex  oratione  removeri  :  equidem 
cum    colligo    argumenta    causarum,    non    tam    ea 

310  numerare  soleo  quam  expendere.  LXXVII.  Et 
quoniam,  quod  saepe  iam  dixi,  tribus  rebus  homines 
ad  nostram  sententiam  perducimus,  aut  docendo  aut 
conciliando  aut  permovendo,  una  ex  tribus  his  rebus 
res  prae  nobis  est  ferenda,  ut  nihil  aliud  nisi  docere 
velle  videamur,  reliquae  duae,  sicuti  sanguis  in 
corporibus,  sic  illae  in  perpetuis  orationibus  fusae 
esse  debebunt.  Nam  et  principia  et  ceterae  partes 
orationis,  de  quibus  paulo  post  pauca  dicemus, 
habere  hanc  vim  magnopere  debent,  ut  ad  eorum 
mentes    apud    quos     agetur     movendas     pertinere 

311  possint ;  sed  his  partibus  orationis  quae,  et  si  nihil 
docent  argumentando,  persuadendo  tamen  et  com- 
movendo  proficiunt  plurimum,  quanquam  maxime 
proprius  est  locus  et  in  exordiendo  et  in  perorando, 
digredi  tamen  ab  eo  quod  proposueris  atque  agas 
permovendorum  animorum   causa  saepe   utile  est ; 

312  itaque  vel  re  narrata  et  exposita  saepe  datur  ad 
commovendos  animos  digrediendi  locus,  vel  argu- 
mentis  nostris  confirmatis  vel  contrariis  refutatis  vel 
utroque  loco  vel  omnibus,  si  habet  eam  causa 
dignitatem  atque  copiam,  recte  id  fieri  potest ; 
eaeque  causae  sunt  ad  augendum  et  ad  ornandum 

•  §§  326,  333. 
434) 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxvi.  309— Ixxvii.  312 

among  them  that  are  the  least  weighty  or  that  closely 
resemble  others  that  are  weightier  ought  to  be  dis- 
carded  and  left  out  of  the  speech  :  in  my  own  case 
when  I  am  collecting  arguments  for  my  cases  I  make 
it  my  practice  not  so  much  to  count  them  as  to  weigh 

310  them.  LXXVII.  And  because  (as  I  have  repeatedly 
said  already)  there  are  three  methods  of  bringing 
people  to  hold  our  opinion,  instruction  or  persuasion 
or  appeal  to  their  emotions,  one  of  these  three 
methods  we  must  openly  display,  so  as  to  appear  to 
wish  solely  to  impart  instruction,  whereas  the  two  re- 
maining  methods  should  be  interfused  throughout  the 
whole  of  the  structure  of  our  speeches  like  the  blood 
in  our  bodies.  For  as  for  the  exordium  and  the  other 
divisions  of  a  speech,  about  which  we  shall  make  a 
few  remarks  a  Uttle  later,"  it  is  essential  that  they 
should  have  the  power  of  being  able  to  exert  this 

311  influence  in  stirring  the  minds  of  the  audience  ;  but  piaces  for 
in  regard  to  the  portions  of  a  speech  that  in  spite  of  g^^onV' 
proving  no  point  by  means  of  argument,  nevertheless 

have  a  very  great  effect  in  persuading  and  arousing 
emotion,  although  the  most  appropriate  place  for 
them  is  in  the  introduction  and  the  conclusion,  never- 
theless  it  is  often  useful  to  digress  from  the  subject 
one  has  put  forward  and  is  deaUng  with,  for  the  pur- 

312  pose  of  arousing  emotion  ;  and  accordingly  very 
often  either  a  place  is  given  to  a  digression  devoted  to 
exciting  emotion  after  we  have  related  the  facts  and 
stated  our  case,  or  this  can  rightly  be  done  after  we 
have  established  our  own  arguments  or  refuted  those 
of  our  opponents,  or  in  both  places,  or  in  aU  the  parts 
of  the  speech,  if  the  case  is  one  of  this  importance  and 
extent ;  and  the  cases  that  are  the  weightiest  and 
fuUest  for  ampUfication  and  embelUshment  are  those 

435 


CICERO 

gravissimae  atque  plenissimae  quae  plurimos  exitus 
dant  ad  eiusmodi  digressionem,  ut  eis  locis  uti  liceat 
quibus  animorum  impetus   eorum  qui   audiunt  aut 

313  impellantur  aut  reflectantur.  Atque  etiam  in  illo 
reprehendo  eos  qui  quae  minime  firma  sunt  ea 
prima  collocant ;  in  quo  illos  quoque  errare  arbitror 
quijsi  quando — id  quod  mihi  nunquam  placuit — plures 
adhibent  patronos,  ut  in  quoque  eorum  minimum 
putant  esse,  ita  eum  primum  volunt  dicere  :  res  enim 
hoc  postulat,  ut  eorum  exspectationi  qui  audiunt 
quam  celerrime  succurratur ;  cui  si  initio  satisfactum 
non  sit,  multo  plus  sit  in  reliqua  causa  laborandum, 
male  enim  se  res  habet    quae  non  statim  ut  dici 

314  coepta  est  mehor  fieri  videtur.  Ergo  ut  in  oratore 
optimus  quisque,  sic  in  oratione  firmissimum  quod- 
que  sit  primum,  dum  illud  tamen  in  utroque  tene- 
atur,  ut  ea  quae  excellent  serventur  etiam  ad 
perorandum  si  quae  erunt  mediocria — nam  vitiosis 
nusquam   esse   oportet  locum — ^in  mediam  turbam 

315  atque  in  gregem  coniciantur.  Hisce  omnibus  rebus 
consideratis  tum  denique  id  quod  primum  est  dicen- 
dum  postremum  soleo  cogitare,  quo  utar  exordio  ; 
nam  si  quando  id  primum  invenire  volui,  nuUum  mihi 
occurrit  nisi  aut  exile  aut  nugatorium  aut  vulgare 
aut  commune.  LXXVIII.  Principia  autem  dicendi 
semper  cum  accurata  et  acuta  et  instructa  sententiis, 

436 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxvii.  312— Ixxviii.  315 

that  give  the  greatest  number  of  openings  for  a 
digression  of  this  kind,  so  allowing  the  employment 
of  the  topics  which   either  stimulate   or  curb  the 

313  emotions  of  the  audience.    And  in  regard  to  arrange-  strongest 
ment   I   also   censure   the   people   who   place   their  ^^iuM 
weakest  points  first ;    and  I  think  a  mistake  is  also  come  flrst  j 
made  in  this  respect  by  those  who  on  occasions  when 

they  have  several  supporters  to  bring  forward — a 
thing  which  I  have  never  approved  of  doing — ask  the 
particular  one  among  them  whom  they  think  least 
influential  to  speak  first ;  for  the  situation  demands 
that  the  anticipation  of  the  audience  should  be  grati- 
fied  as  quickly  as  possible,  and  if  it  is  not  satisfied  at 
the  start,  a  great  deal  more  work  has  to  be  put  in 
during  the  remainder  of  the  proceedings,  for  a  case 
is  in  a  bad  way  which  does  not  seem  to  become 

314  stronger  as  soon  as  it  begins  to  be  stated.  Con- 
sequently  as  in  the  choice  of  speaker  the  best  man 
on  each  occasion  should  come  first,  so  in  arrangement 
of  the  speech  the  strongest  point  should  come  first, 
provided  nevertheless  that  in  both  cases  the  rule  be 
kept  to  reserve  one's  outstanding  resources  to  the 
actual  peroration,  while  collecting  into  a  general 
medley  in  the  middle  any  points  of  moderate  import- 
ance — bad  points  must  not  be  given  a  place  any- 

315  where.  Well,  not  till  I  have  attended  to  all  these  tactfui 
matters,  then  finally  my  practice  is  to  consider  last  t°on°^'^'^ 
of  all  the  thing  that  has  to  come  first  in  the  speech — 
what  introduction  to  employ  :  for  whenever  I  have 
chosen  to  begin  by  ascertaining  this,  nothing  has 
occurred  to  me  that  was  not  either  bald  or  trifling  or 
hackneyed  or  undistinctive.  LXXVIII.  But  one's 
opening  remarks,  though  they  should  always  be  care- 

fully   framed   and   pointed   and   epigrammatic   and 

437 


CICERO 

apta  verbis,  tum  vero  causarum  propria  esse  debent ; 
prima  est  enim  quasi  cognitio  et  commendatio  ora- 
tionis  in  principio,  quaeque  continuo  eum  qui  audit 

316  permulcere  atque  allicere  debet.  In  quo  admirari 
soleo  non  equidem  istos  qui  nullam  huic  rei  operam 
dederunt,  sed  hominem  in  primis  disertum  atque 
eruditum,  PhiHppum,  qui  ita  solet  surgere  ad  dicen- 
dum  ut  quod  primum  verbum  habiturus  sit  nesciat ;  et 
ait  idem,  cum  brachium  concalefecerit,  tum  se  solere 
pugnare  ;  neque  attendit  eos  ipsos  unde  hoc  simile 
ducat  primas  illas  hastas  ita  iactare  leniter  ut  et 
venustati  vel  maxime  serviant  et  rehquis  viribus  suis 

317  consulant.  Neque  est  dubium  quin  exordium  di- 
cendi  vehemens  et  pugnax  non  saepe  esse  debeat,  sed 
si  in  ipso  illo  gladiatorio  vitae  certamine  quo  ferro 
decemitur  tamen  ante  congressum  multa  fiunt  quae 
non  ad  vulnus  sed  ad  speciem  valere  videatur,  quanto 
hoc  magis  in  oratione  est  spectandum,  in  qua  non  vis 
potius  quam  delectatio  postulatur  !  Nihil  est  denique 
in  natura  rerum  omnium  quod  se  universum  pro- 
fundat  et*  totum  repente  evolvat — sic  omnia  quae 
fiunt  quaeque  aguntur  acerrime  lenioribus  principiis 

318  natura  ipsa  praetexuit.  Haec  autem  in  dicendo  non 
extrinsecus  ahcunde  quaerenda  sed  ex  ipsis  visceribus 
causae  sumenda  sunt ;  idcirco  tota  causa  pertemptata 

*  Kayaer  :  et  quod. 
458 


DE  ORATORE,  11.  Ixxviii.  315-318 

suitably  expressed,  must  at  the  same  time  be  appro- 
priate  to  the  case  in  hand  ;  for  the  opening  passage 
contains  the  first  impression  and  the  introduction  of 
the  speech,  and  this  ought  to  charm  and  attract  the 

316  hearer  straight  away.  This  is  a  point  in  respect  of 
which  I  am  constantly  surprised,  not  indeed  at  people 
who  have  given  no  attention  to  oratory,  but  at  Philip, 
a  person  of  outstanding  and  accompUshed  eloquence, 
whose  habit  it  is  to  get  up  to  make  a  speech  without 
knowing  what  is  to  be  the  first  word  he  will  utter  ; 
what  he  says  about  it  is  that  his  way  is  to  warm  up 
his  biceps  first  and  then  start  fighting — not  observing 
that  even  the  professionals  from  whom  he  derives 
this  metaphor  when  throwing  the  spear  deliver  their 
first  throws  gently,  so  as  to  make  their  movements 
as  graceful  as  possible  and  also  to  economize  the  re- 

317  mainder  of  their  strength.  Nor  is  there  any  doubt 
that  the  opening  passage  of  a  speech  ought  not  as  a 
rule  to  be  of  a  forcible,  fighting  character  ;  but  if  in 
an  actual  fight  to  the  death  between  gladiators,  where 
the  decision  is  made  by  the  steel,  nevertheless  before 
closing  a  number  of  strokes  are  made  that  seem  not 
to  be  intended  to  inflict  a  wound  but  to  be  done  for 
the  sake  of  appearance,  how  much  more  proper  is  it 
for  this  to  be  taken  into  consideration  in  making  a 
speech,  where  what  is  asked  for  is  not  so  much  force 
as  entertainment !  In  conclusion,  nothing  exists  in 
the  physical  universe  that  emerges  as  a  whole  and 
develops  completely  all  in  a  moment  :  so  true  is  it 
that  all  processes  and  actions  of  extreme  rapidity 
have  been  provided  by  Nature  herself  with  more 

318  gentle  commencements.  But  the  opening  passage  in 
a  speech  must  not  be  drawn  from  some  outside  source 
but  from  the  very  heart  of  the  case  ;   consequently 

439 


CICERO 

atque  perspecta,  locis  omnibus  inventis  atque  instructis 

319  considerandum  est  quo  principio  sit  utendum.  Sic  ut^ 
facile  reperientur — sumentur  enim  ex  eis  rebus  quae 
erunt  uberrimae  vel  in  argumentis  vel  in  eis  partibus 
ad  quas  dixi  digredi  saepe  oportere — ita  momenti 
aliquid  afFerent,  cum  erunt  paene  ex  intima  defen- 
sione  deprompta  et  apparebit  ea  non  modo  non  esse 
communia  nec  in  alias  causas  posse  transferri  sed 
penitus  ex  ea  causa  quae  tiun*  agatur  effloruisse. 

320  LXXIX.  Omne  autem  principium  aut  rei  totius 
quae  agetur  significationem  habere  debebit  aut 
aditum  ad  causam  et  communitionem  aut  quoddam 
ornamentum  et  dignitatem ;  sed  oportet,  ut  aedibus 
ac  templis  vestibula  et  aditus,  sic  causis  principia  pro 
portione  rerum  praeponere  ;  itaque  in  parvis  atque 
infrequentibus  causis  ab  ipsa  re  est  exordiri  saepe 

321  commodius  ;  sed  cum  erit  utendum  principio,  quod 
plerumque  erit,  aut  ex  reo  aut  ex  adversario  aut  ex 
re  aut  ex  eis  apud  quos  agetur  sententias  duci  licebit. 
Ex  reo — ^reos  appello  quorum  res  est — quae  signifi- 
cent  bonvun  virum,  quae  liberalem,  quae  calamitosum, 

^  Warmington  :  et.  •  tum  otn.  edd. 

440 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxviii.  318— Ixxix.  321 

our  case  must  first  be  thoroughly  considered  and  ex- 
amined  as  a  whole,  and  all  our  topics  thought  out 
and  arranged,  before  we  consider  what  opening  to 

319  employ.  In  this  way  just  as  openings  will  be  easily 
discovered — for  they  will  be  taken  from  the  subjects 
that  will  prove  most  fertile  either  in  the  argumenta- 
tive  passages  or  in  the  digressions  upon  which  I  said 
we  must  frequently  enter — ,  so  also  they  will  con- 
tribute  an  element  of  movement,  as  they  will  be 
taken  from  almost  the  most  essential  part  of  the 
defence,  and  it  will  be  felt  not  merely  that  they  are 
not  generahties  and  capable  of  being  transferred  into 
another  case,  but  that  they  are  essentially  the  natural 
outcome  of  the  case  under  consideration.     LXXIX. 

320  Every  introduction  will  have  to  contain  either  a 
statement  of  the  whole  of  the  matter  that  is  to  be 
put  forward,  or  an  approach  to  the  case  and  a  prepara- 
tion  of  the  ground,  or  eke  to  possess  some  element 
of  ornament  and  dignity  ;  but  the  opening  passage 
put  at  the  beginning  of  a  case  should  be  in  due  propor- 
tion  to  the  importance  of  the  facts,  just  as  a  forecourt 
or  an  entrance  should  be  properly  proportioned  to 
the  mansion  or  temple  to  which  it  belongs  ;  and 
consequently  in  petty  cases  and  ones  not  attracting 
much  attention  it  is  often  more  suitable  to  start 

321  straight  away  with  the  actual  charge  ;  whereas  when 
it  is  proper  to  employ  a  formal  opening,  as  will  mostly 
be  the  case,  it  will  be  possible  to  draw  subjects  either 
from  one's  client  or  from  one's  opponent  or  from  the 
charge  or  from  the  members  of  the  court  before 
whom  it  is  to  be  brought.  Points  drawn  from  one's 
client — by  clients  I  mean  the  persons  concerned  in 
the  matter — are  considerations  showing  him  to  be  a 
man  of  high  character,  a  gentleman,  a  victim  of  mis- 

441 


CICERO 

quae  misericordia  dignum,  quae  valeant  contra  falsam 
criminationem ;    ex  adversario  eisdem  ex  locis  fere 

322  contraria  ;  ex  re,  si  crudelis,  si  nefanda,  si  praeter 
opinionem,  si  immerito,  si  misera,  si  ingrata,  si  in- 
digna,  si  nova,  si  quae  restitui  sanarique  non  possit ; 
ex  eis  autem  apud  quos  agetur,  ut  benevolos  beneque 
existimantes  efficiamus,  quod  agendo  efficitur  melius 
quam  rogando.  Est  id  quidem  in  totam  orationem 
confundendum  nec  minime  in  extremam  ;  sed  tamen 

323  multa  principia  ex  eo  genere  gignuntur.  Nam  et 
attentum  monent  Graeci  ut  principio  faciamus  iu- 
dicem  et  docilem,  quae  sunt  utilia,  sed  non  prin- 
cipii  magis  propria  quam  reliquarum  partium  ; 
faciliora  etiam  in  principiis,  quod  et  attenti  tum 
maxime  sunt  cum  omnia  exspectant  et  dociles  magis 
in  initiis  esse  possunt ;  illustriora  enim  sunt  quae 
in  principiis  quam  quae  in  mediis  causis  dicuntur  aut 

324  arguendo  aut  refellendo.  Maximam  autem  copiam 
principiorum  ad  iudicem  aut  alliciendum  aut  inci- 
tandum  ex  eis  locis  trahemus  qui  ad  motus  animorum 
conficiendos  inerunt  in  causa,  quos  tamen  totos 
explicare  in  principio  non  oportebit,  sed  tantum 
impelli  iudicem  primo  leviter,  ut  iam  inclinato  re- 

325  liqua  incumbat  oratio.  LXXX.  Connexum  autem 
442 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxix.  321— Ixxx.  325 

fortune  deserving  of  compassion,  and  any  facts  that 
will  tell  against  a  false  charge  ;  from  one's  opponent, 
more  or  less  the  contrary  assertions  derived  from  the 

322  same  topics  ;  from  the  matter  charged,  in  case  it 
is  cruel  or  outrageous  or  improbable  or  undeserved 
or  pitiable  or  showing  ingratitude  or  unworthy  or  un- 
precedented  or  not  admitting  of  compensation  or 
remedy  ;  from  the  members  of  the  court,  considera- 
tions  designed  to  make  them  favourable  and  well- 
disposed  towards  us,  which  is  better  achieved  by 
developing  our  case  than  by  making  a  request  for 
goodwill.  Conciliation  of  the  audience  must  indeed 
permeate  the  whole  of  the  speech,  and  especially  the 
peroration,  but  nevertheless  this  class  of  considera- 
tion  does  supply  a  great  many  modes  of  opening. 

323  For  the  Greeks  advise  us  to  use  the  opening  passage  narration  of 
for  securing  the  attention  of  the  judge  and  making  gtanoes* 
him  receptive,  and  these  are  valuable  things,  though 

they  do  not  belong  more  to  the  introduction  than  to 
the  other  parts  of  a  speech  ;  moreover  they  are  easier 
in  the  introduction,  because  the  audience  are  most 
attentive  when  they  have  the  whole  of  the  speech  to 
look  forward  to,  and  also  they  are  more  receptive  at 
the  start,  for  statements  made  at  the  beginning, 
whether  aimed  at  proof  or  at  refutation,  stand  out 
clearer  than  those  made  in  the  middle  of  a  case. 

324  But  we  shall  derive  our  greatest  supply  of  openings 
designed  either  to  concihate  or  to  stimulate  the  judge 
from  topics  contained  in  the  case  that  are  calculated 
to  produce  emotions,  though  it  will  not  be  proper  to 
develop  these  fuUy  at  the  start,  but  only  to  give  a 
sHght  preliminary  impulsion  to  the  judge,  so  that  the 
remainder  of  our  speech  may  find  him  already  biassed 

325  in  our  direction.     LXXX.  But  the  opening  passage 

443 


CICERO 

ita  sit  principium  consequenti  orationi  ut  non  tam- 
quam  citharoedi  prooemium  affictum  aliquid  sed  co- 
haerens  cum  omni  corpore  membrum  esse  videatur. 
Nam  non  nulli,  cum  illud  meditati  ediderunt, 
sic  ad  reliqua  transeunt  ut  audientiam  fieri  sibi  non 
velle  videantur.  Atque  eiusmodi  illa  prolusio  debet 
esse,  non  ut  Samnitium,  qui  vibrant  hastas  ante  pug- 
nam  quibus  in  pugnando  nihil  utuntur,  sed  ut  ipsis 
sententiis  quibus  proluserint  vel  pugnare  possint. 

326  Narrare  vero  rem  quod  breviter  iubent,  si  brevitas 
appellanda  est  cum  verbum  nuUum  redundat,  brevis 
est  L.  Crassi  oratio ;  sin  tum  est  brevitas  cum 
tantum  verborum  est  quantum  necesse  est,  aliquando 
id  opus  est,  sed  saepe  obest  vel  maxime  in  narrando, 
non  solum  quod  obscuritatem  afFert  sed  etiam  quod 
eam  virtutem  quae  narrationis  est  maxima,  ut 
iucunda  et  ad  persuadendum  accommodata  sit,  tolht. 
Videant  illa 

nam  is  postquam  excessit  ex  ephebis  .  .  • 

327  quam  longa  est  narratio  !  Mores  adolescentis  ipsius 
et  servilis  percontatio,  mors  Chrysidis,  vultus  et 
forma  et  lamentatio  sororis,  reliqua  pervarie  iucun- 
deque  narrantur.  Quodsi  hanc  brevitatem  quae- 
sisset : 

"  Terence,  Andria  51. 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxx.  325-327 

should  be  so  closely  connected  with  the  speech  that 
follows  as  to  appear  to  be  not  an  appendage,  like 
the  prelude  to  a  piece  of  music,  but  an  integral 
part  of  the  whole  structure.  For  some  musicians 
play  their  prelude  after  due  practice,  but  pass  on 
to  the  remainder  of  the  work  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  seem  not  really  to  want  to  be  listened  to. 
Also  the  preliminary  passage  must  not  be  hke  the 
skirmishing  of  Samnite  gladiators,  who  before  a  fight 
brandish  their  spears  which  they  are  not  going  to 
make  any  use  of  in  the  actual  encounter,  but  must 
be  of  such  a  character  as  to  enable  the  combatants 
to  employ  in  the  real  encounter  the  very  ideas  which 
they  have  made  play  with  in  the  introduction. 

326  "  As  for  their  rule  that  the  narration  of  the  case 
must  be  brief,  if  the  term  brevity  may  be  used  to 
denote  the  absence  of  a  single  word  that  is  superfluous, 
Lucius  Crassus's  style  has  brevity  ;  but  if  brevity 
means  employing  only  the  absolutely  essential  mini- 
mum  of  words,  this  is  required  occasionally,  but  often 
it  is  actually  very  detrimental  in  stating  the  facts  of 
the  case,  not  only  because  it  causes  obscurity  but 
also  because  it  does  away  with  a  quality  that  is 
the  greatest  merit  in  narrative,  that  of  entertaining 
and  convincing.  Let  people  consider  the  passage 
beginning 

For  ever  since  the  day  he  came  of  age  .  .  ." 

327  what  a  long  story  it  is  !  The  young  man's  own 
character,  the  slave's  inquiry,  the  death  of  Chrysis, 
her  sister's  face  and  figure  and  her  mourning,  and  all 
the  rest  of  it — all  agreeably  narrated  in  every  variety 
of  style  !  Whereas  if  he  had  really  sought  for  brevity 
in  this  style  : 

U5 


CICERO 

EfFertur,  imus,  ad  sepulcrum  venimus, 
In  ignem  imposita  est, 

fere^  decem  versiculis  totum  conficere  potuisset; 
quamquam  hoc  ipsum  '  efFertur,  imus '  concisum  est 
ita  ut  non  brevitati  servitum  sit  sed  magis  venustati. 

328  Quodsi  nihil  fuisset  nisi  *  in  ignem  imposita  est,' 
tamen  res  tota  cognosei  facile  potuisset ;  sed  et 
festivitatem  habet  narratio  distincta  personis  et 
interpuncta  sermonibus,  et  est  et  probabilius  quod 
gestum  esse  dicas  cum  quemadmodum  actum  sit 
exponas,  et  multo  apertius  ad  intellegendum  est  si 
constituitur  aliquando  ac  non  ista  brevitate  percur- 

329  ritur.  Apertam  enim  narrationem  tam  esse  oportet 
quam  cetera,  sed  hoc  magis  in  hac  elaborandum  est, 
quod  et  difficilius  est  non  esse  obsciu-um  in  re  nar- 
randa  quam  aut  in  principio  aut  in  argumentando 
aut  in  perorando,  et  maiore  etiam  periculo  haec 
pars  orationis  obscura  est  quam  ceterae,  vel  quia, 
si  quo  alio  in  loco  est  dictum  quid  obscurius,  tantum 
id  perit  quod  ita  dictum  est,  narratio  obscura  totam 
occaecat  orationem,  vel  quod  alia  possis,  semel  si 
obscurius  dixeris,  dicere  alio  loco  planius,  narrationis 
unus  est  in  causa  locus.  Erit  autem  perspicua 
narratio  si  verbis  usitatis,  si  ordine  temporum  ser- 

330  vato,  si  non  interrupte  narrabitur.  LXXXI.  Sed 
quando  utendum  sit  aut  non  sit  narratione,  id  est 

*  fere  om.  codd.  opt. 

"  Terence,  Andria  117. 
446 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxx.  327— Ixxxi.  330 

The  funeral — we  start,  we  reach  the  tomb, 
The  corpse  is  placed  upon  the  pyre — " 

he  could  have  completed  the  whole  affair  in  a  matter 
of  ten  verses  !  although  the  actual  phrase  '  The 
funeral — we  start,'  though  very  concise,  neverthe- 
less  achieves  not  brevity  but  rather  grace  of  style. 

328  Supposing  it  had  merely  run  '  She  was  placed  on  the 
p^rre,'  the  whole  of  the  facts  could  have  been  easily 
understood  nevertheless  ;  but  the  narrative  gains 
Hvehness  when  it  brings  in  several  characters  and  is 
broken  up  with  speeches,  and  also  one's  statement 
of  what  took  place  is  both  more  convincing  when  one 
explains  how  it  was  done  and  much  clearer  to  under- 
stand  if  occasionally  a  halt  is  called  and  the  story 

329  does  not  run  right  on  with  that  curt  brevity.  The 
narrative  ought  to  be  as  clear  as  all  the  other  parts  of 
the  speech,  but  more  pains  must  be  taken  to  achieve 
clarity  in  this  part  because  in  narrating  the  facts  of 
the  case  it  is  more  difficult  to  avoid  obscurity  than  in 
either  the  introduction  or  the  proof  or  the  peroration, 
and  also  obscurity  is  even  more  dangerous  in  this  part 
of  a  speech  than  in  the  others,  either  because  an  ob- 
scure  expression  in  any  other  place  only  causes  the 
point  obscurely  expressed  to  be  lost,  but  obscurity  in 
the  narrative  blacks  out  the  entire  speech,  or  else 
because,  whereas  with  other  points  if  you  have  ex- 
pressed  them  rather  obscurely  at  one  time  you  can 
express  them  more  clearly  in  another  place,  there  is 
only  one  place  in  a  case  for  the  narration.  But  clear- 
ness  in  the  narration  will  be  attained  if  it  employs 
ordinary  language,  and  if  it  keeps  to  the  chrono- 
logical  order  of  events  and  is  not  broken  by  digres- 

330  sions.  LXXXI.  But  when  to  use  and  when  not  to 
use  narrative  is  a  matter  for  consideration :   narra- 

447 


CICERO 

consilii ;  neque  enim  si  nota  res  est  nec  dubium  quid 
gestum  sit  narrare  oportet  nec  si  adversarius  nar- 
ravit,  nisi  si  refellemus;  ac  si  quando  erit  narran- 
dum,  nec  illa  quae  suspicionem  et  crimen  efficient 
contraque  nos  erunt  acriter  persequemur  et  quic- 
quid  potuerit  detrahemus,  ne  illud  quod  Crassus, 
si  quando  fiat,  perfidia,  non  stultitia  fieri  putat,  ut 
causae  noceamus  accidat.  Nam  ad  summam  totius 
causae  pertinet,  caute  an  contra  demonstrata  res 
sit,  quod  omnis  orationis  reliquae  fons  est  narratio. 

331  Sequitur  ut  causa  ponatur,  in  quo  videndum  est 
quid  in  controversiam  veniat ;  tum  suggerenda  sunt 
firmamenta  causae  coniuncte  et  infirmandis  con- 
trariis  et  tuis  confirmandis.  Namque  una  in  causis 
ratio  quaedam  est  eius  orationis  quae  ad  probandam 
argumentationem  valet,  ea  autem  et  confirmationem 
et  reprehensionem  quaerit ;  sed  quia  neque  repre- 
hendi  quae  contra  dicuntur  possunt  nisi  tua  con- 
firmes,  neque  haec  confirmari  nisi  illa  reprehendas, 
idcirco  haec  et  natura  et  utilitate  et  tractatione  con- 

332  iuncta  sunt.  Omnia  autem  concludenda  sunt  ple- 
rumque  vel^  rebus  augendis  vel  inflammando  iudice 
vel  mitigando  ;  omniaque  cum  superioribus  orationis 

^  vel  add.  Reid. 
448 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxi.  330-332 

tive  should  not  be  employed  if  the  facts  are  known 
and  there  is  no  doubt  what  occurred,  nor  yet  if 
they  have  been  narrated  by  our  opponent,  unless 
we  are  going  to  refute  his  account  of  them  ;  and 
on  occasions  when  narrative  is  necessary  we  shall 
not  lay  very  great  stress  on  points  that  will  cause 
suspicion  and  occasion  accusation,  and  will  tell 
against  us,  and  we  shall  minimize  anything  that 
might  have  had  this  efFect,  for  fear  lest  it  may  result 
in  our  injuring  our  own  case — a  thing  which  if  it  ever 
does  occur  is  in  Crassus's  opinion  invariably  due  to 
treachery  and  not  to  folly.  For  it  touches  the  main 
issue  of  the  whole  suit  whether  the  case  has  been  set 
out  with  circumspection  or  the  opposite,  because  the 
narrative  is  the  fountain  head  from  which  the  whole 
remainder  of  the  speech  flows. 

331  "  Next  comes  the  statement  of  the  case,  a  section  in  ruies  for 
which  the  precise  point  at  issue  must  be  envisaged  ;  g^^^^Moof 
and  then  the  case  must  be  supported  by  proofs,  ofcaseand 
which  is   effected  by   conjointly   demolishing  your  °°''°  "^'°''' 
opponent's  arguments   and  establishing  your  own. 

For  in  cases  at  law  the  pleading  that  serves  to  prove 
the  line  adopted  may  be  said  to  have  only  a  single 
principle,  though  it  aims  at  both  proof  and  refutation ; 
but  inasmuch  as  it  is  neither  possible  to  refute  state- 
ments  made  against  you  unless  you  prove  your  own, 
nor  to  prove  your  own  statements  without  refuting 
your  opponent's,  it  follows  that  these  proceedings  are 
connected  together  not  only  by  nature  but  also  in 
respect  of  their  value  for  your  case  and  the  method 

332  of  handling  them.  But  all  these  arguments  must  as 
a  rule  be  rounded  ofF  either  by  enlarging  on  your 
points  or  by  arousing  the  feelings  of  the  judge  or 
calming  them  down  ;    and  all  of  them  both  in  the 

449 


CICERO 

locis  tum  maxime  extremo  ad  mentes  iudicum  quam 
maxime  permovendas  et  ad  utilitatem  nostram  vo- 
candas  conferenda  sunt. 

333  Neque  sane  iam  causa  videtur  esse  cur  secerna- 
mus  ea  praecepta  quae  de  suasionibus  tradenda 
sunt  aut  laudationibus,  sunt  enim  pleraque  com- 
munia ;  sed  tamen  suadere  aliquid  aut  dissuadere 
gravissimae  mihi  personae  videtur  esse,  nam  et  sapi- 
entis  est  consilium  explicare  suum  de  maximis  rebus 
et  honesti  et  diserti,  ut  mente  providere,  auctoritate 
probare,  oratione  persuadere  possis.  LXXXII.  At- 
que  haec  in  senatu  minore  apparatu  agenda  sunt ; 
sapiens  enim  est  consilium  multisque  aliis  dicendi 
relinquendus   locus,  vitanda   etiam  ingeni   ostenta- 

334  tionis  suspicio :  contio  capit  omnem  vim  orationis  et 
gravitatem,  varietatemque  desiderat.  Ergo  in  sua- 
dendo  nihil  est  optabiHus  quam  dignitas  ;  nam  qui 
utilitatem  petit,  non  quid  maxime  velit  suasor  sed 
quid  interdum  magis  sequatur  videt.  Nemo  est 
enim,  praesertim  in  tam  clara  civitate,  quin  putet 
expetendam  maxime  dignitatem,  sed  vincit  utilitas 
plerumque   cum  subest   ille   timor  ea   neglecta   ne 

335  dignitatem  quidem  posse  retineri.  Controversia 
autem  est  inter  hominum  sententias  aut  in  illo,  utrum 
sit  utilius,  aut  etiam  cum  id  convenit  certatur 
450 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxi.  332— Ixxxii.  335 

earlier  parts  of  the  speech  and  most  of  all  at  the 
end  must  be  direeted  towards  influencing  the  minds 
of  the  judges  as  much  as  possible  and  attracting  them 
in  the  direction  of  our  advantage. 

333  "  Again,  there  seems  to  be  no  reason  why  we  should  Advisory 
keep  separate  the  rules  that  are  to  be  imparted  on  speoches  on 
the  subject  of  advisory  speeches  or  of  panegyrics,  as  atrairs: 
they  are  for  the  most  part  common  to  both  ;    but 
nevertheless  to  give  advice  for  or  against  a  course  of 

action  does  seem  to  me  to  be  a  task  for  a  person  of 
the  greatest  weight  of  character,  for  to  expound  one's 
advice  on  matters  of  high  importance  calls  for  both 
wisdom  and  ability  and  eloquence,  to  enable  one  to 
make  an  intelligent  forecast,  give  an  authoritative 
proof  and  employ  persuasive  eloquence.  LXXXII. 
And  these  ends  can  be  achieved  with  less  apparatus 
in  the  Senate,  as  that  is  a  wise  deliberative  body,  and 
one  should  leave  room  for  many  others  to  speak, 
beside  avoiding  any  suspicion  of  a  display  of  talent, 

334  whereas  a  public  meeting  permits  of  the  full  employ- 
ment  of  powerful  and  weighty  oratory,  and  requires 
variety.  Consequently  in  an  advisory  speech  nothing 
is  more  desirable  than  dignity  ;  for  a  man  who 
demands  mere  expediency  does  not  see  his  advisers 
main  purpose  but  only  his  more  immediate  aim  for 
the  time  being.  For  there  is  nobody,  especially  in 
a  famous  state  like  ours,  who  does  not  think  that 
moral  worth  is  the  highest  object  of  ambition,  but  for 
the  most  part  expediency  vidns  the  day  when  there 
is  a  covert  fear  lest  if  expediency  be  neglected  worth 

335  will  also  have  to  be  abandoned.  But  difFerences  of 
opinion  arise  either  on  the  question  which  of  two 
alternatives  is  more  expedient,  or  even  supposing 
there  is  agreement  about  this,  it  is  disputed  whether 

4,51 


CICERO 

utrum  honestati  potius  an  utilitati  consulendum  sit ; 
quae  quia  pugnare  inter  se  saepe  videntur,  qui  utili- 
tatem  defendet  enumerabit  commoda  pacis,  opum, 
potentiae,  vectigalium,  praesidi  militum,  ceterarum 
rerum  quarum  fructum  utilitate  metimur,  itemque 
incommoda  contrariorum  :  qui  ad  dignitatem  im- 
pellet,  maiorum  exempla  quae  erant  vel  cum  peri- 
culo  gloriosa  coUiget,  posteritatis  immortalem  me- 
moriam  augebit,  utilitatem  ex  laude  nasci  defendet 

336  semperque  eam  cum  dignitate  esse  coniunctam.  Sed 
quid  fieri  possit  aut  non  possit  quidque  etiam  sit 
necesse  aut  non  sit  in  utraque  re  maxime  est  quae- 
rendum  ;  inciditur  enim  omnis  iam  deliberatio  si 
intellegitur  non  posse  fieri  aut  si  necessitas  afFertur, 
et  qui  id   docuit  non  videntibus  aliis,  is  plurimum 

337  vidit.  Ad  consilium  autem  de  republica  dandum 
caput  est  nosse  rempublicam,  ad  dicendum  vero 
probabiliter  nosse  mores  civitatis,  qui  quia  crebro 
mutantur,  genus  quoque  orationis  est  saepe  mutan- 
dum ;  et  quamquam  una  fere  vis  est  eloquentiae, 
tamen  quia  summa  dignitas  est  populi,  gravissima 
causa  rei  publicae,  maximi  motus  multitudinis,  genus 
quoque  dicendi  grandius  quoddam  et  illustrius  esse 
adhibendum  videtur  ;  maximaque  pars  orationis  ad- 
movenda  est  ad  animorum  motus  non  numquam  aut 


*  Aristotle,  Rhet.  I.  iv.  2. 
452 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxii.  335-337 

the  chief  consideration  should  be  integrity  or  expedi- 
ency  ;  and  as  these  two  considerations  often  seem  to 
conflict,  the  champion  of  expediency  will  reel  ofF  a 
list  of  the  advantages  of  peace  and  wealth  and  power 
and  revenue  and  mihtary  strength  and  all  the  other 
things  whose  value  we  measure  by  expediency,  and 
also  the  disadvantages  of  their  opposites,  whereas 
one  who  urges  us  on  the  path  of  moral  worth  will 
collect  examples  of  our  ancestors'  achievements  that 
were  glorious  even  though  involving  danger,  and  will 
magnify  the  value  of  an  undying  memory  with  pos- 
terity  and  maintain  that  glory  engenders  advantage 

336  and  moral  worth  is  invariably  Hnked  with  it.  But 
in  both  departments  it  is  of  the  greatest  importance 
to  inquire  what  is  possible  and  what  is  impossible 
of  achievement,  and  also  what  is  inevitable  or  the 
reverse  ;  for  all  debate  is  at  once  cut  short  by  the 
reahzation  that  a  thing  is  impossible  or  if  it  is  proved 
to  be  inevitable,  and  the  philosopher "  who  taught 
this  truth,  which  others  did  not  discern,  showed  the 

337  greatest  insight.  But  the  chief  essential  for  giving 
counsel  on  affairs  of  state  is  a  knowledge  of  the  con- 
stitution  of  the  state,  whereas  the  thing  that  is  essen- 
tial  for  persuasive  speaking  is  a  knowledge  of  the 
national  character  ;  and  as  this  frequently  alters,  it 
is  often  necessary  also  to  alter  the  style  of  speaking 
employed  ;  and  although  the  fundamental  nature  of 
eloquence  practically  does  not  vary,  nevertheless  in 
view  of  the  exalted  dignity  of  the  nation,  the  supreme 
importance  of  pohtics,  and  the  violent  passions  of 
the  crowd,  it  would  seem  that  an  oratorical  style  of 
more  than  average  grandeur  and  brilhance  is  re- 
quired  ;  and  the  greatest  part  of  a  speech  must  occa- 
sionally  be  directed  to  arousing  the  emotions  of  the 

453 


CICERO 

cohortatione  aut  commemoratione  aliqua  aut  in  spem 
aut  in  metum  aut  ad  cupiditatem  aut  ad  gloriam 
concitandos,  saepe  etiam  a  temeritate,  iracundia,  spe, 
iniuria,  invidia,  crudelitate  revocandos.     LXXXIII. 

338  Fit  autem  ut,  quia  maxima  quasi  oratoris  scaena 
videatur  contionis  esse,  natura  ipsa  ad  ornatius 
dicendi  genus  excitemur ;  habet  enim  multitudo 
vim  quandam  talem  ut,  quemadmodum  tibicen  sine 
tibiis  canere,  sic  orator  sine  multitudine  audiente 

339  eloquens  esse  non  possit.  Et  cum  sint  populares 
multi  variique  lapsus,  vitanda  est  acclamatio  adversa 
populi,  quae  aut  orationis  peccato  aliquo  excitatur  si 
aspere,  si  arroganter,  si  turpiter,  si  sordide,  si  quo 
animi  vitio  dictum  esse  aliquid  videtur,  aut  hominum 
offensione  vel  invidia,  quae  aut  iusta  est  aut  ex 
criminatione  atque  fama,  aut  res  si  displicet,  aut  si 
est  in  aliquo  motu  suae  cupiditatis  aut  metus  mul- 
titudo.  His  quattuor  causis  totidem  medicinae  op- 
ponuntur  :  tum  obiurgatio,  si  est  auctoritas  ;  tum 
admonitio,  quasi  lenior  obiurgatio  ;  tum  promissio  si 
audierint    probaturos ;     tum   deprecatio,   quod    est 

340  infirmum  sed  nonnunquam  utile.  Nullo  autem  loco 
plus  facetiae  prosunt  et  celeritas  et  breve  ahquod 
dictum  nec  sine  dignitate  et  cum  lepore ;  nihil 
enim  tam  facile  quam  multitudo  a  tristitia  et  saepe 
ab  acerbitate  commode  et  breviter  et  acute  et  hilare 
dicto  deducitur. 

454 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxii.  337— Ixxxiii.  340 

audience,  by  means  of  exhortation  or  of  some  form  of 
reminder,  to  either  hope  or  fear  or  desire  or  ambition, 
and  often  also  to  calling  them  back  from  rashness, 
anger  or  hope  and  from  injustice,  envy  or  cruelty. 

338  LXXXIII.  But   as   the  orator's  chief  stage   seems  the  styie 
to  be  the  platform  at  a  public  meeting,  it  naturally  for^^buc^ 
results  that  we  are  stimulated  to  employ  the  more  speaking. 
ornate  kind  of  oratory  ;  for  the  effect  produced  by 
numbers  is  of  such  a  kind  that  a  speaker  can  no 

more  be  eloquent  without  a  large  audience  than  a 

339  flute-player  can  perform  without  a  flute.  And  as 
there  are  a  number  of  different  ways  of  falHng  foul 
of  the  public,  one  must  be  careful  not  to  arouse  the 
disapproving  outcries  of  the  people,  who  are  aroused 
either  by  some  error  in  the  speech,  if  a  remark  is 
thought  to  be  harsh  or  arrogant  or  base  or  mean  or 
to  show  some  fault  of  character,  or  by  personal 
annoyance  or  disUke  that  is  either  deserved  or  arises 
from  slander  and  rumour,  or  if  the  subject  is  un- 
popular,  or  if  the  pubUc  is  in  a  state  of  excitement 
arising  out  of  some  desire  or  alarm  that  it  feels. 
These  four  causes  of  unpopularity  can  be  met  by 
as  many  remedies  :  sometimes  by  reproof,  if  one 
possesses  authority,  sometimes  by  admonition,  which 
may  be  caUed  a  gentle  form  of  reproof,  sometimes 
by  promising  that  if  they  wiU  hear  us  out  they  wiU 
agree  with  us,  and  sometime,  by  apology,  which  is 
not  a  strong  Une  to  take,  but  is  sometimes  useful. 

340  And  in  no  other  place  is  there  more  to  be  gained  by 
using  facetious  turns  and  a  rapid  style  and  epigram- 
matic  remarks  expressed  in  a  dignified  and  attractive 
way  ;  for  nothing  is  so  easy  as  to  divert  a  crowd  from 
gloominess  and  often  from  bitter  feeUng  by  means  of 
a  neat  and  terse  and  pointed  and  amusing  phrase. 

455 


CICERO 

LXXXIV.  Exposui  fere  ut  potui  vobis  in  utroque 
genere  causarum  quae  sequi  solerem,  quae  fugere, 
quae  spectare  quaque  omnino  in  causis  ratione  ver- 

341  sari.  Nec  illud  tertium  laudationum  genus  est 
difficile  quod  ego  initio  quasi  a  praeceptis  nostris 
secreveram ;  sed  et  quia  multa  sunt  orationum 
genera  et  graviora  et  maioris  copiae  de  quibus  nemo 
fere  praeciperet,  et  quod  nos  laudationibus  non  ita 
multum  uti  soleremus,  totum  hunc  segregabam 
locum.  Ipsi  enim  Graeci  magis  legendi  et  delecta- 
tionis  aut  hominis  alicuius  ornandi  quam  utilitatis 
huius  forensis  causa  laudationes  scriptitaverunt ; 
quorum  sunt  libri  quibus  Themistocles,  Aristides, 
Agesilaus,  Epaminondas,  Philippus,  Alexander  ahi- 
que  laudantur  ;  nostrae  laudationes  quibus  in  foro 
utimur  aut  testimonii  brevitatem  habent  nudam 
atque  inornatam  aut  scribuntur  ad  funebrem  con- 
tionem,  quae  ad  orationis  laudera  minime  accom- 
modata  est.  Sed  tamen,  quoniam  est  utendum 
aliquando,  nonnunquam  etiam  scribendum,  velut 
Q.  Tuberoni  Africanum  avunculum  laudanti  scripsit 
C.  Laehus  vel  ut  nosmet  ipsi  omandi  causa  Grae- 
corum  more  si  quos  velimus  laudare  possimus,  sit  a 

342  nobis  quoque  tractatus  hic  locus.  Perspicuum  est 
456 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxiv.  340-842 

LXXXIV.  "  I  have  practically  completed  giving 
you  an  account,  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  of  the  rules 
that  I  am  accustomed  to  follow,  and  the  faults  which 
I  try  to  avoid  and  the  objects  which  I  have  in  view  in 
both  kinds  of  cases,  and  generally  of  the  method  that 

341  I  adopt  in  law-suits.     Nor  is  there  any  difficulty  about  PanegTrios. 
the  third  class,  consisting  of  panegyrics,  which  I  had 
excluded  from  our  set  of  instructions  at  the  outset. 

But  there  are  a  great  many  kinds  of  oratory  that  are 
both  more  dignified  and  wider  in  scope,  which  virtu- 
ally  nobody  lays  down  rules  about,  and  also  we 
Romans  do  not  much  practise  the  custom  of 
panegyrics,  so  consequently  I  put  this  department 
entirely  on  one  side.  For  the  Greeks  themselves 
have  constantly  thrown  ofF  masses  of  panegyrics, 
designed  more  for  reading  and  for  entertainment,  or 
for  giving  a  laudatory  account  of  some  person,  than 
for  the  practical  purposes  of  public  life  with  which 
we  are  now  concemed  :  there  are  Greek  books  con- 
taining  panegyrics  of  Themistocles,  Aristides,  Agesi- 
laus,  Epaminondas,  Philip,  Alexander  and  others  ; 
whereas  our  Roman  commendatory  speeches  that  we 
make  in  the  forum  have  either  the  bare  and  un- 
adorned  brevity  of  evidence  to  a  person's  character 
or  are  written  to  be  delivered  as  a  funeral  speech, 
which  is  by  no  means  a  suitable  occasion  for  parading 
one's  distinction  in  rhetoric.  But  nevertheless,  as 
laudatory  speeches  must  be  delivered  occasionally 
and  sometimes  even  written  out,  either  as  Gaius 
LaeUus  wrote  a  panegyric  for  Quintus  Tubero  to 
deliver  on  his  uncle  Africanus,  or  in  order  that  we 
ourselves  may  be  able  if  we  wish  to  praise  certain 
persons  in  an  honorific  speech  in  the  Greek  manner, 

342  let  us  also  treat  of  this  topic.     Well  then,  it  is  clear 

Q  457 


CICERO 

igitur  alia  esse  in  homine  optanda,  alia  laudanda ; 
genus,  forma,  vires,  opes,  divitiae,  cetera  quae  for- 
tuna^  dat  aut  extrinsecus  aut  corpori,  non  habent  in 
se  veram  laudem,  quae  deberi  virtuti  uni  putatur  ; 
sed  tamen  quod  ipsa  virtus  in  earum  rerum  usu  ac 
moderatione  maxime  cernitur,  tractanda  in  lauda- 
tionibus  etiam  haec  sunt  naturae  et  fortunae  bona, 
in  quibus  est  summa  laus  non  extulisse  se  in 
potestate,  non  fuisse  insolentem  in  pecunia,  non  se 
praetulisse  aliis  propter  abundantiam  fortunae,  ut 
opes  et  copiae  non  superbiae  videantur  ac  Ubidini 
sed  bonitati  ac  moderationi  facultatem  et  materiam 

343  dedisse.  Virtus  autem,  quae  est  per  se  ipsa  lauda- 
bilis  et  sine  qua  nihil  laudari  potest,  tamen  habet 
plures  partes,  quarum  alia  est  alia  ad  laudationem 
aptior.  Sunt  enim  aliae  virtutes  quae  videntur  in 
moribus  hominum  et  quadam  comitate  ac  beneficentia 
positae,  aliae  quae  in  ingeni  aUqua  facultate  aut 
animi  magnitudine  ac  robore  ;  nam  clementia,  ius- 
titia,  benignitas,   fides,  fortitudo  in  periculis  com- 

344  munibus  iucunda  est  auditu  in  laudationibus,  omnes 
enim  hae  virtutes  non  tam  ipsis  qui  eas  habent  quam 
generi  hominum  fructuosae  putantur :  sapientia  et 
magnitudo  animi  qua  omnes  res  humanae  tenues  ac 
pro  nihilo  putantur  et  in  excogitando  vis  quaedam 
ingeni  et  ipsa  eloquentia  admirationis  habent  non 
minus,  iucunditatis  minus  ;  ipsos  enim  magis  viden- 
tur  quos  laudamus  quam  illos  apud  quos  laudamus 

*  Wilkint :  ceteraque  quae  aut  cetera  quaeque. 
458 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxiv.  S42-344 

that  the  qualities  that  are  desirable  in  a  person  are 
not  the  same  as  those  that  are  praiseworthy  :  family, 
good  looks,  bodily  strength,  resources,  riches  and 
the  rest  of  the  external  or  personal  gifts  of  fortune 
do  not  in  themselves  contain  any  true  ground  for 
praise,  which  is  held  to  be  due  to  virtue  alone  ;  but 
nevertheless,  as  it  is  in  the  employment  and  wise 
management  of  these  that  virtue  itself  is  very  largely 
discerned,  a  panegyric  must  also  treat  of  these  goods 
of  nature  and  of  fortune  in  which  the  highest  praise 
is  not  to  have  been  pufFed  up  in  office  or  insolent 
in  wealth,  or  to  have  put  oneself  in  front  of  others 
because  of  fortune's  bounty — so  that  wealth  and 
riches  may  seem  to  have  provided  opportunity  and 
occasion  not  for  pride  and  licence  but  for  beneficence 

343  and  temperance.  But  virtue,  which  is  praiseworthy 
in  itself  and  is  a  necessary  element  in  anything  that 
can  be  praised,  nevertheless  contains  several  divisions, 
one  of  which  is  more  fit  to  be  praised  than  another. 
For  there  are  some  virtues  that  are  manifested  as 
qualities  of  people's  behaviour  and  by  a  sort  of  kind- 
ness  and  beneficence,  while  others  consist  in  intel- 
lectual  abiUty  or  in  highmindedness  and  strength  of 
character  ;  inasmuch  as  mercy,  justice,  kindness, 
fidehty,  courage  in  common  dangers  are  acceptable 

344  topics  in  a  panegyric,  since  all  these  virtues  are 
thought  to  be  beneficial  not  so  much  to  their 
possessors  as  to  the  human  race  in  general,  whereas 
wisdom,  and  magnanimity  that  counts  all  human 
fortunes  slight  and  worthless,  and  strength  and 
originahty  of  intellect,  and  eloquence  itself  are  not 
less  admired  it  is  true  but  give  less  pleasure,  because 
they  seem  to  grace  and  to  safeguard  the  subjects  of 
our  panegyrics  themselves  rather  than  the  persons 

459 


CICERO 

ornare  ac  tueri.  Sed  tamen  in  laudando  iungenda 
sunt  etiam  haec  genera  virtutum,  ferunt  enim  aures 
hominum  cum  illa  quae  iucunda  et  grata,  tiun 
etiam  illa  quae  mirabilia  sunt  in  virtute  laudari. 

345  LXXXV.  Et  quoniam  singularum  virtutum  sunt 
certa  quaedam  officia  ac  munera  et  sua  cuique  virtuti 
laus  propria  debetur,  erit  explicandum  in  laude  iusti- 
tiae  quid  cum  fide,  quid  cum  aequabilitate,  quid 
cum  eiusmodi  aliquo  officio  is  qui  laudabitur  fecerit, 
itemque  in  ceteris  res  gestae  ad  cuiusque  virtutis 

346  genus  et  vim  et  nomen  accommodabuntur.  Gratis- 
sima  autem  laus  eorum  factorum  habetur  quae  sus- 
cepta  videntur  a  viris  fortibus  sine  emolumento  ac 
praemio  ;  quae  vero  etiam  cum  labore  ac  periculo 
ipsorum,  haec  habent  uberrimam  copiam  ad  laudan- 
dum,  quod  et  dici  omatissime  possunt  et  audiri 
facillime ;  ea  enim  denique  virtus  esse  videtur 
praestantis  viri  quae  est  fructuosa  aliis,  ipsi  aut 
laboriosa  aut  periculosa  aut  certe  gratuita.  Magna 
etiam  illa  laus  et  admirabilis  videri  solet  tulisse  casus 
sapienter  adversos,  non  fractum  esse  fortuna,  re- 

847  tinuisse  in  rebus  asperis  dignitatem  ;  neque  tamen 
illa  non  ornant,  habiti  honores,  decreta  virtutis 
praemia,  res  gestae  iudiciis  hominum  comprobatae  ; 
in  quibus  etiam  felicitatem  ipsam  deorum  immor- 

460 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxiv.  344— Ixxxv.  347 

before  whom  they  are  delivered.  But  nevertheless 
virtues  of  these  kinds  also  should  be  introduced  in 
a  panegyric,  since  an  audience  will  accept  the  be- 
stowal  of  praise  on  the  aspects  of  virtue  that  call  for 
admiration  as  well  as  on  those  that  give  pleasure 
and  gratification, 

345  LXXXV.  "  And  since  particular  virtues  have  their 
own  definite  duties  and  functions  and  each  virtue  has 
an  appropriate  form  of  commendation  that  is  due  to 
it,  in  giving  praise  for  justice  it  will  be  necessary  to 
recite  actions  of  the  subject  of  our  panegyric  that 
exhibited  fidelity  and  fairness,  and  any  right  con- 
duct  of  that  nature  ;  and  similarly  under  the  other 
heads  our  account  of  his  actions  will  be  fitted  in  to 
each  successive  class  and  meaning  and  designation  of 

346  virtue.  But  the  most  welcome  praise  is  that  be- 
stowed  on  deeds  that  appear  to  have  been  performed 
by  brave  men  without  profit  or  reward  ;  while  those 
that  also  involve  toil  and  personal  danger  supply 
very  fertile  topics  for  panegyric,  because  they  admit 
of  being  narrated  in  a  most  eloquent  style  and  of 
obtaining  the  readiest  reception  from  the  audience  ; 
for  it  is  virtue  that  is  profitable  to  others,  and  either 
toilsome  or  dangerous  or  at  all  events  not  profitable 
to  its  possessor,  that  is  deemed  to  mark  a  man  of 
outstanding  merit.  Also  it  is  customarily  recognized 
as  a  great  and  admirable  distinction  to  have  borne 
adversity  wisely,  not  to  have  been  crushed  by  mis- 
fortune,  and  not  to  have  lost  dignity  in  a  difficult 

347  situation  ;  and  distinction  is  also  conferred  by  offices 
fiUed,  rewards  of  merit  bestowed,  and  achievements 
honoured  by  the  judgement  of  mankind  ;  in  these 
matters  moreover  it  is  proper  to  a  panegyric  to 
attribute  what  is  merely  good  fortune  to  the  verdict 

4G1 


CICERO 

talium  iudicio  tribui  laudationis  est.  Sumendae 
autem  res  erunt  aut  magnitudine  praestabiles  aut 
novitate  primae  aut  genere  ipso  singulares  ;  neque 
enim  parvae  neque  usitatae  neque  vulgares  admira- 

348  tione  aut  omnino  laude  dignae  videri  solent.  Est 
etiam  cum  ceteris  praestantibus  viris  comparatio  in 
laudatione  praeclara.  De  quo  genere  libitum  est 
mihi  paulo  plura  quam  ostenderam  dicere,  non  tam 
propter  usum  forensem,  qui  est  a  me  omni  hoc  ser- 
mone  tractatus,  quam  ut  hoc  videretis,  si  laudationes 
essent  in  oratoris  officio,  quod  nemo  negat,  oratori 
virtutum   omnium   cognitionem    sine   qua    laudatio 

349  effici  non  possit  esse  necessariam.  lam  vituperandi 
praecepta  contrariis  ex  vitiis  sumenda  esse  perspicuum 
est ;  simul  est  illud  ante  oculos,  nec  bonum  virum 
proprie  et  copiose  laudari  sine  virtutum  nec  impro- 
bum  notari  ac  vituperari  sine  vitiorum  cognitione 
satis  insignite  atque  aspere  posse.  Atque  his  locis  et 
laudandi  et  vituperandi  saepe  nobis  est  utendum  in 
omni  genere  causarum. 

350  Habetis,  de  inveniendis  rebus  disponendisque  quid 
sentiam  ;  adiungam  etiam  de  memoria,  ut  labore 
Crassum  levem  neque  ei  quidquam  ahud  de  quo 
disserat  relinquam  nisi  ea  quibus  haec  exomentur. 

LXXXVI.    Perge   vero,  inquit   Crassus,  libenter 
462 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxv.  347— Ixxxvi.  350 

of  divine  wisdom.  And  one  must  select  achieve- 
ments  that  are  of  outstanding  importance  or  unpre- 
cedented  or  unparalleled  in  their  actual  character  ; 
for  small  achievements  or  those  that  are  not  unusual 
or  out  of  the  ordinary  are  not  as  a  rule  felt  to  be  speci- 

348  ally  admirable  or  to  deserve  praise  at  all.  Moreover 
a  splendid  hne  to  take  in  a  paneygric  is  to  compare 
the  subject  with  all  other  men  of  high  distinction. 
And  the  spirit  has  moved  me  to  enlarge  rather  more 
fuUy  on  this  class  of  topic  than  I  had  promised  to  do, 
not  so  much  for  the  purpose  of  its  employment  in  the 
courts,  which  has  been  my  subject  in  the  whole  of 
this  discourse,  as  to  bring  home  to  you  the  fact  that 
if  the  functions  of  a  speaker  include  the  delivery  of 
panegyrics,  which  nobody  denies,  a  speaker  is  bound 
to  possess,  as  an  indispensable  means  for  the  con- 
struction  of  a  panegyric,  a  knowledge  of  all  the  virtues. 

349  Then,  it  is  clear  that  the  rules  for  assigning  blame 
have  to  be  developed  out  of  the  vices  that  are  the 
opposites  of  these  virtues  ;  at  the  same  time  it  is 
obvious  that  it  is  impossible  either  to  praise  a  good 
man  appropriately  and  fully  without  a  knowledge  of 
the  virtues  or  to  brand  and  blame  a  wicked  man  in  a 
sufficiently  impressive  and  crushing  manner  without  a 
knowledge  of  the  vices.  And  these  topics  of  praise 
and  blame  we  shall  frequently  have  occasion  to  em- 
ploy  in  every  class  of  law-suit. 

360  "  I  have  given  you  my  view  in  regard  to  the  dis- 
covery  and  the  arrangement  of  topics  ;  I  will  also  add 
something  on  the  subject  of  memory,  in  order  to 
lighten  the  task  of  Crassus  and  to  leave  him  nothing 
eke  to  discuss  except  the  method  of  elaborating 
these  subjects." 

LXXXVI.  "  Oh,  pray  continue,"  said  Crassus,  "  I 

463 


CICERO 

enim  te  cognitum  iam  artificem  aliquandoque  evolu- 
tum  illis  integumentis  dissimulationis  tuae  nudatum- 
que  perspicio  ;  et  quod  mihi  nihil  aut  quod  non 
multum  relinquis,  percommode  facis,  estque  mihi 
gratum. 

351  lam  istuc  quantum  tibi  ego  reliquerim,  inquit 
Antonius,  erit  in  tua  potestate  :  si  enim  vere  me^ 
agere  volueris,  omnia  tibi  rehnquo  ;  sin  dissimulare, 
tu  quemadmodum  his  satisfacias  videris.  Sed,  ut  ad 
rem  redeam,  non  sum  tanto  ego,  inquit,  ingenio 
quanto  Themistocles  fuit,  ut  obUvionis  artem  quam 
memoriae  malim  ;  gratiamque  habeo  Simonidi  ilU 
Cio  quem  primum  ferunt  artem  memoriae  protulisse. 

352  Dicunt  enim  cum  cenaret  Crannone  in  Thessaha 
Simonides  apud  Scopam  fortunatum  hominem  et 
nobilem  cecinissetque  id  carmen  quod  in  eum  scrip- 
sisset,  in  quo  multa  ornandi  causa  poetarum  more  in 
Castorem  scripta  et  Pollucem  fuissent,  nimis  illum 
sordide  Simonidi  dixisse  se  dimidium  eius  ei  quod 
pactus  esset  pro  illo  carmine  daturum  :  reliquum  a 
suis  Tyndaridis  quos  aeque  laudasset  peteret  si  ei 

353  videretur.  Paulo  post  esse  ferunt  nuntiatum  Simo- 
nidi  ut  prodiret  :  iuvenes  stare  ad  ianuam  duos 
quosdam  qui  eum  magnopere  evocarent ;  surrexisse 
iUum,  prodisse,  vidisse  neminem  ;  hoc  interim  spatio 
conclave  iUud  ubi  epularetur  Scopas  concidisse  ;  ea 
ruina  ipsum  cum  cognatis  oppressum  suis  interusse  ; 

*  me  add.  Rackham. 

•  See  §  299. 
464. 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxvi.  350-353 

am  delighted  to  see  you  at  last  known  as  a  master  of 
the  theory,  finally  unmasked  and  stripped  of  the  veil 
of  your  pretended  ignorance  ;  and  it  is  extremely 
obliging  of  you  to  leave  Uttle  or  nothing  to  me,  and  I 
am  grateful  for  it." 

351  "  Oh,  as  for  that,"  said  Antony,  "  the  amount  I  Memory; 
shall  have  left  to  you  will  be  for  you  to  decide  ;  if  you  S^; 
want  complete  candour,  what  I  leave  to  you  is  the  the  pigeon- 
whole  subject,  but  if  you  want  me  to  keep  up  the  pre-  niethod. 
tence,  it  is  for  you  to  consider  how  you  may  satisfy 

our  friends  here.  But  to  return  to  the  subject,"  he 
continued,"  I  am  notmyself  as  clever  asThemistocIes" 
was,  so  as  to  prefer  the  science  of  forgetting  to  that 
of  remembering ;  and  I  am  grateful  to  the  famous 
Simonides  of  Ceos,  who  is  said  to  have  first  invented 

352  the  science  of  mnemonics.  There  is  a  story  that 
Simonides  was  dining  at  the  house  of  a  wealthy  noble- 
man  named  Scopas  at  Crannon  in  Thessaly,  and 
chanted  a  lyric  poem  which  he  had  composed  in 
honour  of  his  host,  in  which  he  followed  the  custom  of 
the  poets  by  including  for  decorative  purposes  a  long 
passage  referring  to  Castor  and  PoIIux  ;  whereupon 
Scopas  with  excessive  meanness  told  him  he  would 
pay  him  half  the  fee  agreed  on  for  the  poem,  and  if 
he  liked  he  might  apply  for  the  balance  to  his  sons 
of  Tyndaraus,  as  they  had  gone  halves  in  the  pane- 

353  gyric.  The  story  runs  that  a  Uttle  later  a  message 
was  brought  to  Simonides  to  go  outside,  as  two  young 
men  were  standing  at  the  door  who  earnestly  re- 
quested  him  to  come  out ;  so  he  rose  from  his  seat 
and  went  out,  and  could  not  see  anybody  ;  but  in  the 
interval  of  his  absence  the  roof  of  the  hall  where 
Scopas  was  giving  the  banquet  fell  in,  crushing  Scopas 
himself  and  his  relations  underneath  the  ruins  and 

465 


CICERO 

quos  cum  humare  vellent  sui  neque  possent  obtritos 
internoscere  ullo  modo,  Simonides  dicitur  ex  eo  quod 
meminisset  quo  eorum  loco  quisque  cubuisset  de- 
monstrator  uniuscuiusque  sepeliendi  fuisse ;  hac  tum 
re  admonitus  invenisse  fertur  ordinem  esse  maxime 

354  qui  memoriae  lumen  afFerret.  Itaque  eis  qui  hanc 
partem  ingeni  exercerent  locos  esse  capiendos  et  ea 
quae  memoria  tenere  vellent  effingenda  animo  atque 
in  eis  locis  collocanda  :  sic  fore  ut  ordinem  rerum 
locorum  ordo  conservaret,  res  autem  ipsas  rerum 
effigies  notaret,  atque  ut  locis  pro  cera,  simulacris  pro 

355  litteris  uteremur.  LXXXVII.  Qui  sit  autem  oratori 
memoriae  fructus,  quanta  utilitas,  quanta  vis,  quid 
me  attinet  dicere  ?  tenere  quae  didiceris  in  acci- 
pienda  causa,  quae  ipse  cogitaris  ?  omnes  fixas  esse 
in  animo  sententias  ?  omnem  descriptum  verborum 
apparatum  ?  ita  audire  vel  eum  unde  discas  vel  eum 
cui  respondendum  sit  ut  illi  non  infundere  in  aures 
tuas  orationem  sed  in  animo  videantur  inscribere  ? 
Itaque  soli  qui  memoria  vigent  sciunt  quid  et  quate- 
nus  et  quomodo  dicturi  sint,  quid  responderint,  quid 
supersit :  eidemque  multa  ex  aliis  causis  aliquando  a 

466 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxvi.  353— Ixxxvii.  355 

killing  them  ;  and  when  their  friends  wanted  to 
bury  them  but  were  altogether  unable  to  know 
them  apart  as  they  had  been  completely  crushed, 
the  story  goes  that  Simonides  was  enabled  by  his 
recollection  of  the  place  in  which  each  of  them  had 
been  reclining  at  table  to  identify  them  for  separate 
interment ;  and  that  this  circumstance  suggested  to 
him  the  discovery  of  the  truth  that  the  best  aid  to 
clearness  of  memory  consists  in  orderly  arrangement. 

354  He  inferred  that  persons  desiring  to  train  this  faculty 
must  select  localities  and  form  mental  images  of  the 
facts  they  vdsh  to  remember  and  store  those  images 
in  the  localities,  vdth  the  result  that  the  arrangement 
of  the  localities  will  preserve  the  order  of  the  facts, 
and  the  images  of  the  facts  will  designate  the  facts 
themselves,  and  we  shall  employ  the  localities  and 
images  respectively  as  a  wax  writing  tablet  and  the 

355  letters  written  on  it.  LXXXVII.  But  what  business 
is  it  of  mine  to  specify  the  value  to  a  speaker  and 
the  usefulness  and  effectiveness  of  memory  ?  of  re- 
taining  the  information  given  you  when  you  were 
briefed  and  the  opinions  you  yourself  have  formed  ? 
of  having  all  your  ideas  firmly  planted  in  your 
mind  and  all  your  resources  of  vocabulary  neatly 
arranged  ?  of  giving  such  close  attention  to  the 
instructions  of  your  client  and  to  the  speech  of  the 
opponent  you  have  to  answer  that  they  may  seem 
not  just  to  pour  what  they  say  into  your  ears  but  to 
imprint  it  on  your  mind  ?  Consequently  only  people 
with  a  powerful  memory  know  what  they  are  going  to 
say  and  for  how  long  they  are  going  to  speak  and  in 
what  style,  what  points  they  have  already  answered 
and  what  still  remains  ;  and  they  also  can  remember 
from  other  cases  many  arguments  which  they  have 

467 


CICERO 

366  se  acta,  multa  ab  aliis  audita  meminerunt.  Quare 
confiteor  equidem  huius  boni  naturam  esse  principem, 
sicut  earum  rerum  de  quibus  ante  locutus  sum 
omnium  :  sed  haec  ars  tota  dicendi,  sive  artis  imago 
quaedam  et  similitudo  est,  habet  hanc  vim,  non  ut 
totum  ahquid  cuius  in  ingeniis  nostris  pars  nuUa  sit 
pariat  et  procreet,  verum  ut  ea  quae  sunt  orta  iam  in 

357  nobis  et  procreata  educet  atque  confirmet ;  verum- 
tamen  neque  tam  acri  memoria  fere  quisquam  est  ut 
non  dispositis  notatisque  rebus  ordinem  verborum 
omnium  aut  sententiarum  complectatur  neque  vero 
tam  hebeti  ut  nihil  hac  consuetudine  et  exercitatione 
adiuvetur.  Vidit  enim  hoc  prudenter  sive  Simonides 
sive  ahus  quis  invenit,  ea  maxime  animis  effingi 
nostris  quae  essent  a  sensu  tradita  atque  impressa  ; 
acerrimum  autem  ex  omnibus  nostris  sensibus  esse 
sensimi  videndi ;  quare  faciUime  animo  teneri  posse 
ea  quae  perciperentur  auribus  aut  cogitatione  si 
etiam  commendatione  oculorum  animis  traderentur  ; 
ut  res  caecas  et  ab  aspectus  iudicio  remotas  con- 
formatio  quaedam  et  imago  et  figura  ita  notaret  ut 
ea  quae  cogitando  complecti  vix  possemus  intuendo 

358  quasi  teneremus.  His  autem  formis  atque  corpori- 
bus,  sicut  omnibus  quae  sub  aspectum  veniunt  sede^ 
opus  est,  etenim  corpus  intellegi  sine  loco  non  potest. 
Quare  (ne  in  re  nota  et  pervulgata  multus  et  insolens 

*  v.l.  veniunt    admonetur  memoria  nostra    atque  exer- 
citatur  sede. 

*  After  '  view  '  some  inferior  mss.  insert  '  serve  to  prompt 
and  stimulate  our  memory.' 

468 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxvii.  355-358 

previously   advanced   and   many   which   they   have 

356  heard  from  other  people.  And  consequently  for 
my  own  part  I  confess  that  the  chief  source  of  this 
endowment,  as  of  all  the  things  I  have  spoken  of 
before,  is  nature  ;  but  the  efficacy  of  the  whole 
of  this  science,  or  perhaps  I  should  say  pseudo- 
science,  of  rhetoric,  is  not  that  it  wholly  originates 
and  engenders  something  no  part  of  which  is  already 
present  in  our  minds,  but  that  it  fosters  and 
strengthens  things  that  have  already  sprung  to  birth 

357  within  us ;  though  nevertheless  hardly  anybody 
exists  who  has  so  keen  a  memory  that  he  can  retain 
the  order  of  all  the  words  or  sentences  without  having 
arranged  and  noted  his  facts,  nor  yet  is  anybody  so 
dull-witted  that  habitual  practice  in  this  will  not  give 
him  some  assistance.  It  has  been  sagaciously  dis- 
cerned  by  Simonides  or  else  discovered  by  some 
other  person,  that  the  most  complete  pictures  are 
formed  in  our  minds  of  the  things  that  have  been 
cpnveyed  to  them  and  imprinted  on  them  by  the 
senses,  but  that  the  keenest  of  all  our  senses  is  the 
sense  of  sight,  and  that  consequently  perceptions 
received  by  the  ears  or  by  reflexion  can  be  most 
easily  retained  in  the  mind  if  they  are  also  conveyed 
to  our  minds  by  the  mediation  of  the  eyes,  with  the 
result  tliat  things  not  seen  and  not  lying  in  the  field 
of  visual  discernment  are  earmarked  by  a  sort  of  out- 
Une  and  image  and  shape  so  that  we  keep  hold  of  as 
it  were  by  an  act  of  sight  things  that  we  can  scarcely 

358  embrace  by  an  act  of  thought.  But  these  forms  and 
bodies,  Uke  all  the  things  that  come  under  our  view  *» 
require  an  abode,  inasmuch  as  a  material  object 
without  a  locality  is  inconceivable.  Consequently  (in 
order  that  I  may  not  be  proUx  and  tedious  on  a  sub- 

469 


CICERO 

sim)  locis  est  utendum  multis,  illustribus,  explicatis, 
modicis  intervallis  ;  imaginibus  autem  agentibus, 
acribus,  insignitis,  quae  occurrere  celeriterque  per- 
cutere  animum  possint ;  quam  facultatem  et  exer- 
citatio  dabit,  ex  qua  consuetudo  gignitur,  et  similium 
verborum  conversa  et  immutata  casibus  aut  traducta 
ex  parte  ad  genus  notatio  et  unius  verbi  imagine 
totius  sententiae  informatio  pictoris  cuiusdam  summi 
ratione  et  modo   formarum  varietate  locos  distin- 

359  guentis.  LXXXVIII.  Sed  verborum  memoria,  quae 
minus  est  nobis  necessaria,  maiore  imaginum  varie- 
tate  distinguitur ;  multa  enim  sunt  verba  quae  quasi 
articuli  connectunt  membra  orationis  quae  formari 
similitudine  nulla  possunt ;  eorum  fingendae  nobis 
sunt  imagines  quibus  semper  utamur ;  rerum  me- 
moria  propria  est  oratoris ;  eam  singulis  personis  bene 
positis  notare  possumus  ut   sententias   imaginibus, 

360  ordinem  locis  comprehendamus.  Neque  verum  est 
quod  ab  inertibus  dicitur,  opprimi  memoriam  imagi- 
num  pondere  et  obscurari  etiam  id  quod  per  se 
natura  tenere  potuisset ;  vidi  enim  ego  summos 
homines  et  divina  prope  memoria,  Athenis  Char- 
madam,  in  Asia,  quem  vivere  hodie  aiunt,  Scepsium 
Metrodorum,  quorum  uterque  tanquam  htteris  in 
cera  sic  se  aiebat  imaginibus  in  eis  locis  quos  haberet 
quae    meminisse    vellet    perscribere.      Quare    hac 


"  The  phrase  denotes  what  we  call  '  perspective.' 
*  Cato's  rule  was  Rem  tene,  verba  sequentur. 
'  Prepositions  and  conjunctions  are  specially  meant 

470 


DE  ORATORE,  11.  Ixxxvii.  S58— Ixxxviii.  360 

ject  that  is  well  known  and  familiar)  one  must  employ 
a  large  number  of  localities  which  must  be  clear  and 
defined  and  at  moderate  intervals  apart,  and  image&. 
that  are  effective  and  sharply  outHned  and  distinctive, 
with  the  capacity  of  encountering  and  speedily  pene- 
trating  the  mind  ;  the  ability  to  use  these  will  be 
supplied  by  practice,  which  engenders  habit,  and  by 
marking  off  similar  words  with  an  inversion  and  altera- 
tion  of  their  cases  or  a  transference  from  species  to 
genus,  and  by  representing  a  whole  concept  by  the 
image  of  a  single  word,  on  the  system  and  method 
of  a  consummate  painter  distinguishing  the  positions 
of  objects  by  modifying  their  shapes.**     LXXXVIII. 

359  But  a  memory  for  words,  which  for  us  is  less  essential,* 
is  given  distinctness  by  a  greater  variety  of  images  ; 
for  there  are  many  words  '^  which  serve  as  joints 
connecting  the  Hmbs  of  the  sentence,  and  these 
cannot  be  formed  by  any  use  of  simile — of  these  we 
have  to  model  images  for  constant  employment  ;  but 
a  memory  for  things  is  the  special  property  of  the 
orator — this  we  can  imprint  on  our  minds  by  a  skilful 
arrangement  of  the  several  masks  that  represent 
them,  so  that  we  may  grasp  ideas  by  means  of  images 

360  and  their  order  by  means  of  locaUties.  Nor  is  it  true, 
as  unscientific  people  assert,  that  memory  is  crushed 
beneath  a  weight  of  images  and  even  what  might 
have  been  retained  by  nature  unassisted  is  obscured  ; 
for  I  have  myself  met  eminent  people  with  almost 
superhuman  powers  of  memory,  Charmadas  at  Athens 
and  Metrodorus  of  Scepsis  in  Asia,  who  is  said  to  be 
still  Uving,  each  of  whom  used  to  say  that  he  wrote 
down  things  he  wanted  to  remember  in  certain '  locaU- 
ties  '  in  his  possession  by  means  of  images,  just  as  if 
he  were  inscribing  letters  on  wax.     It  follows  that 

471 


CICERO 

exercitatione  non  eruenda  memoria  est  si  est  nuUa 
naturalis,  sed  certe  si  latet  evocanda  est. 

361  Habetis  sermonem  bene  longum  hominis  utinam 
non  impudentis  !  Illud  quidem  certe,  non  nimis  vere- 
cundi,  qui  quidem  cum  te,  Catule,  tum  etiam 
L.  Crasso  audiente  de  dicendi  ratione  tam  multa  di- 
xerim  ;  nam  istorum  aetas  minus  me  fortasse  movere 
debuit.  Sed  mihi  ignoscetis  profecto,  si  modo  quae 
causa  me  ad  hanc  insolitam  mihi  loquacitatem  im- 
pulerit  acceperitis. 

362  LXXXIX.  Nos  vero,  inquit  Catulus,  etenim  pro 
me  hoc  et  pro  meo  fratre  respondeo,  non  modo  tibi 
ignoscimus  sed  te  dihgimus  magnamque  tibi  habe- 
mus  gratiam  ;  et  cum  humanitatem  et  facilitatem 
agnoscimus  tuam,  tum  admiramur  istam  scientiam  et 
copiam.  Equidem  etiam  hoc  me  assecutum  puto, 
quod  magno  sum  levatus  errore  et  illa  admiratione 
Uberatus  quod  multis  cum  ahis  semper  admirari 
solebam  unde  esset  illa  tanta  tua  in  causis  divinitas  ; 
nec  enim  te  ista  attigisse  arbitrabar  quae  diligen- 
tissime  cognosse  et  undique  collegisse  usuque  doctum 
partim  correxisse  video,  partim  comprobasse  ;  neque 

363  eo  minus  eloquentiam  tuam  et  multo  magis  virtutem 

"8  59 
472 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxviii.  360— Ixxxix.  363 

this  practice  cannot  be  used  to  draw  out  the  memory 
If  no  memory  has  been  given  to  us  by  nature,  but  it 
can  undoubtedly  summon  it  to  come  forth  if  it  is 
in  hiding. 

361  "  There  is  a  fairly  long  lecture  for  you  from  a  person  Conciusion : 
whom  I  hope  you  will  not  think  conceited  !    Though  ^o^^pH- 
not  over-modest  I  am  sure  you  must  think  me,  for  mentedand 
having  discoursed  at  such  length  on  the  theory  of  to^g^iwak  on 
rhetoric  before  an  audience  including  not  only  you,  ornaments 
Catulus,  but  also  Lucius  Crassus — for  no  doubt  I  was  oebate ' 
right  in  not  troubling  so  much  about  hearers  of  the  ^■'aft^** 
age  of  our  friends  here.    But  I  am  sure  you  will  for-  noon. 
give  me  if  only  I  explain  to  you  the  motive  that  has 

urged  me  on  to  a  talkativeness  for  me  unusual." 

362  LXXXIX.  "  Oh,  as  for  us,"  said  Catulus,  "  inas- 
much  as  I  am  making  this  answer  for  myself  and  for 
my  brother,  not  only  do  we  forgive  you  but  we  hold 
you  in  high  esteem  and  are  extremely  grateful  to 
you  ;  and  we  recognize  your  courtesy  and  kindness, 
and  also  are  fiUed  with  admiration  for  the  knowledge 
and  the  fluency  that  you  have  displayed.  For  my 
ovm  part  I  feel  I  have  scored  the  further  advantage 
that  I  have  been  cured  of  a  great  mistake  and  have 
been  set  free  from  the  wonder  that  I  spoke  of,"  as  to 
a  matter  that  has  always  been  a  constant  puzzle  to 
me  and  many  others  as  well, — where  you  obtained 
the  mastery,  amounting  to  genius,  which  you  display 
in  law-suits  ;  in  fact  I  used  to  imagine  that  you  had 
never  embarked  on  the  subjects  that  you  have  been 
dealing  with,  to  which  I  now  see  that  you  have  given 
the  most  diligent  study,  collecting  them  from  all 
sources  and  employing  the  teaching  of  experience 

363  partly  to  correct  and  partly  to  confirm  them  ;  nor  do 
I  feel  less  admiration  for  your  eloquence,  and  much 

473 


CICERO 

et  diligentiam  admiror  et  simul  gaudeo  iudicium 
animi  mei  comprobari  quod  semper  statui  neminem 
sapientiae  laudem  et  eloquentiae  sine  summo  studio 
et  labore  et  doctrina  consequi  posse.  Sed  tamen 
quidnam  est  quod  dixisti  fore  ut  tibi  ignosceremus 
si  cognossemus  quae  te  causa  in  sermonem  impu- 
lisset  ?  Quae  est  enim  alia  causa  nisi  quod  nobis  et 
horum  adolescentium  studio,  qui  te  attentissime 
audierunt,  morem  gerere  voluisti  ? 
364  Tum  ille  :  Adimere,  inquit,  omnem  recusationem 
Crasso  volui  quem  ego  paulo  ante  sentiebam^  vel 
pudentius  vel  invitius,  nolo  enim  dicere  de  tam  suavi 
homine  fastidiosius,  ad  hoc  genus  sermonis  accedere. 
Quid  enim  poterit  dicere  ?  Consularem  se  esse 
hominem  et  censorium  ?  Eadem  nostra  causa  est. 
An  aetatem  afferet  ?  Quadriennio  minor  est.  An  se 
haec  nescire  ?  Quae  ego  sero,  quae  cursim  arripui, 
quae  subsicivis  operis,  ut  aiunt,  iste  a  puero,  summo 
studio,  summis  doctoribus.  Nihil  dicam  de  ingenio, 
cui  par  nemo  fuit ;  etenim  me  dicentem  qui  audiret, 
nemo  unquam  tam  sui  despiciens  fuit  quin  speraret 
aut  mehus  aut  eodem  modo  se  posse  dicere  :  Crasso 
dicente  nemo  tam  arrogans,  qui  simiUter  se  unquam 
dicturum  esse  confideret.  Quam  ob  rem  ne  frustra 
hi  tales  viri  venerint,  te  aHquando,  Crasse,  audiamus. 
^  Kayser:  sciebam. 

"  Actually  three,  see  p.  xiii  n.  a;   but  140  b.c.  would  be 
spoken  of  as  the /ouW/i  year  after  143. 

474 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  Ixxxix.  363-364 

more  admiration  for  your  energy  and  industry,  and 
at  the  same  time  I  rejoice  in  the  confirmation  of  my 
own  conviction,  which  I  have  always  held,  that  no 
one  can  achieve  high  distinction  for  wisdom  and 
eloquence  without  a  very  great  amount  of  zeal 
and  industry  and  study.  But  all  the  same,  what 
exactly  did  you  mean  by  saying  that  we  should 
forgive  you  if  we  knew  the  motive  that  had  led  you 
to  deliver  a  discourse  ?  What  other  motive  can  it 
be  except  a  desire  to  obhge  us  and  to  satisfy  the 
interest  of  these  young  people,  who  have  given  you 
a  most  attentive  hearing  ?  " 
364  "  Oh,"  he  replied,  "  I  wanted  to  deprive  Crassus 
of  all  excuse  for  crying  ofF,  having  noticed  a  httle 
earher  that  he  was  too  modest,  or  too  reluctant — for 
in  regard  to  such  an  agreeable  person  I  will  not  say 
too  fastidious — about  entering  on  this  kind  of  debate. 
For  what  will  he  be  able  to  say  ?  That  he  is  a  person 
who  has  held  the  offices  of  consul  and  of  censor  ?  We 
can  make  the  same  plea.  Or  will  he  adduce  his  age  ? 
He  is  four"  years  our  junior.  Or  that  he  does  not 
know  these  subjects  ?  Why,  I  took  them  up  late  and 
casually  and  as  an  occupation  for  odd  moments,  as 
the  phrase  is,  whereas  our  friend  has  studied  them 
from  boyhood  with  the  greatest  industry  and  under 
the  best  masters.  I  will  say  nothing  about  his  ability, 
which  nobody  has  ever  rivalled  :  in  fact  whereas  no 
one  who  has  heard  me  speaking  has  ever  held  so  low 
an  opinion  of  himself  as  not  to  hope  he  was  capable  of 
speaking  better,  or  at  all  events  as  well,  when  Crassus 
speaks  nobody  was  ever  so  conceited  as  to  beheve 
that  he  would  ever  speak  as  well.  Therefore,  so  that 
these  distinguished  gentlemen  may  not  have  come 
here  to  no  purpose,  let  us  at  last,  Crassus,  hear  you." 

475 


CICERO 

865  XC.  Tum  ille  :  Ut  ita  ista  esse  concedam,  inquit, 
Antoni,  quae  sunt  longe  secus,  quid  mihi  tandem 
hodie  aut  cuiquam  homini  quod  dici  possit  reliquisti  ? 
Dicam  enim  vere,  amicissimi  homines,  quod  sentio  : 
saepe  ego  doctos  homines,  quid  dico  saepe  ?  immo 
nonnunquam,  saepe  enim  qui  potui,  qui  puer  in 
forum  venerim  neque  inde  unquam  diutius  quam 
quaestor  abfuerim  ?  sed  tamen  audivi,  ut  heri  dice- 
bam,  et  Athenis  cum  essem  doctissimos  viros  et  in 
Asia  istum  ipsum  Scepsium  Metrodorum  cum  de 
his  ipsis  rebus  disputaret ;  neque  vero  mihi  quisquam 
copiosius  unquam  visus  est  neque  subtilius  in  hoc 
genere  dicendi  quam  iste  hodie  esse  versatus  :  quod 
si  esset  ahter  et  aliquid  intellegerem  ab  Antonio  prae- 
termissum,  non  essem  tam  inurbanus  et  paene  in- 
humanus  ut  in  eo  gravarer  quod  vos  cupere  sentirem. 

366  Tum  Sulpicius  :  An  ergo,  inquit,  obUtus  es,  Crasse, 
Antonium  ita  partitum  esse  tecum  ut  ipse  instru- 
mentum  oratoris  exponeret,  tibi  eius  distinctionem 
atque  ornatum  relinqueret  ? 

Hic  ille :  Primum  quis  Antonio  permisit,  inquit, 
ut  et  partes  faceret  et  utram  vellet  prior  ipse 
sumeret?  Deinde,  si  ego  recte  intellexi  cum  valde 
hbenter  audirem,  mihi  coniuncte  est  visus  de  utraque 
re  dicere. 

IUe  vero,  inquit   Cotta,  ornamenta  orationis  non 

476 


DE  ORATORE,  11.  xc.  365-366 

365  XC.  "  Granted,  Antonius,"  rejoined  Crassus,  "  that 
I  allow  something  to  be  the  case  which  is  in  reaUty 
quite  otherwise,  what  pray  have  you  to-day  left  to 
me,  or  to  anybody,  that  can  possibly  be  said  ?  For, 
my  very  good  friends,  I  will  give  you  my  true  opinion  : 
I  have  heard  learned  persons  often — why  do  I  say 
'  often  '  ?  rather  let  me  say  '  occasionally,'  for  how 
could  I  possibly  have  heard  them  often,  having  gone 
to  the  bar  as  I  did  while  a  mere  lad,  and  having  never 
had  a  longer  absence  from  it  than  my  period  of  office 
as  quaestor  ?  but  be  that  as  it  may,  I  have,  as  I 
was  saying  yesterday,  heard  very  learned  men,  both 
when  I  was  at  Athens,  and  in  Asia  your  Metrodorus 
of  Scepsis  himself,  discussing  these  very  subjects  ; 
but  nevertheless  I  have  never  thought  that  anybody 
discoursed  with  greater  fuUness  or  with  greater 
penetration  in  this  class  of  debate  than  our  friend 
here  to-day  ;  and  even  if  this  were  not  the  case,  and 
if  I  detected  some  point  that  Antonius  had  passed 
over,  I  should  not  be  so  uncivil  and  I  may  say  so 
inhuman  as  to  make  a  difficulty  about  what  I  feel  to 
be  your  strong  desire." 

366  "  Have   you   then   forgotten,   Crassus,"   rejoined 
Sulpicius,  "  the  apportionment  arranged  with  you  by 
Antonius,  for  him  to  expound  the  speaker's  stock-in- 
trade  himself  while  he  left  its  elaboration  and  embel 
Ushment  to  you  ?  " 

Hereupon,  "  In  the  first  place,"  said  Crassus, 
"  who  gave  Antonius  leave  to  divide  the  subject  up 
into  shares  and  himself  to  have  the  first  choice  ? 
And  next,  if  I  understood  him  rightly,  listening  as  I 
was  with  great  pleasure,  he  seemed  to  me  to  be 
discussing  both  the  two  subjects  conjointly." 

"  As  a  matter  of  fact,"  said  Cotta,  "  he  did  not 

477 


CICERO 

attigit  neque  eam  laudem  ex  qua  eloquentia  nomen 
suum  invenit. 

Verba  igitur,    inquit  Crassus,  mihi   reliquit  An- 
tonius,  rem  ipse  sumpsit. 
367      Tum  Caesar  :   Si  quod  difficilius  est  id  tibi  reliquit, 
est  nobis,  inquit,  causa  cur  te  audire  cupiamus  :  sin 
quod  facilius,  tibi  causa  non  est  cur  recuses. 

Et  Catulus  :  Quid  quod  dixisti,  inquit,  Crasse,  si 
hodie  apud  te  maneremus  te  morem  nobis  esse 
gesturum,  nihilne  ad  fidem  tuam  putas  pertinere  ? 

Tum  Cotta  ridens  :  Possem  tibi,  inquit,  Crasse, 
concedere  ;  sed  vide  ne  quid  Catulus  attulerit  re- 
Ugionis  :  hoc  opus  censorium  est,  id  autem  com- 
mittere  vide^  quam  homini  censorio  conveniat. 

Agite  vero,  inquit,*  ut  vultis.  Sed  nunc  quidem, 
quoniam  est  id  temporis,  surgendum  censeo  et  re- 
quiescendum  :  post  meridiem,  si  ita  vobis  est  com- 
modum,  loquemur  ahquid,  nisi  forte  in  crastinum 
differre  mavultis. 

Omnes  se  vel  statim  vel  si  ipse  post  meridiem 
mallet,  quam  primum  tamen  audire  velle  dixerunt. 

*  Reid:  vides.  ■  v.l.  ille  inquit. 


478 


DE  ORATORE,  II.  xc.  366-367 

touch  on  the  embellishment  of  oratory,  nor  the 
accomplishment  from  which  eloquence  has  derived 
its  name." 

"  If  that  is  so,"  said  Crassus,  "  Antony  left  the 
words  to  me  and  took  the  matter  for  himself." 
367  "  If  he  left  you  the  harder  part,"  interposed  Caesar, 
"  we  have  good  reason  for  wanting  to  hear  you,  and 
if  the  part  he  left  you  is  the  easier  one,  you  have  no 
reason  for  refusing." 

And  Catulus  said,  "  What  about  your  promise, 
Crassus,  that  if  we  stayed  on  at  your  house  to-day 
you  would  gratify  our  wish  ?  Don't  you  think  you 
are  bound  in  honour  to  do  so  ?  " 

"  I  might  possibly  give  way  to  you,  Crassus,"  re- 
joined  Cotta  with  a  smile,  "  but  mind  we  don't  have 
Catulus  introducing  a  point  of  moral  obUgation  ;  this 
is  a  job  for  a  censor's  attention,  but  mind  how  it  can 
be  proper  for  a  former  censor  to  commit  it." 

"  Oh  well,"  said  Crassus,  "  do  as  you  please.  But 
now,  seeing  what  the  time  is,  I  move  that  the  house 
do  adjourn  for  a  rest ;  and  if  it  is  agreeable  to  you  we 
will  say  something  in  the  afternoon,  unless  perhaps 
you  would  prefer  to  postpone  it  till  to-morrow." 

They  all  said  they  wanted  to  hear  him  at  once,  or 
at  all  events,  if  he  Mmself  preferred  the  afternoon,  as 
early  as  possible. 


479 


APPENDIX 

Book  I,  §  41  (p.  30).  qui  aut  interdicto  .  .  .  temere  irruisse». 
In  legal  disputes  as  to  possession  the  interdictum  was  a  pre- 
Jiminary  order  of  the  praetor  intended  to  secure  for  one  of 
the  litigants  interim  possession  of  the  disputed  property,  so 
as  to  make  him  defendant  in  the  subsequent  real  action  and 
cast  the  burden  of  proof  upon  the  other  as  plaintilF.  Con- 
sertio  manus  was  the  stage  in  the  real  action  at  which  the 

f)arties  simulated  the  physical  struggle  of  lawless  times,  by 
aying  hands  together  upon  the  property  and  making  claim 
and  counterclaim  to  the  ownership.  In  the  case  of  land  this 
formality  took  place  out  of  court. 

Book  I,  §  42  (pp.  30-32).  Agerent  enim  tecum  lege  .  .  .  non 
liceret.  Legis  actiones,  of  five  types,  were  the  remedies  at 
the  earliest  stage  of  developed  Roman  legal  procedure  :  they 
involved  a  rigid  and  elaborate  ritual,  in  which  the  sHghtest 
slip  was  fatal  to  the  blunderer's  case.  Sacramentum  was 
one  of  these  types,  involving  a  pecuniary  deposit  by  each 
litigant.  The  winner  of  the  action  recovered  his  sacramen- 
tum,  while  the  loser's  was  forfeited  to  the  State. 

Book  I,  §  178  (p.  122).  defendehamus  .  .  .  praestare  debere. 
By  this  time  Roman  Law  had  apparently  evolved  the  rule 
that  a  vendor  of  immovable  property  warrants  the  purchaser 
against  all  such  material  defects  in  his  title  as  he  does  not 
disclose.     The  English  rule  is  the  same. 

Book  I,  §  180  (p.  124).  antequam  in  suam  tutelam  venisset. 
A  boy  emerged  from  guardianship  at  the  age  of  fourteen. 
In  this  famous  causa  Guriana  a  testator  had  left  his  estate 
to  his  expected  posthumous  child,  with  a  gift  over  to  Curius 
in  the  event  of  such  child  dying  under  age.  After  all  no 
child  was  born.  Was  the  condition  of  death  under  aee 
fulfilled  by  the  default  of  birth  ?  Crassus  successfuUy 
maintained  the  affirmative,  and  Curius  took  under  the  wilL 


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HoMER  :  Odyssey.     A.  T.  Murray.     2  Vols. 
IsAEUS.     E.  S.  Forster. 

IsocRATES.    George  Norlin  and  LaRue  Van  Hook.    3  Vols. 
St.  John  Damascene  :   Bahlaam  and  Ioasaph.    Rev.  G.  R. 

Woodward,  Harold  Mattingly  and  D.  M.  Lang. 
Josephus.    9  Vols.    Vols.  I-IV.    H.  St.  J.  Thackeray.   Vol. 

V.    H.  St.  J.  Thackeray  and  Ralph  Marcus.    Vols.  VI 

and  VII.    Ralph  Marcus.    Vol.  VIII.    Ralph  Marcus  and 

AUen  Wikgren.    Vol.  IX.    L.  H.  Feldman. 
JuLiAN.    Wilmer  Cave  Wright.    3  Vols. 
LoNGUs  :    Daphnis  and  Chloe.    Thornley'8  translation  re- 

vised  by  J.  M.  Edmonds  ;  and  Pahthenius.  S.  Gaselee. 
LuciAN.    8  Vols.    Vols.  I-V.    A.  M.  Harmon.    Vol.  VI.    K. 

Kilburn.    Vols.  VII  and  VIII.    M.  D.  Macleod. 
Lycophhon.     C/.  Callimachus. 
Lyha  Ghaeca.     J.  M.  Edmonds.     3  Vols. 
Lysias.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Manetho.    W.  G.  Waddell;  Ptolemy  :  Tethabiblos.  F.  E. 

Robbins. 
Mabcus  Auhelius.     C.  R.  Haines. 
Menandeh.    F.  G.  AUinson. 
Minoh  Attic  Ohatohs.     2  Vols.     K.  J.   Maidment  and 

J.  O.  Burtt 
NoMNOs  :  DioNYSLACA.    W.  H.  D.  Rouse.    3  Vols. 

6 


THE  LOEB  CLASSICAL  LIBRARY 

Oppian,  Colluthus,  Thyphiodohus.    A.  W.  Mair. 

Papyhi.    Non-Litehahy  Selections.    A.  S.  Hunt  and  C.  C. 

Edgar.    2  Vols.     Litehahy  Selections  (Poetry).     D.  L. 

Page. 
Pahthenius.      Cf.  LONGUS. 
Pausanias  :    Deschiption  op  Gheece.    W.  H.  S.  Jones.    5 

Vols.  and  Companion  Vol.  arranged  by  R.  E.  Wycherley. 
Philo.    10  Vols.    Vols.  I-V.    F.  H.  Colson  and  Rev.  G.  H. 

Whitaker.    Vols.  VI-X.     F.  H.  Colson.     General  Index. 

Rev.  J.  W.  Earp. 

Two   Supplementary   Vols.     Translation  only   from  an 
Armenian  Text.    Ralph  Marcus. 
Philosthatus  :  The  Life  of  Apollonius  or  Tyana.    F.  C. 

Conybeare.     2  Vols. 
Philosthatus  :    Imaoines  ;    Callisthatus  :    Deschiptions. 

A.  Fairbanks. 

PhILOSTHATUS     AND     EuNAPIUS  :       LlVES     OF     THE     SoPHISTS. 

Wilmer  Cave  Wright. 
PiNDAH.    Sir  J.  E.  Sandys. 
Plato  :  Chabmides,  Alcibiades,  Hippahchus,  The  Lovehs, 

Theages,  Minos  and  Epinomis.    W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :   Chatylus,  Pahmenides,  Gheateh  Hippias,  Lesseh 

HippiAS.     H.  N.  Fowler. 
Plato  :  Euthyphho,  Apology,  Cbito,  Phaedo,  Phaedhus. 

H.  N.  Fowler. 
Plato  :      Laches,     Photaooras,     Meno,     Euthydemus. 

W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :  Laws.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     2  Vols. 
Plato  :  Lysis,  Symposium,  Gohgias.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :  Republic.     Paul  Shorey.     2  Vols, 
Plato  :     Statesman,    Philebus.      H.    N.    Fowler ;     Ion. 

W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 
Plato  :  Theaetetus  and  Sophist.     H.  N.  Fowler. 
Plato  :    TiMAEus,   Cbitias,   Clitopho,    Menexenus,   Epi- 

STULAE.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury. 
Plotinus.    A.  H.  Armstrong.    6  Vols.    Vols.  I-II. 
Plutahch  :   MoHALiA.    15  Vols.    Vols.  I-V.    F.  C.  Babbitt. 

Vol.  VI.  W.  C.  Helmbold.    Vol.  VII.    P.  H.  De  Lacy  and 

B.  Einarson.  Vol.  IX.  E.  L.  Minar,  Jr.,  F.  H.  Sandbach, 
W.  C.  Helmbold.  Vol.  X.  H.  N.  Fowler.  Vol.  XI.  L. 
Pearson,  F.  H.  Sandbach.  Vol.  XII.  H.  Cherniss,  W.  C. 
Helmbold.    Vol.  XIV.    P.  H.  De  Lacy  and  B.  Einarson. 

Plutahch  :  The  Pahallel  Lives.     B.  Perrin.     11  Vols. 
PoLYBnjB.    W.  R.  Paton.    6  Vols. 


THE  LOEB  CLASSICAL  LIBRARY 

Phocopius  :  Histohy  of  the  Wahs.    H.  B.  Dewing.    7  Vols. 
Ptolemy  :  Tethabiblos.     Cf.  Manetho. 
QuiNTus  Smyhnaeus.     A.  S.  Way.     Verse  trans. 
Sextus  Empihicus.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     4  Vols. 
SoPHocLEs.     F.  Storr.     2  Vols.     Verse  trans. 
Sthabo  :  Geoohaphy.     Horace  L.  Jones.     8  Vols. 
Theophhastus  :   Chahactehs.    J.  M.  Edmonds ;   Hehodes 

etc.    A.  D.  Knox. 
Theophhastus  :    Enquihy  into  Plants.     Sir  Arthur  Hort. 

2  Vols. 
Thucydides.     C.  F.  Smith.     4  Vols. 
Thyphiodohus.     Cf.  Oppian. 
Xenophon  :  Anabasis.     C.  L.  Brownson. 
Xenophon  :  Cyhopaedia.     Walter  Miller.     2  Vols. 
Xenophon  :  Hellenica.     C.  L.  Brownson.     2  Vols. 
Xenophon  :  Memohabilia  and  Oeconomicus.    E.  C.  Mar- 

chant.     Symposium  and  Apology.    O.  J  Todd. 
Xenophon  :  Schipta  Minoha.     E.  C.  Marchant  and  G.  W. 

Bowersock. 


VOLUMES  IN  PREPARATION 

GREEK  AUTHORS 

Ahistides  :  Ohations.    C.  A.  Behr. 

Hebodianus.       C.  R.  Whittaker. 

Libanius  :  Selected  Wohks.    A.  F.  Norman. 

MusAEus :     Heho   and    Leandeh.     T.    Gelzer   and   C.    H. 

Whitman. 
Theophhastus  :  De  Causis  Plantahum.    G.  K.  K.  Link  and 

B.  Einarson. 

LATIN  AUTHORS 

Asconius  :    Commentahies  on  Ciceho'3  Ohations.     G.  W 

Bowersock. 
Benedict  :  The  Rule.     P.  Me^rvaert 
Justin-Thoous.    R.  Moss. 
Manilius.    G.  P.  Gould. 
PuNY  :  Lettehs.     B.  Radice. 

DESCRIPTIVB  IROSPECTUS  ON  APPLICATION 


LONDON  CAMBRIDGE,  MAS3. 

WILLIAM  HKINEMANN  LTD  HARVARD  UNIV.  PRKS3